Agency Action Report – A report submitted to the Department by agencies proposing an action(s) requiring consultation. The information [that is] required to be submitted shall be sufficient to determine the presence or absence of a threatened or endangered species or Natural Area in the vicinity of the proposed action. – 2. The agency or field office or any other designated office in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) having jurisdiction over trust or restricted property or money. – DOI-BIA Glossary


Agency Coordination Meeting (ACM) – A meeting of various state and federal transportation and environmental resource agencies to review project status and issues. This meeting involves agencies during a project's development.


Agency for International Development (AID or USAID) – An independent agency of the executive branch that administers U.S. international development and humanitarian assistance programs. USAID administers commodity donations for humanitarian or development purposed under P.L.480 or Food for Peace, and commodity import programs.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) – The ATSDR was created in 1980 by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) as an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the principal federal public health agency involved in hazardous waste issues. The ATSDR helps prevent or reduce harmful health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. It is not a regulatory agency, but it advises EPA on health aspects of hazardous waste sites and spills and makes recommendations. – Great Lakes glossary 2. Working with the CDC, ATSDR seeks to prevent exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites. The Agency conducts public health assessments, health studies, surveillance activities, and health education training at waste sites on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. TSDR also has developed toxicological profiles of hazardous chemicals found at these sites. Established: 1980. Headquarters: Atlanta, Georgia.


Agency Peculiar Property – Government-owned personal property that is peculiar to the mission of one Agency (e.g., military or space property). It excludes Government material, special test equipment, special tooling, and facilities. (See FAR Part 45.301) – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at



Agency preferred alternative – The alternative that the lead agency (or agencies) believes would fulfill its statutory mission and responsibilities, giving consideration to economic, environmental, technical, and other factors. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary


Agency response – Definitions of “roads,'' “classified roads,'' “unclassified roads,'' “transportation atlas,'' “new road construction,'' “temporary road,'' and “forest transportation facility'' were revised in the final rule at 36 CFR 212.1 published in the Federal Register. The administrative policy includes revised definitions for “forest transportation system management,'' “new road construction,'' “road reconstruction,'' “road improvement,'' “road realignment,'' “road maintenance,'' “roads subject to the Highway Safety Act,'' and “transportation facility decommissioning''. The definitions for “public roads,'' “Forest Road'' “Forest Service Trail,'' and “transportation facility jurisdiction'' have not changed. FSM 7705 Exhibit-01, entitled Road Terminology Relationships, has been retained and updated to clarify road terminology relationships. Terms have changed in response to concerns expressed in public comment and to clarify agency intent. – USDA Forest Service


Agenda 21 – The plan of action to achieve sustainable development that was adopted by world leaders at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 (United Nations, 1993b). (UN)


Agent/Distributor Service (ADS) – An International Trade Administration (ITA) fee-based service which locates foreign import agents and distributors. ADS provides a custom search overseas for interested and qualified foreign representatives on behalf of an U.S. exporter. Officers abroad conduct the search and prepare a report identifying up to six foreign prospects that have examined the U.S. firm's product literature and have expressed interest in representing the U.S. firm's products.


Agent Orange – Toxic herbicide and defoliant used in the Viet Nam conflict. (UN)

AGFC – Arkansas Game & Fish Commission

AGFD – Arizona Game and Fish Department

AGI – American Geologic Institute Program

AGL – Above ground level

Aggradation – Geologic process wherein streambeds, floodplains, sandbars, and the bottom of water bodies are raised in elevation by the deposition of sediment; the opposite of degradation.


Aggraded – A condition where sediment has accumulated in the stream channel.


AGR – Agricultural Supply


Agreement – Agreement means the Great Lakes Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement. – “For the purposes of this Compact, and of any supplemental or concurring legislation enacted pursuant thereto, except as may be otherwise required by the context.” Great Lakes Basin Water Resources Compact, Confidential, Draft, Not for Distribution. (18 pages) 2. "Agreement" means the present Agreement as distinguished from the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of April 15, 1972.


Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment Cooperation Commission and a North American Development Bank – See NADBank.


Agreement on Agriculture — The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture reached in 1994 and implemented in U.S. law by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 brings agricultural trade more fully under international trade rules and obligations. The Agreement provides for the conversion of quantitative barriers to trade to tariffs or tariff rate quotas, and for reductions in export subsidies and trade-distorting domestic support policies.


Aggregate – A mass or cluster of soil particles, often having a characteristic shape.


Aggregate, soil – Many fine particles held in a single mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods are aggregates produced by tillage or logging. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. (page 69 of 115)


Aggregates of Basic Headings – Any aggregation of groups of basic headings, like Bread and cereals, up to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Also termed summary or analytical categories. (UN)


Aggregation – Aggregation is the combination of related categories, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to provide information at a broader level to that at which detailed observations are taken. Disaggregation is the breakdown of observations, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to a more detailed level to that at which detailed observations are taken. With standard hierarchical classifications, statistics for related categories can be grouped or collated (aggregated) to provide a broader picture, or categories can be split (disaggregated) when finer details are required and made possible by the codes given to the primary observations. (UN)


Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) – An indicator of the amount of domestic support for agriculture. As used in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, the AMS refers to a measure of the gap between domestic and world prices multiplied by the quantity supported, plus any other commodity-specific transfers. Internal or domestic support reduction commitments in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture are expressed in terms of reductions in a total AMS covering all trade-distorting internal support measures for agriculture.

Aggressive water – Water, which is soft and acidic and can corrode plumbing, piping, and appliances. – USGS

Agile Manufacturing – Agile manufacturing, aimed at quick turnaround of small lots at reasonable costs, is based on using science and engineering to leverage the impact of a person's decision-making capabilities on the success of the enterprise. Agile manufacturing enterprises have been characterized as bringing out new products quickly, designing products to facilitate their evolution in response to meet the changing needs of users, and as having diffused authority to facilitate information flow among manufacturing, engineering, marketing, purchasing, finance, sales, quality assurance, and research and development departments. Proponents of agile manufacturing emphasize its requirement for close working relationships between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers as well as its capability for efficient productivity without dramatically affecting processing costs.


AGPF – A Green and Peaceful Future (Greenpeace)


AGR – Agriculture


Agrarian Revolution – The Agrarian Revolution was made possible by a sustained population increase during the 17th and 18th centuries, improvements in organization of land ownership, expanded markets and for profit farming rather than substance agriculture. New crops were introduced from Americas. Agriculture changed the economic geography of Europe and lead to changes in spatial patterns.


AGREE – American Gun Rights Enforcement Effort


Agreements – The term "agreement" can have a generic and a specific meaning. It also has acquired a special meaning in the law of regional economic integration. (a) Agreement as a generic term: The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties employs the term "international agreement" in its broadest sense. On the one hand, it defines treaties as "international agreements" with certain characteristics. On the other hand, it employs the term "international agreements" for instruments, which do not meet its definition of "treaty.” Its Art.3 refers also to "international agreements not in written form.” Although such oral agreements may be rare, they can have the same binding force as treaties, depending on the intention of the parties. An example of an oral agreement might be a promise made by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of one State to his counterpart of another State. The term "international agreement" in its generic sense consequently embraces the widest range of international instruments. (b) Agreement as a particular term: "Agreements" are usually less formal and deal with a narrower range of subject matter than "treaties.” There is a general tendency to apply the term "agreement" to bilateral or restricted multilateral treaties. It is employed especially for instruments of a technical or administrative character, which are signed by the representatives of government departments, but are not subject to ratification. Typical agreements deal with matters of economic, cultural, scientific and technical cooperation. Agreements also frequently deal with financial matters, such as avoidance of double taxation, investment guarantees or financial assistance. The UN and other international organizations regularly conclude agreements with the host country to an international conference or to a session of a representative organ of the Organization. Especially in international economic law, the term "agreement" is also used as a title for broad multilateral agreements (e.g. the commodity agreements). The use of the term "agreement" slowly developed in the first decades of this century. Nowadays by far the majority of international instruments are designated as agreements. (c) Agreements in regional integration schemes: Regional integration schemes are based on general framework treaties with constitutional character. International instruments, which amend this framework at a later stage (e.g. accessions, revisions), are also designated as "treaties.” Instruments that are concluded within the framework of the constitutional treaty or by the organs of the regional organization are usually referred to as "agreements,” in order to distinguish them from the constitutional treaty. For example, whereas the Treaty of Rome of 1957 serves as a quasi-constitution of the European Community, treaties concluded by the EC with other nations are usually designated as agreements. Also, the Treaty of Montevideo of 1980 established the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), but the sub-regional instruments entered into under its framework are called agreements. (UN)

Agribusiness – Agriculturally related businesses that supply farm inputs (such as fertilizer or equipment) or are involved in the marketing of farm products (such as warehouses, processors, wholesalers, transporters, and retailers). Farms are not usually included when the term agribusiness is used.

The Agribusiness Accountability Initiative – The Agribusiness Accountability Initiative promotes collaborative responses to corporate power in the global food system. Co-sponsored by the Center of Concern and the National Catholic Rural Life Conference, the Agribusiness Accountability Initiative is a growing international network of academics, activists and food system experts from farm, labor, environment, consumer, church and development organizations, who recognize that corporate concentration and vertical integration among transnational agro-food companies threaten the sustainability of the most important industry on earth -- the global food system.


AGRICOLA – AGRICultural OnLine Access, The National Agriculture Library (NAL) ”Advancing access to global information for agriculture.” About: The National Agricultural Library (NAL) is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries In fiscal year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005), NAL delivered more than 80 million direct customer service transactions.


Agricultural Act of 1949 – P.L.89-439 (October 31, 1949) Along with the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, makes up the major part of the permanent law that mandates commodity price and farm income support. The original 1949 Act designated mandatory support for basic commodities and the following non-basic commodities: wool and mohair, tung nuts, honey, Irish potatoes (excluded in the Agricultural Act of 1954), and milk, butterfat, and their products. Periodic farm bills (most recently the FAIR Act of 1996) make temporary changes in the levels and design of commodity programs.


Agricultural Act of 1954 – P.L.83-690 (August 28, 1954) – This Act established a flexible price support for basic commodities (excluding tobacco) at 82.5-90% of parity and authorized a Commodity Credit Corporation reserve for foreign and domestic relief. Title VII was designated the National Wool Act of 1954 and provided for a new price support program for wool and mohair to encourage increased domestic production. Price support for wool and mohair continued through marketing year 1995, at which time it was phased down and terminated under the explicit mandate of P.L.103-130 (November 1, 1993).


Agricultural Act of 1956 – P.L. 84-540 (May 28, 1956) created the Soil Bank Program (Title I of was called the Soil Bank Act) addressed the disposal of CCC inventories of surplus stocks, contained commodity support program provisions, and forestry provisions. The Soil Bank Act authorized short- and long-term removal of land from production with annual rental payments to participants (Acreage Reserve Program and Conservation Reserve Program, respectively). The Acreage Reserve Program, for wheat, corn, rice, cotton, peanuts, and several types of tobacco, allowed producers to retire land on an annual basis in crop years 1956 through 1959 in return for payments. The Conservation Reserve Program allowed producers to retire cropland under contracts of 3, 5, or 10 years in return for annual payments. The Soil Bank Act was repealed by Section 601 of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1965. The Conservation Reserve portion of the Soil Bank was a model for the subsequent Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985.


Agricultural Act of 1970 – P.L. 91-524 (November 30, 1970) initiated a significant change in commodity support policy. This 3-year farm bill replaced some of the more restrictive and mandatory features of acreage allotments, planting restrictions, and marketing quotas with voluntary annual cropland set-asides and marketing certificate payments to achieve parity prices (the precursor to target prices and deficiency payments). For the first time, the law adopted a payment limitation per producer (set at $55,000 per crop). The Act also amended and extended the authority of the Class I differential in federal milk marketing order areas.


Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) of 1933 – P.L. 73-10 (May 12, 1933) was the New Deal initiative to assist the farm sector during the Great Depression. This was the first comprehensive effort to raise and stabilize farm prices and income. The law created and authorized the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to (1) enter into voluntary agreements to pay farmers to reduce production of designated 'basic' commodities (cotton, wheat, corn, rice, tobacco, hogs, and milk), (2) to make advance payments to farmers who stored crops on the farm, (3) to create marketing agreements between farmers and middlemen, and (4) to levy processing taxes to pay for production adjustment and market development. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) was incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on October 17, 1933, to carry out financial activities, including making non-recourse loans on the basic crops. The Secretary with the President’s approval authorized support for other commodities upon recommendation. Commodity loan programs carried out by the CCC for 1933-37 included cotton, corn, rosin, turpentine, tobacco, peanuts, dates, figs, and prunes. The provisions for production control and processing taxes in the Act were later declared unconstitutional in the Hoosac Mills decision of 1936. Congress responded by adopting the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936, the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1937, and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, all of which remain as permanent laws.


Agricultural Adjustment Act Amendment of 1935 – P.L. 74-320 (August 24, 1935) made several important and lasting changes to the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. Section 22 of the law gave the President authority to impose quotas when imports interfered with commodity programs designed to raise prices and farm income. Section 32 was designed to widen market outlets for surplus agricultural commodities by permanently appropriating funds to purchase commodities for primarily child nutrition programs. Section 22 has been superseded, but Section 32 continues to operate.


Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 – P.L. 75-430 (February 16, 1938) was enacted as an alternative and replacement for the farm subsidy policies found unworkable in the AAA legislation of 1933. The 1938 Act was the first to make price support mandatory for corn, cotton, and wheat to help maintain a sufficient supply in low production periods along with marketing quotas to keep supply in line with market demand. It established permissive supports for butter, dates, figs, shops, turpentine, rosin, pecans, prunes, raisins, barley, rye, grain sorghum, wool, winter cover-crop seeds, mohair, peanuts, and tobacco for the 1938-40 period. Also, Title V of the Act established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. The 1938 Act is considered part of permanent legislation for commodity programs and farm income support (along with the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act and the Agricultural Act of 1949). Provisions of this law are often superseded by more current legislation (such as the FAIR Act of 1996). However, if the current legislation expires and new legislation is not enacted, the law reverts back to the permanent provisions of the 1938 Act.


Agricultural Attache, Counselor, or Trade Officer – An agricultural expert, employed by the Foreign Agricultural Service, on the staff of an embassy, consulate, or agricultural trade office.


Agricultural census (or census of agriculture) – A large-scale, periodic, statistical operation for the collection of quantitative information on the structure of agriculture. The word "census" implies a complete enumeration of all agricultural holdings. However, by extension it can be conducted by a sample enumeration, provided the sample is large enough to generate sub-national data. – FAO UN Glossary


Agricultural Commodity – A product of agriculture. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)


Agricultural conservation easements (ACE) – The basic purpose and structure of all agricultural conservation easements are the same. However, each easement is tailored to the specific farm being protected. Exact language in the easement may reflect future expansion plans of the landowners, including the needs of their heirs. CONAGR – Conserving Agricultural Lands – During the past several decades, agriculture has changed in many ways, with some farms going out of business, some expanding to tremendous proportions and others diversifying or changing their economic focus entirely. At the same time, suburban sprawl is relentlessly eating up our farmland. The net result is that the U.S. is losing more than 1 million farmland [acres] each year. Farmers want to see their farms endure and are increasingly willing to protect their land in perpetuity, but land trusts, municipalities and public agencies need to understand their unique and constantly evolving circumstances. This intermediate course gives participants the insight and technical skills needed to effectively protect working farms and the businesses that sustain them in their communities. While applicable to agricultural landscapes across country, this course focuses on issues most pertinent to Eastern and Midwestern farmland. Who should attend: Land trust and other land conservation professionals who have a working knowledge of conservation easements and are involved in farmland protection projects. Course Length: 2.75 days; 22 hours. Objectives: Summarize local and global trends affecting agriculture, land use planning and estate planning as they relate to farming protection; Understand the drafting and enforcing of agricultural conservation easements; and Explain purchase of development rights programs and other approaches to farmland protection. This course is offered by: the Land Conservation Leadership Program of the Land Trust Alliance and The Conservation Fund in cooperation with the NCTC/U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Contact: Andrea Freeman, Land Trust Alliance 202-638-4725. 3. An interest in land, less than fee simple, which interest represents the right to restrict or prevent the development or improvement of the land for any purpose other than agricultural production. The easement may be granted by the owner of the fee simple, to any third party or to the State, to a county council, or to a unit of local government. It must be granted in perpetuity, except as provided for in Section 46-53-110(B)(2), as the equivalent of covenants running with the land. The exercise or failure to exercise any right granted by the easement shall not be deemed to be management or control of activities at the site for purposes of enforcement of the Federal Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act of 1980.


Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) – Administered by the Farm Service Agency, this largest and oldest conservation cost-sharing program paid farmers up to $3,500 per year as an incentive to install approved conservation practices. It was terminated in the FAIR Act of 1996 and replaced by a new Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP).


Agricultural Development – Development that is directly related to agriculture and occurs on a parcel of land where agriculture occurs, including dwellings for individuals and associated households actively engaged in agriculture on the site.


Agricultural District – A district created pursuant to Article 25AA of the Agriculture and Markets Law. Those properties residing within a contiguous boundary and meeting appropriate criteria for designation as such by the local soil conservation district.


Agricultural District Coordination – Regulations requiring that any application for special approval in an agricultural district, such as a special use permit or site plan, use variance, or subdivision approval, must include an agricultural data statement (ADS) where there is an operating farm in such district. The ADS provides the reviewing agency with pertinent information regarding the proposed development and the surrounding agricultural land. The reviewing agency uses the ADS to determine the possible impacts of the proposed project upon farming operations within the agricultural district.


Agricultural District Program – Enrolling property in this program is a five-year commitment to continue farming. A penalty will be assessed if the land is taken out of the program or if not used for agriculture. Defer sewer, water or electric assessments as long as land is farmed. Legal protection for any generally accepted agricultural practice in the defense of a nuisance lawsuit made against the farming operation. Limited protection against the use of eminent domain. Benefits/Eligibility Requirements: 1. Any tract of agricultural land of 10 acres or more which has been devoted exclusively to agricultural commercial use for the last three years is eligible. 2. A smaller tract may be included if the tract produced an average gross income of $2,500 or more from sales of agricultural commercial products during the previous three years.


Agricultural Diversification – A system of farming that encourages production of a variety of plant and animals and their products as opposed to monoculture or large-scale specialization. Advocates of diversification argue that it provides greater income stability. Specialized farms benefit from economies of size.


Agricultural Drainage – The process of directing excess water away from root zones by natural or artificial means, such as by using a system of pipes and drains placed below ground surface level (also called subsurface drainage). The water that is drained away from irrigated farmland.


Agricultural Easement – A type of easement where the park purchases the development rights of a private landholder within the park boundary to thwart any future development. Active use of these private lands is restricted to agricultural use for perpetuity. Typically, the private lands are large parcels that are presently or have been recently farmed where the private owner is interested in continuing to farm. The private farmer and CVNP cooperate to enhance the agricultural use of private lands for their mutual benefit. The farmer is compensated for development rights as well as any reduced crop yield, which can be directly attributed to the easement restrictions (NPS1994b). – DOI/NPS


The Agricultural Easement Purchase Program (AEPP) – The Clean Ohio Agricultural Easement Purchase (AEPP) program is a statewide program administered by the Ohio Department of Agriculture that preserves farmland through the purchase of permanent agricultural easements. AEPP receives funding from the Clean Ohio Fund, a bond initiative approved by Ohio voters in 2000. [email protected]


Agricultural holding (or holding) – An economic unit of agricultural production under single management comprising all livestock kept and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, without regard to title, legal form, or size. Single management may be exercised by an individual or household, jointly by two or more individuals or households, by a clan or tribe, or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency. The holding's land may consist of one or more parcels, located in one or more separate areas or in one or more territorial or administrative divisions, providing the parcels share the same production means utilized by the holding, such as labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught animals. The requirement of sharing the same production means utilized by the holding, such as labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught animals should be fulfilled to a degree to justify the consideration of various parcels as components of one economic unit. -FAO UN Glossary


AGRicultural, HYdrological and METeorological program (AGRHYMET) – A West African AGRHYMET program, which collects and disseminates environmental information on West Africa. – USDA glossary


Agricultural Land – Land including arable land, land under permanent crops and land under permanent meadows and pastures. (UN)


Agricultural Land / Open Space Zoning – Variety of local zoning laws designed to protect certain land characteristics or specific places. – Matrix O' Implementation – Critical Lands Toolkit –


Agricultural land tenure — Land owned, used, or held for agricultural purposes. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary


Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval Board (Pennsylvania) – An independent administrative board with jurisdiction over the condemnation of certain types of agricultural land in Pennsylvania. The Board reviews proposals and presentations made and determines whether there is a feasible and prudent alternative to the condemnation of lands being used for productive agricultural purposes.


Agricultural Market Transition Act (AMTA) – Title I of the FAIR Act of 1996. It allows farmers who have participated in the wheat, feed grain, cotton, and rice programs in any one of the 5 years prior to 1996 to enter into 7-year production flexibility contracts for 1996-2002. Total national production flexibility contract payments (sometimes called AMTA payments, or contract payments) for each fiscal year are fixed in the law. The AMTA allows farmers to plant 100% of their total contract acreage to any crop except fruits and vegetables, and receive a full payment. Land must be maintained in agricultural uses. Unlimited haying and grazing and planting and harvesting alfalfa and other forage crops are permitted with no reduction in payments.


Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 – This law reaffirmed the marketing agreements provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 and redefined the process for establishing marketing orders. Under the authority of this permanent law and subsequent amendments, marketing orders have been established for milk as well as numerous fruits and vegetables.


Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) – A USDA agency that establishes standards for grades of cotton, tobacco, meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. It also operates inspection and grading services and market news services, and provides supervisory administration for federal marketing orders.


Agricultural Officers – Embassy officials who are responsible for addressing agricultural trade policy issues and preparing reports on agricultural commodities such as rice, wheat, and dairy products. These officers promote U.S. exports by providing market information, one-on-one consultations, and facilitative contacts with foreign buyers and by sponsoring trade events, such as shows, trade missions, and seminars. (USDA)


Agricultural Open Space – Open space used for agricultural purposes. – DOI/NPS


Agricultural Payment Report – 194.2 No later than 45 days following the date by which the final assessment roll is required to be completed and filed, the assessor shall file with the State Board an Agricultural Payment Report (Form RP-305pr) identifying payments imposed on the current assessment roll for parcels converted in whole or in part from agricultural production.


Agricultural Pollution – Liquid and solid wastes from all types of farming activities, including run-off from pesticide and fertilizer use, and from feedlots; erosion and dust from plowing; animal manure and carcasses; and crop residues and debris. (UN) Wastes, emissions, and discharges arising from farming activities. Causes include runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; pesticide drift and volatilization; erosion and dust from cultivation; and improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses. Some agricultural pollution is point source, e.g., large feedlots, which require permits under the Clean Water Act, but much is non-point source, meaning that it derives from dispersed origins, e.g., blowing dust or nutrients leaching from fields. As most pollution control programs have focused on particular categories of point sources, non-point and unregulated point sources account for an increasingly large proportion of remaining pollution. Based on state surveys, EPA concludes that agricultural sources account for over one-half the pollution impairing surface water quality in the U.S. The Clean Water Act mandates that states develop and implement management programs to control non-point sources of water pollution.

Agricultural Preservation Restriction – Also known as the Agricultural Preservation Restriction Program, administered by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) The APR Program is a voluntary program which is intended to offer a non-development alternative to farmers and other owners or "prime" and "state important" agricultural land who are faced with a decision regarding future use and disposition of their farms. Towards this end, the program offers to pay farmers the difference between the "fair market value" and the "agricultural value" of their farmland in exchange for a permanent deed restriction, which precludes any use of the property that will have a negative impact on its agricultural viability. Under the Agricultural Preservation Restriction program, the state purchases restrictions from farmers in order to prohibit development and nonagricultural use of the land. The APR value of the land is the difference between its agricultural value and its fair market value. Farmers retain ownership of the land and may sell it, lease it or bequeath it to their heirs, as long as the farm remains in agricultural use forever. [Land] will be preserved in perpetuity through the state’s Agricultural Preservation Restriction Program with funding from U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).

Agricultural preserve – Under the California Land Conservation Act (Williamson Act), an agricultural preserve defines the boundary of an area within which a city or county will enter into contracts with landowners to maintain land in agriculture or open space use. – (DOI/NPS) Majority of definitions adapted from “A Park and Recreation Professionals' Glossary,” California Department of Parks and Recreation Planning Division, January 1, 2003; other definitions from California State Law, CEQ (NEPA), and Santa Barbara County. Draft Gaviota Coast Feasibility Study & Environmental Assessment

Agricultural Privilege Tax – An annual tax levied on farming activities in the Everglades Agricultural Area and C-139 Basins to support Phase 1 of the Everglades Program. – EvergladesPlan glossary


Agricultural Product – (1) Crops grown under cultivated conditions whether used for personal consumption, subsistence, or sold for commercial benefit; (2) Domestic livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, buffalo, swine, reindeer, fowl, or other animals specifically raised and used for food or fiber or as a beast of burden; (3) Forage, hay, fodder, food grains, crop residues and other items grown or harvested for the feeding and care of livestock, sold for commercial profit, or used for other purposes; and (4) Other marketable or traditionally used materials authorized for removal from Indian agricultural lands. – DOI-BIA Glossary


Agricultural Products – Crops, livestock and livestock products and, to the extent that land used to produce woodland products qualifies for an agricultural assessment, woodland products.


Agricultural Protection Areas – Owners of contiguous land, form voluntary association establishing agriculture as primary use of the land. – Matrix O' Implementation – Critical Lands Toolkit –


Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) – A program, administered by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, that inspects incoming passengers, luggage, and cargo at U.S. ports of entry in order to protect U.S. agriculture from foreign animal and plant pests and diseases.


Agricultural Real Estate – Real estate which is used primarily 1) for the growing and harvesting of crops, 2i) for the feeding, breeding and management of livestock, 3) for dairying, or 4) for any other agricultural or horticultural use or combination thereof, including without limitation, aquaculture, silviculture and any other activities customarily engaged in by persons engaged in the business of farming.


Agricultural Research Service (ARS) – A USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct basic, applied, and developmental research in the following fields: livestock; plants; soil, water and air quality; energy; food safety and quality; nutrition; food processing, storage, and distribution efficiency; non-food agricultural products; and international development.


Agricultural resource management plan – A ten-year plan developed through the public review process specifying the tribal management goals and objectives developed for tribal agricultural and grazing resources. Plans developed and approved under AIARMA will govern the management and administration of Indian agricultural resources and Indian agricultural lands by the BIA and Indian tribal governments. – DOI-BIA Glossary


Agricultural Run-off – Water that flows from agricultural fields. Agricultural run-off is a major source of pesticides in water. (UN)


Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) – This was the USDA agency which was once primarily responsible for administering the farm commodity price and income support programs, and conservation cost-sharing programs. Its functions were folded into a new Farm Service Agency as a consequence of 1994 reorganization. A local field service center is maintained in nearly all farming localities.


Agricultural supply (AGR) – Uses of water for farming, horticulture or ranching including, but not limited to, irrigation, stock watering, or support of vegetation for range grazing. – Report in Support of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Review of California's Continuing Planning Process – State Water Resources Control Board, May 2001. Appendix B, Attachment 1: Standard Beneficial Use Definitions. The following are the beneficial uses for surface and groundwaters that have been adopted by the regional boards in basin plans and have been approved by the State Board. Not all the beneficial use definitions ... are appropriate for each basin. The uses and their definitions and abbreviations are to remain standard for all basins.


Agricultural Tax Relief – A form of lower taxation for commercially farmed acres. See Current Agricultural Use Value.


Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 – P.L. 83-480 (July 10, 1954) is commonly referred to as 'PL 480" and 'Food for Peace.' The law established what continues to be the primary U.S. overseas food assistance program. The program made U.S. agricultural commodities available through long-term credit at low interest rates and provided food donations.


Agricultural Trade Office – The Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 directed the establishment of trade offices in major centers of commerce throughout the world. Agricultural trade offices are operated by USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service to develop, maintain, and expand international markets for U.S. agricultural commodities and serve as centers for export sales promotion and contact points for importers seeking to buy U.S. farm products.


Agricultural Use – Tracts, lots, or parcels of land totaling not less than ten acres that, during the three calendar years prior to the year in which application is filed under section 5713.31 of the Revised Code, and through the last day of May of such year, were devoted exclusively to commercial animal or poultry husbandry, aquaculture, apiculture, the production for a commercial purpose of timber, field crops, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, nursery stock, ornamental trees, sod, or flowers, or the growth of timber for a noncommercial purpose, if the land on which the timber is grown is contiguous to or part of a parcel of land under common ownership that is otherwise devoted exclusively to agricultural use, or were devoted to and qualified for payments or other compensation under a land retirement or conservation program under an agreement with an agency of the federal government.


Agricultural User Sector (or market) – Pesticides applied by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to farms and facilities involved in production of raw agricultural commodities, principally food, fiber, and tobacco; includes non-crop and post-harvest use as well as crop/field applications. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Agricultural Waste – Waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses; harvest waste; fertilizer run-off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained from fields. (UN)

Agriculture – Farming in all its branches and including: (1) the cultivation and tillage of the soil, (2) the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of any agricultural, viticultural or horticultural commodities, (3) the raising and/or the breeding of livestock including but not limited to dairy and beef cattle, sheep, goats, fur-bearing animals, companion animals, poultry and swine, (4) the breeding, boarding, raising or training of equine, (5) the commercial harvesting, production and processing of fish and shellfish, including aquaculture and marine production, (6) the commercial production of bees and apiary products, (7) the production of nursery, sod, floriculture and forest products, and (8) the harvesting, storage, grading, packaging, processing, distribution, and sale of such commodities where such activities occur at the point of production. "The waters of Upper Klamath Lake have been utilized for agriculture since the mid 1800s. With the development of the Klamath Project by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1905 and the construction of the Link River Dam in the 1920s, this use increased dramatically for both irrigation and hydropower. The result of the dam and diversion at the “A” canal is a lake which no longer functions in its natural state but is managed at various artificial levels for agriculture and hydropower and recovery of endangered species." – The Klamath Headwaters Agricultural Water Quality Management Area Plan (AgWQMAP), February 5, 2004. (page 15 of 41 pages)


Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 – P.L. 93-86 was the 4-year farm bill that adopted target prices and deficiency payments as a tool that would support farm income but reduce forfeitures to the Commodity Credit Corporation of surplus stocks. It reduced payment limitations to $20,000 (from $55,000 set in 1970) for all program crops. The Act might be considered the first omnibus farm bill because it went beyond simply authorizing farm commodity programs. It authorized disaster payments and disaster reserve inventories; created the Rural Environmental Conservation Program; amended the Food Stamp Act of 1964, authorized the use of commodities for feeding low-income mothers and young children (the origin of the supplemental food program); and amended the Rural Development Act of 1972.

Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 – P.L. 97-98 was the 4-year omnibus farm bill that continued and modified commodity programs through 1985. It set specific target prices for 4 years, eliminated rice allotments and marketing quotas, lowered dairy supports, and made other changes affecting a wide range of USDA activities. The next year this farm bill was amended to freeze the dairy price support level and mandate loan rates and acreage reserve provisions for the 1983 crops (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1982, P.L. 97-253). Again in 1984, amendments were adopted to freeze target prices, authorize paid land diversion for feed grains, upland cotton, and rice, and provide a wheat payment-in-kind program for 1984 (Agricultural Programs Adjustment Act of 1984, P.L. 98-258).

Agriculture, Farming – The science or art of cultivating the soil, producing crops, plants, trees or shrubs, and/or raising livestock which does not require a tax license by the state.

Agriculture in Concert with the Environment (ACE) – An EPA program, administered cooperatively with USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, to fund research projects that reduce the risk of pollution from pesticides and soluble fertilizers.


Agrochemical – Synthetic chemicals (pesticide and fertilizers) used in agricultural production.


Agro-ecology – Study of the relation of agricultural crops and environment. (UN)


Agro-forestry – Collective term for land-use systems and technologies in which woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos and so forth) are deliberately used on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of either spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. (UN)

Agrology – Branch of agriculture that deals with the origin, structure, analysis and classification of soils, especially in their relation to crop production. (UN)

Agronomic practices – Soil and crop activities employed in the production of farm crops, such as selecting seed, seedbed preparation, fertilizing, liming, manuring, seeding, cultivation, harvesting, curing, crop sequence, crop rotations, cover crops, strip-cropping, pasture development, and others (Soil Conservation Society of America, 1982). - EPA’s Management Measures for Agricultural Sources Glossary

Agronomy – Science of soil management and crop production. (UN)


AGS – Alaska Geological Society


AGS – Americans for Gun Safety


AGS – Appalachian Geological Society


AGS – Arizona Geological Society


AGU – American Geophysical Union


AGWFS – Association of Graduate Wildlife and Fisheries Scientists


AgWQMAP – The Klamath Headwaters Agricultural Water Quality Management Area Plan, February 5, 2004. (41 pages)


AGWT – American Ground Water Trust


AH – Adaptive Harvest


AH – Affordable Housing


AH – Animal Health


AHA – Ad Hoc Assistance


AHA – American Historical Association


AHA – American Humane Association

AHAM – Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers

AHB – Area Habitat Biologist

AHC – Appalachian Hardwood Center

AHD – Affordable Housing Distribution


AHE – Architectural historian experts (DOI/NPS)


AHI – Acreage habitat improvement – USDA Forest Service


AHIO – Acreage habitat improvement objectives – USDA Forest Service

AHL – Adequate Habitat Linkages

AHM – Adaptive Harvest Management

AHPA – Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act (1974)


AHRFWG – American Heritage River Federal Working Group

AHR – Americans for Heritage and Recreation

AHRI – American Heritage Rivers Initiative

AI – Agency Infiltration


AI – Amnesty International

AI – Artificial Insemination

AIA – Aquatic Impact Assessments (DOI/USFWS)

AIA – ASEAN Investment Area

AIANA – Asbestos Information Association of North America

AIARMA – American Indian Agricultural Resources Management Act of December 3, 1993 (107 Stat. 2011, 25 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.), and amended on November 2, 1994 (108 Stat. 4572). - DOI-BIA Glossary

AIB – Animal Industry Board (USDA)

AIBC – American International Business Central (for businesses doing business in the former Soviet Union, or planning to)


AIC – Admissible In Court


AIC – Ag Internet Club

AICDP – Agriculture Innovation Center Demonstration Program – USDA

AICO – ASEAN Industrial Corporation Scheme

AICP – The American Institute of Certified Planners (American Planning Association)


AICUZ – Air Installation Compatible Use Zone


AID – Agency for International Development


Aid – The words "aid" and "assistance" refer to flows, which qualify as Official Development Assistance (ODA) or Official Aid – Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary


AIDIS – Inter-American Association of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences (Sao Paulo, Brazil)


AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) – The late stage of infection caused by a virus, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (WB-UN)


AIEC – Association of Illinois Electric Cooperatives


AIEO – American Indian Environmental Office


AIG – Arizonans for Immigration Control


AIG – Australian Institute of Geoscientists


AIHC – American Industrial Health Council


AIIMI – Association for Information and Image Management International


AIIS – American Institute for International Steel


AIM – Accuracy In Media


AIM – Alliance of Independent Miners


AIM – American Indian Movement


AIMA – American Institute of Minerals Appraisers


AIMCAL – Association of Industrial Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators


AIMCL – Association of Industrial Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators


AIME – American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers


AIN – American I.D. Number


AIOA – American Iron Ore Association


AIP – Agreement in Principle


AIP – All Involved Parties


AIP – All Interested Parties


AIPA – Area Improvement Project Agreement


AIPAC – American-Israel Public Affairs Committee


AIPG – American Institute of Professional Geologists


AIPL – Actual Insurable Production Losses


AIPP – American Institute for Pollution Prevention (EPA)


AIPP – The Aquatic Invasive Plant Project, The Adirondack Nature Conservancy.


Air Basin – Geographical region all of whose features (hills, bodies of water) determine a common atmospheric interaction for that region. (UN)


Air binding – A situation where air enters the filter media. Air is harmful to both the filtration and backwash processes. Air can prevent the passage of water during the filtration process and can cause the loss of filter media during the backwash process.


Air Curtain – Method of mechanical containment of oil spills. Air is bubbled through a perforated pipe causing an upward flow of water that retards the spreading of oil. Air curtains are also used as barriers to prevent fish from entering a polluted body of water. (UN)


Air-Dry Weight – The weight of a substance after it has been allowed to dry to equilibrium with the atmosphere. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)


AIRFA – American Indian Religious Freedom Act - DOI/NPS/BLM


Air gap – An open vertical drop, or vertical empty space, that separates a drinking (potable) water supply to be protected from another water system in a water treatment plant or other location. This open gap prevents the contamination of drinking water by backsiphonage or backflow because there is no way raw water or any other water can reach the drinking water.


AIRNow – EPA air quality website with local AQI (Air Quality Index) forecasts –


Air Pollutants – Substances in air that could, at high enough concentrations, harm human beings, animals, vegetation or material. Air pollutants may thus include forms of matter of almost any natural or artificial composition capable of being airborne. They may consist of solid particles, liquid droplets or gases, or combinations of these forms. (UN)


Air Pollution – Any substance or energy for (heat, light, noise, etc.) that alters the state of the air from what would naturally occur. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. One or more chemicals in sufficient concentration in the air to harm humans, other animals, vegetation or materials. There are many natural pollutants as well as those produced by human industry. Natural sources can include smoke from forest fires, wind-blown dust and emissions from volcanic activity. Human activities such as industry and transport are the major contributors to air pollution. Many of the pollutants from human activities are very toxic and contribute to major and global environmental problems as well as causing problems for health in the local area. Excess heat or noise can also be considered forms of air pollution. (UNESCO)


Air Pollution Episode – The high concentration of air pollutants due to temperature inversion and low winds. It may give rise to serious, and sometimes fatal, illness.


Air Pollution Sources – Activities that result in air pollution including agricultural activities, combustion processes, dust-producing processes, manufacturing activities, nuclear energy-related activities, spray-painting, printing, dry-cleaning, and so on.


Air Quality – A measure of the health-related and visual characteristics of the air, often derived from quantitative measurements of the concentrations of specific injurious or contaminating substances. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 2. Refers to standards for various classes of land as designated by the Clean Air Act. Measure of the health-related and visual characteristics of the air, often derived from quantitative measurements of the concentrations of specific injurious or contaminating substances.


Air Quality Class I and II Areas – Regions in attainment areas where maintenance of existing good air quality is of high priority. Class I areas are those that have the most stringent degree of protection from future degradation of air quality, such as National Parks. Class II areas permit moderate deterioration of existing air quality, such as lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. Classes established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that define the amount of air pollution considered significant within an area: I: Almost any change in air quality would be considered significant. II: Deterioration normally accompanying moderate, well-controlled growth would be considered insignificant. III. Deterioration up to the national standards would be considered insignificant. – BLM


Air Quality Maintenance Area – Specific populated area where air quality is a problem for one or more pollutants (Portland-Vancouver, Salem, Eugene-Springfield, and Medford-Ashland). - Bioenergy Glossary


Air Quality Related Value (AQRV) – A resource, as identified by the FLM (Federal Land Managers) for one or more Federal areas, that may be adversely affected by a change in air quality. The resource may include visibility or a specific scenic, cultural, physical, biological, ecological, or recreational resource identified by the FLM for a particular area. – National Park Service Nature and Science Air Resources Division-Permits: FLAG (Federal Land Managers' AQRV Work Group)

Air Rights (related to public-private partnerships) – Air rights provide the right to use, control, or occupy the space above a designated property. Air rights can often be leased, sold, or donated to another party. – General Accounting Office (GAO) Public-Private Partnerships Glossary

Air Slaking – The process of breaking up or sloughing when an indurated soil is exposed to air.


Air stripping – A treatment process used to remove dissolved gases and volatile substances from water. Large volumes of air are bubbled through the water being treated to remove (strip out) the dissolved gases and volatile substances. Also see packed tower aeration.


Airshed – Basic geographic units in which air quality is managed.

/ea/glossary.pdf 2. Those areas where significant portions of emissions result in deposition of the various air pollutants to a region. Many types of air pollution are carried by the wind from state to state, and are harmful to people and the environment, even in rural areas. – (DOI/NPS) Long-Term Monitoring Plan – National Capital Region Network, September 30, 2005. Submitted by: Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Capital Region Network, Center for Urban Ecology, 4598 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. (Pages G-1 through G-8 - Glossary – or pages 150 through 156 of 156 pages) 3. A geographical area, which, because of topography, meteorology, and climate, routinely shares the same air mass. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 4. A geographic area that shares the same air mass due to topography, meteorology, and climate. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 5. The term has been used to describe those areas where significant portions of air emissions result in the deposition of various air pollutants to specific land or water areas. The airshed may be substantially larger than the watershed. – Great Lakes glossary 6. A geographic area that, due to topography, meteorology, and climate, shares the same air.


Airspace Ratio – Ratio of volume of water that can be drained from a saturated soil or rock under the action of force of gravity to total volume of voids.


Air-void Ratio – The ratio of the volume of airspace to the total volume of voids in a soil mass.


AIS – Aquatic invasive species


AIS – Automated Information Systems (HUD, TARE)


AISE – Association of Iron and Steel Engineers


AISI – American Iron and Steel Institute

AIT – Appropriate Information Technology

AIWA – Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Association

AIWFMP – Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Management Responsibilities

AIWW – The Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway

A-J – Alaska-Juneau, also the Alaska-Juneau Mine Project


AJC – American Jewish Committee


AJV – Association for Judeo-Christian Values


AK – Animal Kingdom


AKA – Also Known As


Aitken Nuclei – Very small particles that exist in high concentrations in the atmosphere and are generally produced by combustion processes.


AL – Absentee Landowner


AL – Agricultural Landscape


AL – American Lands

AL – Assembly Line

ALA – The American Lands Alliance

ALA – American Legislators Association

Alabaster – Compact, fine-grained gypsum, white or shaded. Used for ornamental vessels, figures, and other carving. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary


ALAGSG – As Long As the Grass Shall Grow


ALANA – Asian, Latino, African and Native Americans


ALAPCO – The Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials


ALARM – Automated Landings Assessment for Responsive Management


Alaska Native Regional Corporation (ANRC) – A corporate entity established to conduct both business and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives, pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-203, as amended). Twelve ANRCs are legally bounded geographic entities that cover Alaska, except for the Annette Islands Reserve (an American Indian reservation). A thirteenth ANRC represents Alaska Natives who do not live in Alaska and do not identify with any of the 12 corporations; the U.S. Census Bureau does not present data for this ANRC. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


Alaska Native village (ANV) – A local governmental unit in Alaska that constitutes an association, band, clan, community, group, tribe, or village, recognized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-203, as amended). ANVs do not have clearly defined boundaries that are easily locatable, and they often include many square miles of land used by Alaska Natives for hunting and fishing, so the U.S. Census Bureau works with officials of the Alaska Native villages and Alaska Native Regional Corporations to delineate Alaska Native village statistical areas for data presentation purposes. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


Alaska Native village statistical area (ANVSA) – A statistical entity that represents the settled portion of an Alaska Native village for data presentation purposes. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


Alb – An albic horizon.


Albedo – A measure of surface reflectivity, usually expressed as a percentage, such as the proportion of solar radiation that is reflected back into space from the Earth, clouds, and atmosphere without heating the receiving surface. Studying a planet's albedo can help determine the composition of its surface. 2. The percentage of incoming radiation that is reflected by a natural surface such as the ground, ice, snow, water, clouds, or particulates in the atmosphere. – USDA glossary


Albers Equal Area Projection – The Albers Equal Area projection is a method of projection on which the areas of all regions are shown in the same proportion of their true areas. The meridians are equally spaced straight lines converging at a common point, which is normally beyond the pole. The angles between them are less than the true angles. The parallels are unequally spaced concentric circular arcs centered on the point of convergence of the meridians. The meridians are radii of the circular arcs. The poles are normally circular arcs enclosing the same angle as that enclosed by the other parallels of latitude for a given range of longitude. Albers Equal Area is frequently used in the ellipsoidal form for maps of the United States in the National Atlas of the United States, for thematic maps, and for world atlases. It is also used and recommended for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent. – USDA glossary


ALC – American Land Conservancy

ALC – Alaska Lands Coalition

ALC – Area and Landscape Considerations (USFWS/DOI, USGS)

ALCA – Associated Landscape Contractors of America


ALCAB – Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval Board


ALCC – Authority, Legal Compliance and Compatibility (DOI)


Alcids – Any of the Alcidae family (Order Charadriiformes) of marine birds having a stout bill, short wings and tail, webbed feet, a large head and heavy body, and thick, compact plumage. Confined to the northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, alcids include auks, guillemots, murres, and puffins.


Alcove – A small rock shelter. – BLM


ALEC – American Legislative Exchange Council


ALERT – Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time (a flood warning system)


Alevin – A young fish, particularly a young salmon that is still attached to the yolk sac. 2. A young fish, especially a newly hatched salmon still attached to the yolk sac. – BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.


Alewife – A small silver-colored fish that is not native to the Great Lakes. – Great Lakes glossary


ALF – American Land Foundation


ALF – Animal Liberation Front


ALF – Atlantic Legal Foundation


ALG – American Lands Grassland


Algae – Microscopic plants [that] contain chlorophyll and live floating or suspended in water. They also may be attached to structures, rocks or other submerged surfaces. They are food for fish and small aquatic animals. Excess algal growths can impart tastes and odors to potable water. Algae produce oxygen during sunlight hours and use oxygen during the night hours. Their biological activities appreciably affect the pH and dissolved oxygen of the water. 2. Photosynthetic organisms lacking multicellular sex organs. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary 3. A collective, or general name, applied to a number of primarily aquatic, photosynthetic groups (taxa) of plants and plant-like protists. They range in size from single cells to large, multicellular forms like the giant kelps. They are the foodbase for almost all marine animals. Important taxa are the dinoflagellates (division Pyrrophyta), diatoms (div., Chrysophyta), green algae (div. Chlorophyta), brown algae (div. Phaeophyta), and red algae (div. Rhodophyta). Cyanobacteria are often called blue-green algae, although blue-green bacteria is a preferable term. – "DEIS for EFH for the Gulf of Mexico FMPs" – Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Generic Essential Fish Habitat Amendment to the following fishery management plans for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM): Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Red Drum Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Coral and Coral Reef Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; and the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic. This is a publication of the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council pursuant to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Award No. NA17FC102.

20Gulf%20EFH%20EIS%20703.pdf (pages 9-13 of 654) 4. The common name for the relatively simple type of unicellular or multicellular plant which is never differentiated into root, stem, and leaves, contains chlorophyll a as its photosynthetic pigment, has no true vascular system, and has no sterile layer of cells surrounding its reproductive organs. Found in most habitats on Earth, though the majority occurs in freshwater or marine environments. 5. Simple plants found in water and elsewhere that have no roots, flowers, or seeds. These are usually microscopic plants and are the primary producers in lakes. See phytoplankton and periphyton. – Great Lakes glossary


Algal Bloom – Sudden, massive growths of microscopic and macroscopic plant life, such as green or bluegreen algae, which develop in lakes and reservoirs.


Algaecide – Chemical highly toxic to algae, used to control the growth of algal blooms.


Algicide – Any substance or chemical specifically formulated to kill or control algae.

ALI-ABA – American Law Institute – American Bar Association; Committee on Continuing Professional Education / Continuing Legal Education (CLE)

Alien – An individual who is not a citizen or a national of the U.S. The term refers to all foreign nationals in the U.S. whether or not they are here temporarily or with permanent resident status. – 2. Something that is foreign. – UNEP Children's Glossary


Alien invasive species – An alien species that becomes established in natural or semi-natural ecosystems or habitat, is an agent of change, and threatens native biological diversity. – IUCN


Alien species – A species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural range as a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities. Also known as introduced species. – UNDP/WRI 2. Alien species (non-native, non-indigenous, foreign, exotic) – A species, subspecies, or lower taxon occurring outside of its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e., outside the range it occupies naturally or could not occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans) and includes any part, gametes or propagule of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce. – IUCN


Alienate – To transfer the title to a property from one party to another. – U.S. Treasury OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision, in charge of banks, savings and loan associations, etc.)


Alienated Land – Land of one ownership [that is] enclosed within [the] boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) See also Inholder and Inholding.


Alignment – The degree of agreement, conformance, and consistency among organizational purpose, vision, and values; structures, systems, and processes; and individual skills and behaviors. – Forest Service 2. The horizontal route or direction of an access road.


Alkali – Various soluble salts, principally of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, that have the property of combining with acids to form neutral salts and may be used in chemical water treatment processes.


Alkaline – The condition of water or soil, which contains a sufficient amount of alkali substances to raise the pH above 7.0.


Alkalinity – The capacity of water to neutralize acids. This capacity is caused by the water's content of carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide and occasionally borate, silicate, and phosphate. Alkalinity is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate. Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have a high alkalinity. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a great change in pH.

All-American Roads (AAR) – Public roads that have been designated by the federal government as satisfying National Scenic Byways criteria and have satisfied the additional criteria and requirements for designation as All-American Roads pursuant to the National Scenic Byways Program and its implementing legislation and regulations. NPS – DOI 2. To receive an All-American Road designation, a road must possess at least two intrinsic qualities that are nationally significant and contain one-of-a-kind features that do not exist elsewhere. The road or highway must also be considered a "destination unto itself." That is, the road must provide an exceptional traveling experience so recognized by travelers that they would make a drive along the highway a primary reason for their trip.

All Land That Contains or Needs Water – What is effected by the United Nations Convention on Desertification, and the control and governance of therein. (UN)


All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) – All-terrain vehicle – 42" width or smaller. A small, amphibious motor vehicle with wheels or tractor treads for traveling over rough ground, snow, or ice, as well as on water. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282)


All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Route – A route reserved for ATVs or other mechanized transport not normally suitable for full size four wheeled vehicles. (DOI/BLM)



All-weather Road – A road capable of being utilized during all weather conditions with only minor or short-term restrictions. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)


Allee effect – A depression in the encounter rate between male and female owls resulting from low population densities. The probability of finding a mate drops below that required to maintain the reproductive rates necessary to support the population. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary


Allele – One of several forms of the same gene. – UNDP/WRI


Allelopathy – Influence of plants upon each other caused by products of metabolism, e.g. creosote bushes produce a toxic substance, which inhibits the growth of other plants in the immediate vicinity.

Allelopathy – The repression or destruction of plants from the effects of certain toxic chemical substances produced and released by other nearby plants. – DOI/NPS

Alley – A right-of-way, which provides secondary service access for vehicles to the side or rear of abutting properties.

Alliance – A group of related botanical or zoological families, especially a group of plants intermediate between a class and an order.

Alliance for Sustainable Practices – What came from the 1991 Vail Agenda. – NPS/DOI


Alliance for the Great Lakes – The Alliance for the Great Lakes (also known as "The Alliance") "Ensuring a Living Resource for All Generations" Mission: The mission of the Alliance for the Great Lakes is to: "conserve and restore the world's largest freshwater resource using policy, education and local efforts, ensuring a healthy Great Lakes and clean water for generations of people and wildlife." About: In 1970 citizens stood on the lakeshore and issued a powerful proclamation: "We don't have to wait for governments or anyone else to protect Lake Michigan. We can take steps together to restore the lake we love." Thus, the original Lake Michigan Federation was formed. Thirty-five years later, in 2005, the organization crossed another threshold. Seeing that decisions made by elected officials in other parts of the Great Lakes basin affected Lake Michigan, and vice versa, the organization changed its name to the Alliance for the Great Lakes. The Alliance is picking up where the Federation left off, continuing to work on basin-wide policies, working in partnership with other organizations, and mobilizing local efforts on behalf of the Great Lakes. The Federation, meanwhile, remains a project of the Alliance, focusing on issues of particular concern to the largest lake within U.S. borders. The Alliance works to conserve and restore the world's largest freshwater resource through policy, education and local efforts aimed at preserving the Great Lakes region as a national treasure. It also works with the region's residents, enhancing their understanding of how they can help, too. To that end, we draw on many resources, working with teachers, scientists, economists, legal specialists, government representatives, communities and individuals. And, year-by-year, individual-by-individual, we're getting back a healthy Great Lakes environment, thanks to supporters like you. Our programs focus on: Water Quality: eliminating toxic and bacterial pollution, which cause beach closings; Water Conservation: promoting sustainable water use to keep the Great Lakes great; Habitat Recovery: restoring and enhancing habitat, especially in urban areas, and eliminating invasive species; Land Use: protecting lands that drain into the Great Lakes and their natural features; Clean Energy: protecting the Great Lakes from harmful effects of energy use; Education & Outreach: providing education and volunteer opportunities for adults and children to build an appreciation for the Great Lakes. Governed by about 20 volunteers from around the region, the Alliance also coordinates a network of community-based organizations from around the region, which gather annually to craft basin-wide solutions with a local emphasis.


Allocation – The assignment of a land area to a particular use or uses to achieve management goals and objectives. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. The assignment of management prescriptions to particular land areas to achieve the goals and objectives of an alternative. 3. The apportionment of grazing privileges without competition to tribal members or tribal entities, including the tribal designation of permittees and the number and kind of livestock to be grazed. – DOI-BIA Glossary 4. Process to specifically assign use between and ration among competing users for a particular area of public land or related waters. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 5. Definition under development. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at



Allochthonous – Derived from within a system, such a organic matter in a stream resulting from photosynthesis by aquatic plants.

Organic matter a stream that is produced outside of the stream, usually by riparian plants and trees. Autochthonous organic matter is produced in the stream, by algae and aquatic plants. Exotic species of a given area.


Allogenic – Resulting from factors acting from outside a system or material transported into an area from outside, which alter the system's habitat.


Allopatric – Having separate and mutually exclusive areas of geographic distribution.

Allophane – Amorphous (non-crystalline) clay-sized aluminosilicate.

Allotment – An area of land where one or more individuals graze their livestock. An allotment generally consists of federal rangelands, but may include intermingled parcels of private, state or federal lands. BLM and the Forest Service stipulate the number of livestock and season of use for each allotment. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary 2. An area of land in the United States where one or more individuals graze their livestock. An allotment generally consists of federal rangelands, but may include intermingled parcels of private, state, or federal lands. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM-DOI) and the U.S. Forest Service stipulate the number of livestock and season of use for each allotment. In conjunction with commodity support programs, acreage allotments and marketing quotas serve to limit a farm's output or volume marketed. For federal lands grazing, an allotment is an area designated and managed for grazing of livestock. The Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service stipulate the number of livestock and time period (season) of use for each allotment. (BLM-DOI) 3. (Range Allotment) – The area designated for use by a prescribed number of livestock for a prescribed period of time. Though an entire Ranger District may be divided into allotments, all land will not be grazed, because other uses, such as recreation or tree plantings, may be more important at a given time. (DOI) 4. Surveyed reservation land distributed by the government to individual Indians under the provisions of the Dawes Allotment Act. Generally, 160 acres were allotted to heads of families, 80 acres to single persons and 40 acres to other family members. – “Meaningful Involvement and Fair Treatment by Tribal Environmental Regulatory Programs, A Report of the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council,” prepared by The National Environmental Justice Advisory Council Indigenous Peoples Subcommittee, November 15, 2004. (Pages 667-68 of 68) 5. Allotment (range) – A designated area of land available for livestock grazing upon which a specified number and kind of livestock may be grazed under management of an authorized agency. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM) Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) See Range Allotment. 6. A designated area of land available for livestock grazing upon which a specified number and kind of livestock may be grazed under a range allotment management plan. It is the basic land unit used to facilitate management of the range resource on National Forest System lands, including national grasslands. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 7. Area of land on which grazing may be allowed by permit. – Umatilla National Forest (Washington/Oregon)


Allotment Management Plan (AMP) – A livestock grazing management plan dealing with a specific unit of rangeland and based on multiple use resource management objectives. The AMP considers livestock grazing in relation to other uses of rangelands and in relation to renewable resources, watershed, vegetation and wildlife. An AMP establishes the seasons of use, the number of livestock to be permitted on rangelands, and the rangeland improvements needed. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary 2. The document containing the action program needed to manage the range resource for livestock utilization -- and possibly wildlife utilization -- while considering the soil, watershed, wildlife, recreation, timber and other resources on lands within a range allotment. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 3. The document, which contains the action program needed to manage the rangeland resource for livestock grazing with consideration given to soil, watershed, wildlife, recreation, timber, and other resources on lands within a range allotment. – Umatilla National Forest (Washington/Oregon)


Allowable Cut – Amount of timber, which may be harvested in any given year.


Allowable cut effect (ACE) – The expected change in the allowable sale quantity resulting from future management decisions. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary


Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ) – The quantity of timber that may be sold from the area of suitable land covered by the Forest Plan for a time period specified by the plan. This quantity is usually expressed on an annual basis as the "average annual allowable sale quantity." – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. The gross amount of timber volume, including salvage, [which] may be sold annually from a specified area over a stated period in accordance with management plans of the Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management. Formerly referred to as allowable cut. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 3. The amount of timber that may be sold, from the area of suitable land covered by the Forest Plan, for a time period specified by the Plan. This quantity is usually expressed on a an annual basis as the “average annual allowable sale quantity.”


Allowable Use – 1) The degree of utilization considered desirable and attainable on various parts of a ranch or allotment considering the present nature and condition of the resource, management objectives and levels of management. 2) The amount of forage planned to be used to accelerate range improvement. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 3. An estimate of proper range use. Forty to fifty percent of the annual growth if often used as a rule of thumb on ranges in good to excellent condition. It can also mean the amount of forage planned to be used to accelerate range rehabilitation.


Alluvial – Originated through the transport by and deposition from running water. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 2. Of or relating to river and stream deposits. 3. Material transported and deposited by the action of flowing water, such as clay, silt, sand, and gravel. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary 4. Relating to mud and/or sand deposited by flowing water. Alluvial deposits may occur after a heavy rainstorm. 5. An adjective referring to alluvium, which are sediments deposited by erosional processes, usually by streams. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary


Alluvial Deposit – Sedimentary matter, such as sand and mud, deposits by flowing water, generally of comparatively recent times. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary


Alluvial Fan – The fanlike deposit of a stream where it issues from a gorge upon a plain or of a tributary stream near or at its junction with its main stream. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. (page 69 of 115) 2. Lowland loose sediment deposited by water run-off -usually forms at the base of mountains in arid and semi-arid environments. – NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. A cone-shaped deposit of alluvium made by a stream where it runs out onto a level plain or meets a slower stream. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary


Alluvial soil – Soil formed in material deposited by the action of running water, such as a floodplain or delta.


Alluviation – The depositional process that forms alluvium in places where the stream loses its sediment carrying capacity. Stream deposition.


Alluvium – Sediments generally composed of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or similar unconsolidated material deposited by flowing rivers and streams. – U.S. Department of Energy (DOI) Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah Draft Environmental Impact Statement 2. Sediments deposited by streams, rivers and moving waters. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 3. Any sediment deposited by flowing water, as in a riverbed, floodplain or delta. 3. A general term for clay, silt, sand, gravel, or similar unconsolidated rock fragments or particles deposited during comparatively recent geologic time by a stream or other body of running water. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary 4. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay, deposited on land by streams. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. (page 69 of 115) 5. Material, including clay, silt, sand, gravel, or similar unconsolidated sediments, deposited by a stream bed or other body of running water. – BLM


ALMRS – Automated Land and Mineral Record System (DOI)


ALN – Asynchronous Learning Networks

Along – "Along a line" means on and in the direction of the line. "Along the road" means along the centerline or thread of the road unless qualified; for example, along the east side of the road. "Along a line" may be changing in direction by curves or angles. The term "along" may also mean "on.” – Cadastral Data glossary

ALP – Agricultural Land Preservation

ALP – Automated Lands Project (Forest Service)

Alpha, alpha-dipyridyl – A dye that when dissolved in 1N ammonium acetate is used to detect the presence of reduced iron (Fe II) in the soil. A positive reaction indicates a type of redoximorphic feature. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. (page 69 of 115)

ALPI – Advanced Leadership Preparation Initiative. Parent organization appears to be SEP – The Southern Empowerment Project. Mission statement: SEP is a multi-racial association of member-run, member-based organizations. SEP stands with the oppressed, challenging racism and social injustice. SEP recruits and trains community leaders to become organizers to assist organizations in the South and Appalachia to solve community problems. The Southern Empowerment Project proudly announces the fellowship group of the Advanced Leadership Preparation Initiative (ALPI), the Southern Organizing Fellowship, funded by the Southern Cooperative Organizing Cooperative in Birmingham, Alabama. Also Carolina Alliance for Fair Employment (CAFE). Also Community Farm Alliance (CFA). Also JONAH (Just Organized Neighborhoods Are Headquarters). Also Kentucky Fairness Alliance (KFA). Also Save Our Cumberland Mountains (SOCM). Also Solutions to Issues of Concern for Knoxvillians (Solutions). Also South Carolina Fair Share (SCFC). These organizations all seem to be well funded and are heavily involved in getting comprehensive planning and zoning placed everywhere.

Alpine – High mountain areas above the timberline (where trees cease to inhabit extremely cold environments). – NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary


Alpine tundra – A treeless region above the treeline of high mountains, characterized by cold winters and short, cool summers and having permafrost below a surface layer that may melt in summer.


ALR – Agricultural Land Reserve


ALRA – American Land Rights Association (formerly the National Inholders’ Association)


ALSA – American Land Sovereignty Act


ALSA – American Society of Landscape Architects

ALT – American Land Trust

Alternative – A combination of management prescriptions applied in amounts and locations to achieve a desired management emphasis as expressed in goals and objectives. One of a number of plans or projects proposed for decision-making. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM) Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 2. A mix of management prescriptions applied to specific land areas to achieve a set of goals and objectives. A set of objectives and strategies needed to achieve refuge foals and the desired future condition. One of several policies, plans, or projects proposed for decision-making. The alternative provides management direction for the proposed project [that] reflects identified public and management concerns for the Decision Area. Courses of action that may meet the objectives of a proposal at varying levels of accomplishment, including the most likely future conditions without the project or action. 3. A reasonable way to fix the identified problem or satisfy the stated need. – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Glossary of Planning Terms 4. 1.) A reasonable way to fix the identified problem or satisfy the stated need (40 CFR 1500.2); 2.) Alternatives are different means of accomplishing refuge purposes and goals and contributing to the Refuge System mission (Draft Service Manual 602 FW 1.5). 5. A combination of management prescriptions applied in specific amounts and locations to achieve a desired management emphasis as expressed in goals and objectives. One of the several policies, plans or projects, proposed for decision-making. An alternative need not substitute for another in all respects.

glossary.pdf and National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 6. One of several policies, plans, or projects proposed for making decisions. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary


Alternative Agricultural Practices – Practices adopted by farmers and ranchers that keep their operations productive and profitable, while protecting a diverse ecosystem for future generations.


Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation (AARCC) – Originally established by the FACT Act 1990 as the Applied Agricultural Research Commercialization Center, the purpose of the AARCC is to assist in the research, development, and commercialization of new nonfood products from agricultural and forestry commodities. AAARC makes repayable equity investments, such as buying stock or taking a percentage of future sales (royalties), or both. The FAIR Act of 1996 changed the Center from a government agency to a wholly owned venture capital corporation of USDA.


Alternative Agriculture – Alternative agriculture is more difficult to define due to the diversity of this group, yet there is commonality in the underlying philosophy that is held. There is a preference for reduced use of farm chemicals, small farms, reduced technology and energy, self-sufficiency, and conservation of resources. This group includes organic, sustainable, regenerative, low input agriculture; and natural farming (Buttel et al. 1986). page 24; see also page 32. 2. A systematic approach to farming intended to reduce agricultural pollution, enhance sustainability, and improve efficiency and profitability. Overall, alternative agriculture emphasizes management practices that take advantage of natural processes (such as nutrient cycles, nitrogen fixation, and pest-predator relationships), improve the match between cropping patterns and agronomic practices on the one hand and the productive potential and physical characteristics of the land on the other, and make selective use of commercial fertilizer and pesticides to ensure production efficiency and conservation of soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Examples of alternative agricultural practices include use of crop rotation, animal and green manures, soil and water conserving tillage systems, such as no-till planting methods, integrated pest management, and use of genetically improved crops and animals. Consonant with sustainable agriculture, alternative agriculture focuses on those farming practices that go beyond traditional or conventional agriculture, though it does not exclude conventional practices that are consistent with the overall system.

Alternative courses of action – All alternatives and thus is not limited to original project objectives and agency jurisdiction. – ESA

Alternative Fuels – Methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols, mixtures containing 85 percent or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; and electricity, including electricity from solar energy. – EIA (Energy Information Administration), Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government

Alternative (or Appropriate) Dispute Resolution (ADR) – Resolution is used narrowly to refer to a set of alternatives to litigation including mediation, arbitration, and summary jury trials. Used broadly it refers to all methods which resolve conflicts between parties by a means other than an adversarial or judicial process. 2. Alternative (means of) Dispute Resolution” – “Any procedure that is used to resolve issues in controversy, including but not limited to conciliation, facilitation, mediation, fact finding, mini-trials, arbitration, use of ombuds[men] or any combination thereof.” 5 U.S.C. 571(3) Any process used to prevent, manage, or resolve conflict using procedures other than traditional courtroom litigation or formal agency adjudication. – BLM


Alternate Dispute Resolution Office – The Office established by FEMA to promote use of Alternative Dispute Resolution as a means of resolving disputes. The address of the Alternate Dispute Resolution Office is Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Washington, D.C. 20472 – FEMA Sec. 295.50


Alternative fuels – Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil- derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and others. The alternatives are promoted for pollution reduction properties and/or to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil. Ethanol can be produced from grain, agricultural wastes, and excess crops.


Alternative means of dispute resolution – An inclusive term used to describe a variety of problem-solving processes that are used in lieu of litigation or administrative adjudication to resolve issues in controversy, including but not limited to, settlement negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, fact-finding, mini-trials, and arbitration, or any combination thereof. – DOI – Alternative dispute resolution glossary


Alternative preservatives – Wood preservatives other than CCA, ACZA, penta and creosote – the most common wood preservative systems. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary


Alternatives – Different sets of objectives and strategies or means of achieving refuge purposes and goals, helping fulfill the Refuge System mission, and resolving issues. – U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Manual, Refuge Planning Overview 2. A collection of actions assembled to provide reasonable options for solutions to problems. – (DOI/NPS) Majority of definitions adapted from “A Park and Recreation Professionals' Glossary,” California Department of Parks and Recreation Planning Division, January 1, 2003; other definitions from California State Law, CEQ (NEPA), and Santa Barbara County. Draft Gaviota Coast Feasibility Study & Environmental Assessment 3. Sets of management elements that represent a range of options for how, or whether to proceed, with a proposed project. An environmental assessment analyzes the potential environmental and social impacts of the range of alternatives presented. 4. Sets of management elements that represent a range of options for how, or whether to proceed with a proposed project. An environmental impact statement, such the one in this Merced River Plan, analyzes the potential environmental and social impacts of the range of alternatives presented. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary


Alternatives Analysis (AA) – Evaluation of alternatives should present the proposed action and all the alternatives in comparative form, to define the issues and provide a clear basis for choice among the options. In its regulations implementing NEPA, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) calls the alternatives analysis section the "heart of the EIS" and require that agencies shall: (a) Rigorously explore and objectively evaluate all reasonable alternatives and for alternatives which were eliminated from detailed study, briefly discuss the reasons for their having been eliminated. (b) Devote substantial treatment to each alternative considered in detail including the proposed action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not within the jurisdiction of the lead agency. (d) Include the alternative of no action. (e) Identify the agency's preferred alternative or alternatives, if one or more exists, in the draft statement and identify such alternative in the final statement unless another law prohibits the expression of such a preference. (f) Include appropriate mitigation measures not already included in the proposed action or alternatives. Other Requirements Involving Alternatives Analysis (Source: FHWA Guidance on Purpose and Need Statements) Beyond the CEQ regulations requirement of evaluating all, or a reasonable number representative of the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives, there are other more action-limiting requirements for alternatives under Section 4(f), the Executive Orders on Wetlands and Floodplains, and the Section 404(b)(1) guidelines. To address these requirements and conclusively demonstrate that some alternatives are not prudent or practicable, a well-justified purpose and need are vital. The use of land from a Section 4(f) protected property (significant publicly owned public park, recreation area or wildlife and waterfowl refuge, or any significant historic site) may not be approved unless a determination is made that there is no feasible and prudent alternative to such use. There are numerous factors [that] could render an alternative "not prudent" because of unique problems, including cost and environmental impacts. If an alternative does not meet the project's purpose or satisfy the needs then the alternative is not prudent provided the purpose and need section can substantiate that unique problems will be caused by not building the project. If a proposed action is to be located in a wetland or it entails a floodplain encroachment with significant impacts, a finding must be made that there is no practicable alternative to the wetland take or floodplain encroachment. Any alternative [that] does not meet the need for the project is not practicable. If the project's purpose and need are not adequately addressed, specifically delineated and properly justified, resource agencies, interest groups, the public or others will be able to generate one or possibly several alternatives which avoid or limit the impact and "appear" practicable. Sometimes long, drawn out negotiations or additional analyses are needed to clearly demonstrate that an alternative is not practicable, where a well-described justification of the project's purpose and need would have clearly established it. If an alternative does not satisfy the purpose and need for the project, as a rule, it should not be included in the analysis as an apparent reasonable alternative. There are times when an alternative that is not reasonable is included based on the request of another agency or due to public expectation. In such cases, it should be clearly explained why the alternative is not reasonable (or prudent or practicable), why it is being analyzed in detail and that because it is not reasonable that it will not be selected. Other useful information on Alternatives Analysis can be found at: FHWA Technical Advisory T6640.8a (Courtesy of the FHWA Eastern Resource Center's Environmental Guidebook) Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ's NEPA Regulations: The first seven questions deal with various aspects of alternatives development, analysis, and documentation. (Courtesy of the Council on Environmental Quality's NEPANet) Environmental Documents: Preliminary engineering and environmental studies of a wide range of alternatives. The objective is to reduce the number of alternatives for more detailed study, and then, after substantial and detailed studies, to select a preferred alternative.


Altiplano – High elevation plateau, basin, or valley between even higher mountain ranges. In the Andes Mountains of South America altiplanos lie at 10,000 feet and even higher).


Altitudinal Zonation – Altitudinal variations (mountains) in tropical areas have a significant impact on the local climate resulting in climatic zones that correspond with elevation. Each zone has its distinctive climate, vegetation, agriculture, and therefore lifestyles.


ALU – Adjacent Land Use


ALU – Aquatic Life Uses


ALUAS – Aquatic Life Use Attainment Status (EPA)

ALUT – Agricultural Land Use Trends

ALV – Agricultural Land Valuation


ALVA – Alliance for Learning and Vision for underrepresented Americans


Alvar – Naturally open areas of thin soil over limestone or marble bedrock, which host a distinctive vegetation community -- including a considerable number of rare plants. and$.startup 2. A plant community dominated by mosses and herbs, occurring on shallow, alkaline limestone soils. 3. Rare landscape on glaciated horizontal limestone or dolomite bedrock along the Great Lakes shoreline. Alvars are populated by drought-resistant calcium-loving plant species (combination of boreal and prairie species), which are maintained in an open state by drought, wave action and ice formation. These factors retard soil accumulation and the growth of woody species. – Great Lakes glossary


Alvusion – A sudden or perceptible change in a river's margin, such as a change in course or loss of banks due to flooding. - USGS


ALW – Alpine Lakes Wilderness


ALWT – At Least We Tried


AM – Accuracy in Media


AM – Alternative Medicine


AM – Ambient Monitoring


AM – Anger Management


AM – Appropriate Management


AM – Areal Management


AM – Asset Management

AM – Atmospheric Moisture

AMA – Active Management Area

AMA – Adaptive Management Area (ESA habitat)

AMA – Alaska Miners Association


AMA – American Medical Association


AMA – American Motorcycle Association


AMA – Arizona Mining Association


AMA – Aquatic Managed Areas


Amber box policies – An expression that developed during the GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) trade negotiations using a traffic light analogy to rank policies. The traffic light analogy was that an amber policy be subject to careful review and reduction over time. Amber box policies include policies such as market price support, direct payments, and input subsidies. Developed countries agreed to reduce amber box support as measured by their Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) by 20 percent from a ceiling calculated as their average annual level of overall support provided in the base years, 1986-88. – USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms


Ambient – Surrounding on all sides; encompassing. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary 2. Environmental or surrounding conditions. 3. Surrounding; usually in reference to existing environmental conditions. For example, ambient water quality would refer to the current water quality conditions in the lake. – Great Lakes glossary 4. Surrounding natural conditions or environment at a given place and time.


Ambient (air) – The surrounding atmospheric conditions to which the general public has access. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282)


Ambient Air Pollutants – Pollutants for which ambient air quality standards have been developed. (40 CFR 50.4- 50.12.) These pollutants include nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone precursors, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at



Ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) — Standards required by the Federal Clean Air Act and enforced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that protect public health, provide for the most sensitive individuals, and allow a margin of safety by setting an acceptable level for measured pollutant concentrations. AAQSs cannot take into account the cost of achieving the standards. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary


Ambient Toxicity – A measurement made using a standard toxicity test to determine how toxic a natural water body is. In some cases a water body may already possess some degree of toxicity before a known pollutant is discharged into it. – Great Lakes glossary


AMC – American Mining Congress


AMC – Appalachian Mountain Club


AMCAI – Air Movement & Control Association International, Inc.


AMD – Acid mine drainage


AME – Alliance of Manufacturers and Exporters


AME – Aquatic Microbial Ecology


AME – Association for Manufacturing Excellence


AMEDRR – Assessment, Monitoring, Early Detection and Rapid Response (The Great Lakes Regional Collaboration)

Ameliorate – To make a situation better or more tolerable. – NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Amend or Amendment – Any repeal, modification, or addition to a regulation; any new regulation; any change in the number, shape, boundary, or area of a district, or any repeal or abolition of any map, part thereof, or addition thereto.

Amendment – The term "amendment" refers to the formal alteration of treaty provisions affecting all the parties to the particular agreement. Such alterations must be effected with the same formalities that attended the original formation of the treaty. Many multilateral treaties lay down specific requirements to be satisfied for amendments to be adopted. In the absence of such provisions, amendments require the consent of all the parties. [Art.40, Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)


Amenity Values – Resource use for which market values (or proxy values) are not or cannot be established. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. Those natural or physical qualities and characteristics of an area that contribute to people's appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and cultural and recreational attributes. – The Resource Management Act of 1991 (RMA)


The American Antiquities Act of 1906 (also known as the Antiquities Act of 1906) – This Act, originally designed to preserve cultural artifacts, has had an impact on mineral development by removing land from access by mining interests (U.S. National Park Service, 2000a§). A recent example was the Executive Order (citing the authority of the Antiquities Act) establishing the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah, which appears to preclude the development of very low sulfur coal located there (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2001§).


American Communications Association v. Douds, 339 U.S.382, 442 – "It is not the function of our Government to keep the citizen from falling into error; it is the function of the citizen to keep the Government from falling into error." – U.S. Supreme Court


American Heritage Rivers Initiative – The American Heritage Rivers Initiative is an innovative response to help river communities that seek federal assistance and other resources to meet some tough challenges. Without any new regulations on private property owners, state, local and tribal governments, the American Heritage Rivers initiative is about making more efficient and effective use of existing federal resources, cutting red-tape, and lending a helping hand, and was announced in 1997. It was said to require neither new legislation nor any new appropriation. Its purpose was simply to recognize selected rivers as "American Heritage Rivers" that would be governed by a stakeholders’ council that would be assigned a federal employee called a "River Navigator." One of the objectives of the program is to designate buffer zones on either side of the river, which would be controlled by the stakeholders’ council rather than by the landowner. See Executive Order 13061.


American Indian – A member of any tribe, band, nation or other organized group or community of Indians, which is recognized by the United States. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)


American Indian off-reservation trust land – The United States holds title for specific area in trust for the benefit of an American Indian tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual American Indian (individual trust land). Although trust land may be located on or off a reservation, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data only for off-reservation trust land. Census data always associate off-reservation trust land with a specific federally recognized reservation and/or tribal government. See American Indian reservation, American Indian trust land. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978) – Directs agencies to consult with native traditional religious leaders to determine appropriate policy changes necessary to protect and preserve Native American religious cultural rights and practices.


American Indian reservation – A federal American Indian reservation is an area that has been set aside by the United States for the use of one or more federally recognized American Indian tribes. Together with off-reservation trust land, a reservation covers territory over which one or more tribes have primary governmental authority. The boundary of a federal reservation is defined by tribal treaty, agreement, executive or secretarial order, federal statute, or judicial determination. A state American Indian reservation is an area that a state government has allocated to a tribe recognized by that state, but not by the federal government. American Indian reservations are known as colonies, communities, Indian communities, Indian villages, pueblos, rancherias, ranches, reservations, reserves, and villages. See American Indian off-reservation trust land, American Indian tribal subdivision, American Indian trust land, joint use area. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


American Indian tribal subdivision – A legal subdivision of a federally recognized American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, or Oklahoma tribal statistical area. These entities are internal units of self-government or administration that serve social, cultural, and/or economic purposes for American Indians living on a reservation, off-reservation trust land, or Oklahoma tribal statistical area. Tribal subdivisions are known as areas, chapters, communities, districts, and segments. The U.S. Census Bureau previously provided unpublished data for these entities for the 1980 census, which referred to them as American Indian sub-reservation areas. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


American Indian trust land – An area for which the United States holds title in trust for the benefit of an American Indian tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual American Indian (individual trust land). Trust land may be located on or off a reservation; however, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data only for off-reservation trust land. See American Indian off-reservation trust land, Hawaiian homeland. – United States Census 2000, Geographic Changes for Census 2000 + Glossary


American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – A private not-for-profit federation of independent organizations which the private sector voluntary standards system in the United States. The Institute establishes procedures for the development and coordination of standards in a wide array of industries, ranging from information technology to building construction. ANSI serves as the official U.S. representative to the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission. ANSI was established in 1918; headquarters are located in New York City.


American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) – A seven-bit code standard adopted to facilitate data interchange between computers and operating systems. These codes represent alphanumerics and special characters (for example, $, /, ?, !). - USDA glossary


American Wild and Scenic Rivers Act – American rivers designated as "scenic," under the American Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, are controlled, ultimately by the federal government, including private property that fronts the river. Landowners are denied the use of their own property by the federal government without compensation or recourse.


The American Wildlife Enhancement Act of 2001 (S. 990), introduced by Senator Bob Smith (R-NH) on June 6, 2001, provides an authorization for $350 million to the Wildlife Conservation and Restoration Program as well as three other wildlife related conservation titles. It passed out of the EPW Committee by voice vote on November 8 and passed the Senate by Unanimous Consent on December 20, 2001. Cosponsors: Senators Baucus (D-MT), Bond (R-MO), Carnahan (D-MO), Chafee (R-RI), Cleland (D-GA), Corzine (D-NJ), Crapo (R-ID), Dayton (D-MN), DeWine (R-OH), Graham (D-FL), Jeffords (I-VT, chairman of the Environment and Public Works Committee), Johnson (D-SD), Landrieu (D-LA), Leahy (D-VT), Lieberman (D-CT), Lincoln (D-AR), Miller (D-GA), Reid (D-NV), Voinovich (R-OH), and Warner (R-VA). Title I authorizes an appropriation of $350 million for vitally needed state fish and wildlife conservation and related recreation and education programs. The funds will be funneled through the Wildlife Conservation and Restoration Account, available to each state and territory through a sub-account of the Pittman-Robertson Act. Title II amends the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to establish a competitive matching grant fund of $150 million that allows private landowners to apply for financial assistance for conservation of endangered or threatened species on their property. Title III amends the Partnerships for Wildlife Act to establish a $50 million grants program that would allow states to protect areas of regional or national significance through easements or acquisition. Title IV amends the Partnerships for Wildlife Act to establish a $50 million conservation assistance program for the conservation and restoration of historic shrublands and grasslands for the benefit of endangered, and threatened species, and species at risk.


American Wood-Preservers’ Association (AWPA) – An international, nonprofit technical organization founded to provide a common forum for the exchange of information for all segments of the wood preservation industry. As the principal standards writing organization for the wood treating industry in the United States, AWPA has significant influence internationally as well. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI) – The association representing the treated wood industry. Members include wood treaters, preservative manufacturers, and supporting members supplying goods and services. AWPI provides a forum for its members to address issues affecting the industry’s ability to manufacture and market safe and useful treated wood products. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) – The Americans with Disabilities Act is a Federal law providing civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities, requiring accessible public transportation services and/or facilities along highways, trails, sidewalks and other public settings.

America's Byways [trademark] – Brand name used to identify a collection of distinct and diverse roads, designated by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation. The collection is made up of 96 routes in thirty-nine states designated across the country based on their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational or scenic qualities.

AMF – Ambrose Monell Foundation


AMFP – Association of Mining Financial Professionals


AMIBA – American Independent Business Alliance

AMIF – American Meat Institute Foundation

AMIGOS – Arizona Mining Industry Gets Our Support

Amigos – See Amigos of Costa Rica

Amigos of Costa Rica – “Amigos of Costa Rica” is a non-profit organization, created in the United States of America for the exclusive purpose of transferring funds from American contributors to support the efforts of the CR-USA Foundation and its initiatives. “Amigos of Costa Rica" only receives contributions to support programs and projects approved by the CR-USA Foundation. In this regard, in the year 2000, it was granted category 501(c)(3) status by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) of the United States, permitting American individuals and organizations to deduct these donations from their taxes. More:

AML – Abandoned Mine Lands

AML – Abandoned Mined Land(s)

AML – Appropriate Management Level

AMLP – The Abandoned Mine Lands Program


AMLPP – Abandoned Mineral Lands Partnership Project


AMM – Administering, Monitoring and Mitigating


AMMA – Australian Mines & Metals Association


AMMEM – American Memory. American Memory is a gateway to rich primary source materials relating to the history and culture of the United States. The site offers more than 7 million digital items from more than 100 historical collections.


Ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) – An inorganic arsenical; a waterborne wood preservative with uses similar to those of CCA. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary


Ammonium – One form of nitrogen that is usable by plants.


AMOB – Alternative Marketing Options for Beef


Amortisation – Repayments of principal on a loan. Does not include interest payments. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Amortization Period – Village of Valatie v. Lynette Smith (N.Y. State Court of Appeals, Justice Simons, 1994): " 'Amortization period' simply designates a period of time granted to owners of nonconforming uses during which they may phase out their operations as they see fit and make other arrangements. The test remains whether the period unreasonably inflicts a substantial loss on the owner or fails to comport to the reasonableness required by due process. Amortization periods have never been mandatory as a matter of constitutional law." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

AMP – Adaptive Management Plan

AMP – Adaptive management process (USGS)

AMP – Adaptive Management Program

AMP – Allotment Management Plan (DOI/BLM)

AMP – Annual Maintenance Payments


AMP – Appropriate Management Prescription


AMPA – Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations


Amperometric titration – A means of measuring concentrations of certain substances in water (such as strong oxidizers) based on the electric current that flows during a chemical reaction. See titrate.

Amphibian – Vertebrate animals that have life stages both in water and on land (e.g. salamanders, frogs, and toads). Animals capable of living either in water or on land.

Amphidromous – Referring to the migratory behavior of fishes moving from fresh water to the sea and vice versa, not for breeding purposes but occurring regularly at some stage of the life cycle (such as feeding or overwintering).

Amphipod – Any of a large order of small, usually aquatic crustaceans with a laterally compressed body, for example, beach fleas.

AMRAT – Alabama-Mississippi Rapid Assessment Team

AMS – Agricultural Marketing Service (USDA)

AMS – Alternative Management Strategies

AMS – The Analysis of the Management Situation

AMSA – Area which Merits Special Attention

AMSA – Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies


AMSL – Above Mean Sea Level


AMT – Alternative Minimum Tax (no deductions)

AMTA – Agricultural Market Transition Act

AMTIC – Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center, EPA –

AMWA – Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies


AMZ – Areal Management Zone(s)


ANA – Access Native America – The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Indian Education Programs


Anabranch – A diverging branch of a river, which reenters the mainstream. – USGS


Anadromous – Referring to the life cycle of fishes, such as salmon, in which adults travel upriver from the sea to breed, usually returning to the area where they were born.


Anadromous Fish – Fish, such as salmon or steelhead trout, that hatch in fresh water, migrate to and mature in the ocean, and return to fresh water as adults to spawn. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary


Anaerobic – A situation in which molecular oxygen is absent from the environment. 2. Growing in the absence of molecular oxygen (such as anaerobic bacteria). 3. Occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen (as a biochemical process).


Anadromous Fish – Fish that are born and rear in freshwater, move to the ocean to grow and mature, and return to freshwater to reproduce. Salmon, steelhead, and shad are examples. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 2. Species of fish that mature in the sea and migrate into streams to spawn. – Umatilla National Forest (Washington/Oregon) 3. Fish that are hatched and reared in freshwater, move to the ocean to grow and mature, and return to freshwater to reproduce. Salmon, steelhead, shad are examples. – BLM


Anaerobic – A condition in which "free" (atmospheric) or dissolved oxygen is NOT present in water. 2. Referring to an environment in which oxygen is absent, or to a process which occurs only in the absence of oxygen, or to an organism which lives, is active, or occurs in the absence of oxygen, such as some yeasts or bacteria. 3. A term that describes processes that occur in the absence of molecular oxygen. See "anoxia." – Great Lakes glossary


Analysis – The examination of existing and/or recommended management needs and their relationships to discover and display the outputs, benefits, effects, and consequences of initiating a proposed action. . – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005. (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282)


Analysis Area – One or more capability areas combined for the purpose of analysis in formulating alternatives and establishing various impacts and effects. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. The area that bounds the analysis for a particular resource and/or issue. It may be confused with the Project Area, which is the area within which the proposed activities are limited to.


Analysis of the Management Situation (AMS) – A determination of the ability of a planning area to supply goods and services in response to society’s demands for those goods and services. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 2. A document that summarizes important information about existing resource conditions, uses and demands, as well as existing management activities. It provides the baseline for subsequent steps in the planning process, such as the design of alternatives and affected environment. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary


Analytical Watershed – For planning purposes, a drainage basin subdivision used for analyzing cumulative impacts on resources. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 2. For planning purposes, a major drainage basin subdivision of the planning area used for analyzing watershed condition. (BLM)


ANAM – Panama’s National Environment Authority


ANC – Acid Neutralizing Capacity

Anchor ice – Ice in the bed of a stream or upon a submerged body or structure. (See Schaefer, V. J., 1950, p. 888.) – USGS

Anchor Tenant (related to public-private partnerships) – An anchor tenant is the major tenant that attracts or generates traffic within a commercial operation. Anchor tenants are strategically placed to maximize business for all tenants. The type of anchor tenant depends on the type of commercial activity. – General Accounting Office (GAO) Public-Private Partnerships Glossary

Ancillary – Aiding or subordinate.


Ancillary – A dependent structure, often but not always small in scale; associated hierarchically with a primary structure; often found in clusters with other dependent structures – NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary


ANCSA – Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (1972)


Andean Group – Formed as the Andean Pact in 1969 but restarted in 1995 as a far more effective customers union with common tariffs for imports, its members are Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia.


Andes – Major mountain range in South America, which passes through seven countries. – UNEP Children's Glossary

ANDI – African Nutrition Database Initiative

ANEP – The Association of National Estuary Programs – ANEP's Habitat Loss Technology Transfer website database: Innovative Characterization and Management Approaches Across the NEP Experience. Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds Coastal Habitat Protection Plans. Category: Submerged, Intertidal, Wetland, and Upland. Cost: Information not provided. Description: As part of the Fisheries Reform Act of 1997, the N.C. General Assembly required the Coastal Resources Commission, Marine Fisheries Commission and Environmental Management Commission to approve plans to help protect and restore resources critical to North Carolina's commercial and recreational fisheries. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is developing the plans, which must protect habitats including wetlands, spawning areas, threatened and endangered species habitat, primary and secondary nursery areas, shellfish beds, submerged aquatic vegetation and Outstanding Resource Waters. The Act directs the three commissions to adopt rules to implement Coastal Habitat Protection Plans (CHPP). They also must ensure to the maximum extent practicable that, in carrying out their powers and duties, they act in a manner consistent with the adopted plans. The Divisions of Marine Fisheries, Coastal Management and Water Quality, along with the Wetlands Restoration Program, Wildlife Resources Commission and Shellfish Sanitation Program, have established a CHPP Development Team. Outcome: The team will develop plans for 11 different areas, or management units: Coastal Ocean, Chowan River, Southern Estuaries, Tar-Pamlico River, Roanoke River, New/White Oak rivers, Albemarle Sound, Core/Bogue Sounds, Neuse River, Pamlico Sound and Cape Fear River. Each plan will include habitat mapping, status and trends, threats, and a cumulative impact analysis. The plans also will recommend research needs and management actions that state regulatory agencies need to take to protect and restore habitat. All plans will be completed by July 2003, and then reviewed and updated every five years. The CHPP team currently is preparing draft plans for the Chowan River basin and the Coastal Ocean (the state's coastal waters extending from the beach out three miles). Public meetings on the two plans were held in the spring, and the development team should present draft plans to the three commissions in January. Prior to the three commissions' review of CHPPs, draft plans will be reviewed by the Intercommission Review Committee (IRC). Current members of the IRC are Barbara Garrity-Blake and Willy Phillips from the Marine Fisheries Commission, Pricey Taylor Harrison and David Beresoff from the Coastal Resources Commission, and Will Fowler and Pete Peterson from the Environmental Management Commission. The IRC may, by consensus, revise a plan before submitting it to the Marine Fisheries Commission, Coastal Resources Commission and Environmental Management Commission. Contact: Mike Street, NC Division of Marine Fisheries, P.O. Box 769, Morehead City, NC, 28557, 252-726-7021, 800-682-2632 (in N.C. only), [email protected] Citation:,

/habitat/chpp1.htm and

ANF – Allegheny National Forest (Pennsylvania)


ANFA – Allegheny National Forest Area (Pennsylvania)


Angler Day – The time spent fishing by one person for any part of a day.


ANICA – Atmospheric Nutrient Input to Coastal Areas


Animal – Any member of the animal kingdom including multi-cellular marine organisms, worms, insects, spiders, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary


Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) – An USDA agency established to conduct inspections and regulatory and control programs to protect animal and plant health. It utilizes border inspections to prevent international transmission of pests and disease, administers quarantine and eradication programs, and certifies that U.S. exports meet importing countries' animal and plant health standards.


Animal Damage – Physical damage to forest tree seed, seedlings, and young trees through seed foraging, browsing, cutting, rubbing, or trampling, by mammals and birds. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 2. Injuries inflicted upon forest tree seed, seedlings, and young trees through seed foraging, browsing, cutting, rubbing, or trampling; usually by mammals and birds. (BLM-DOI)


Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program – An Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service program to protect agriculture, natural resources, property or endangered species from unwanted and potentially harmful effects of wildlife species, including predators. ADC also works to prevent wildlife/airplane collision hazards at civilian and military airports.


Animal Identification and Traceback – Currently, the private marketing system, assisted by computerization of records, generally can trace the products back to their original suppliers, although not necessarily all the way to the farm. It has been suggested that a type of traceback program might be formalized to better monitor and contain outbreaks of foodborne illness. USDA has called 'animal identification' an important element of any traceback system. Livestock producers already frequently identify their animals using back-tags, ear tags, tattoos, and other devices, so that incorporating animal identification into a traceback program might not be difficult. While few dispute the usefulness of animal identification and traceback systems in general, whether they should be made regulatory requirements, or remain voluntary, is a contentious issue.


Animal-Month – A month’s tenure upon the rangeland by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal unit month (AUM). – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

Animal Protein – Protein used in livestock feed that is derived from meatpacking or rendering plants, surplus milk or milk products, and marine sources.

Animal Unit – A unit of measure for rangeland livestock equivalent to one mature cow or five sheep or fie goats, all over 6 months of age. An animal unit is based on average daily forage consumption of 26 pounds of dry matter per day. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary 2. A unit of measurement for any animal feeding operation calculated by adding the following numbers: the number of slaughter and feeder cattle multiplied by 1.0, plus the number of mature dairy cattle multiplied by 1.4, plus the number of swine weighing over 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds) multiplied by 0.4, plus the number of sheep multiplied by 0.1, plus the number of horses multiplied by 2.0 (40 CFR Part 122, Appendix B). - EPA’s Management Measures for Agricultural Sources Glossary 3. Considered to be a mature 1,000-pound cow or the equivalent based upon average daily forage consumption of 26 pounds dry matter per day. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 4. A unit of measure for rangeland livestock equivalent to the land required to support one mature cow, or five sheep or five goats, all over 6 months of age. An animal unit is based on average daily forage consumption of 26 pounds of dry matter per day. A standard measure, based on feed requirements, used to combine various classes of livestock according to size, weight, age, and use. For federal lands, an animal unit represents one mature cow, bull, steer, heifer, horse, mule, or five sheep, or five goats, all over six months of age. An animal unit month (AUM) is the amount of forage needed to sustain one animal unit, or its equivalent, for one month. Grazing fees for federal lands are charged by animal unit months or head-months. A unit of measure developed to compare differences in the amount of manure produced by species. One animal unit is standardized as the amount of manure produced on a regular basis by a slaughter steer or heifer.


Animal Unit Month (AUM) – The amount of forage needed to sustain one cow, five sheep, or five goats for a month. A full AUMs fee is charged for each month of grazing by adult animals if the grazing animal (1) is weaned, (2) is 6 months old or older when entering public land, or (3) will become 12 months old during the period of use. For fee purposes, an AUM is the amount of forage used by five weaned or adult sheep or goats or one cow, bull, steer, heifer, horse, or mule. The term AUM is commonly used in three ways: (1) stocking rate as in X acres per AUM, (b) forage allocation as in X AUMs in allotment A, and (3) utilization as in X AUMs consumed from Unit B. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary 2. The amount of forage to sustain one mature cow or the equivalent, based on an average daily forage consumption of 26 pounds of dry matter per day. The equivalent animal units for other ungulate species, based on a weight conversion (3 percent body weight per day), are: 10.5 for antelope; 7.6, deer; 2.1, elk; 1.2, moose; 0.9, wild horses; and 5.2, sheep. – Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Pit 14 Coal Lease-by-Application, DOI/BLM (pages 15-18 of 18) 3. The quantity of forage required by the equivalent of a 1000-pound mature cow for one month.

/ea/glossary.pdf 4. A measure of average monthly stocking rate that is the tenure of one animal unit for a period of 1 month. With respect to the literature reviewed for the grazing management measure, an animal unit is a mature, 1,000-pound cow or the equivalent based on average daily forage consumption of 26 pounds of dry matter per day (Platts, 1990). Alternatively, an AUM is the amount of forage that is required to maintain a mature, 1,000-pound cow or the equivalent for a one-month period. See animal unit for the NPDES definition. - EPA’s Management Measures for Agricultural Sources Glossary 5. The amount of feed or forage required by an animal-unit for one month. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) 6. The amount of forage necessary for the sustenance of one cow or its equivalent for 1 month. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Chapter 9 Glossary 7. The unit of measure of the feed required for an animal on the range for one month, generally 800 pounds of air-dried forage. – Umatilla National Forest (Washington/Oregon) 8. The quantity of forage required by one mature cow and her calf (or the equivalent, in sheep or horses, for instance) for one month. The amount of forage needed to sustain one cow, five sheep, or five goats for a month. In the U.S., a full AUM's fee is charged for each month of grazing by adult animals if the grazing animal (1) is weaned, (2) is 6 months old or older when entering public land, or (3) will become 12 months old during the period of use. 3. The amount of forage required to sustain the equivalent of 1 cow for 1 month; 1 wild horse for 1 month; or 5 sheep for 1 month; 8.9 deer for 1 month (winter season), 5.8 deer for 1 month (summer season); 9.6 antelope for 1 month; 5.5 bighorn sheep for 1 month; 2.2 burros for 1 month; 1.2 elk for 1 month (winter season) or 2.1 elk for 1 month (yearlong) (usually 800 lbs. of useable air-dried forage). – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary


Animal Welfare Act – Public Law 89-544 (August 24, 1966) was enacted to curb the theft and mistreatment of dogs and cats for experimental and research purposes. The principal federal animal protection law, it has been amended several times to address specific concerns such as the shipping of pets on public transportation, dog fighting, and using other warm-blooded animals in biomedical experiments. Although administered by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the law has always excluded farm animals from its coverage. Generally, USDA is authorized to 'promulgate standards to govern the humane handling, care, treatment, and practices in experimental procedures to ensure that animal pain and distress are minimized...' The law excludes from the definition of animal '...horses not used for research purposes and other farm animals, such as, but not limited to livestock or poultry, used or intended for use as food or fiber, or livestock or poultry used or intended for use for improving animal nutrition, breeding, management, or production efficiency, or for improving the quality of food or fiber.' Animal welfare has become more controversial in recent years, as certain animal protection groups have argued for more extensive legal protections for animals. Some groups believe that any human uses of animals are inhumane, unethical and/or immoral, and should be prohibited. Among those who accept the premise that humans should and will use animals for food and other necessities, the debate over the meaning of animal welfare revolves around the most appropriate methods for taking care of animals, including farm animals. For example, legislation has been proposed (but not enacted) in recent years that would intervene in animal production operations by regulating confinement facilities; determining the diets of veal calves; specifying how poultry must be slaughtered; and prohibiting dealers from handling non-ambulatory (downer) livestock unless they are humanely killed.


ANILCA – Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980


Anion Exchange – Replacement by an anion in solution for an absorbed anion of positively charged sites of a solid.


Anionic polymer – A polymer having negatively charged groups of ions; often used as a filter aid and for dewatering sludges.


ANL – Argonne National Laboratory (EPA partner in glossary preparation)


Annelids – Any of a phylum (Annelida) of usually elongated, segmented coelomate invertebrates, such as earthworms, various marine worms, and leeches.


Annex – "Annex" means any of the Annexes to this Agreement, each of which is attached to and forms and integral part of this Agreement.


Annosus root disease – Annosus root disease is a widespread native fungus. In pines, the fungus spreads through the root system, attacking and killing the inner bark and sapwood. Within two to six years after initial infection, the fungus reaches the root crown and girdles the tree. The tree dies, but the fungus remains active as a saprophytic wood-decaying organism within roots and the butt of the dead tree. Pines weakened by annosus root disease are often killed by bark beetles. Incense-cedars, however, are not affected by beetles and will stand green for many years, until the disease finally weakens the structure enough to cause failure. Cedars are thought to act as a reservoir for annosus root disease because they take so long to die. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary


Annual corridorwide visitation limit – Represents the annual visitation limit for the entire Merced River corridor. The annual limits as proposed in Alternatives 3 and 4 of the Revised Merced River Plan/SEIS have been established to ensure that the daily segment and management zone limits are not reached on the majority of days in a year. Based on information gathered through the VERP program, the proposed annual corridorwide visitation limits can be increased or decreased based on the condition of the Outstandingly Remarkable Values. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary


Annual demand – Total yearly amount of water required for irrigation, domestic, or industrial use, usually expressed in a volume (acre-feet). – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary


Annual Goal – Annual Goal is a one-year increment of the long-term goal. It contains a targeted level of performance to be achieved for a particular year. It is to be expressed in an objective, quantifiable, and measurable form. OMB approval of an alternative form of evaluating the success of a program is required if the annual goal cannot be expressed in an objective or quantifiable manner. – DOI/USFWS Performance Measures and Verification Exhibit B See also Long-Term Goals.


Annual flood – The highest peak discharge in a water year. – USGS


Annual flood series – A list of annual floods. - USGS


Annual Growth – The amount of new plant biomass produced per year, usually measured as above-ground production. – NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary


Annual Performance Plan (APP) – A plan that documents a park’s annual performance goals and the budget and staffing needed to achieve those goals. The Government Performance and Results Act requires the National Park Service to submit an annual performance plan for the agency as a whole, and individual park plans contribute information to the agency plan. (DOI/NPS)


Annual Performance Report – A report that describes how well a park did in meeting its annual performance goals. The Government Performance and Results Act requires the National Park Service to submit an annual report for the agency as a whole, and individual park reports contribute information to the agency report. (DOI/NPS)


Annual Plant – A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary and National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)


Annual Plant Series – A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less. – BLM


Annual Report Card – A document produced annually by the RECOVER Leadership Group as a means of informing the public on the progress being made toward meeting the goals and targets of the Comprehensive Plan. – Everglades Plan glossary


Annual Vegetation – Plants that complete their life cycles and die in 1 year or less. – BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.


Annuals – Plants that display germination and rapid growth in wet seasons, quickly flower and produce seeds, and then wither. The success of this life form lies in the seeds, which often lie dormant until the next wet season. – NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary


Anoxia – A condition where dissolved oxygen in the water column is totally depleted. The absence of oxygen or a deficiency of oxygen that is harmful to living organisms. Anoxic conditions can develop in a lake bottom when oxygen is depleted by decomposition processes. This often happens in eutrophic lakes and can result in fish kills. See "anaerobic." – Great Lakes glossary


Anoxic – Greatly deficient in oxygen; oxygenless.


ANP – Acadia National Park (Maine)


ANP – Americans for National Parks

ANPR – Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Federal Register)

ANPR – The Association of National Park Rangers

ANPRM – Advance Notive of Proposed Rulemaking

ANR – Abuse of Natural Resources

ANR – Approval Not Required

ANS – American Name Society

ANS – American Nuclear Society

ANS – Aquatic Nuisance Species

ANSEA - Analytical Strategic Environmental Assessment (UN) See: SEA.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

ANSI – Area of Natural and Scientific Interest, defined by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to represent the earth or life science features of a site district. and$.startup


ANST – Appalachian National Scenic Trail


ANSTF – Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force


Antecedent Flood – A flood or series of floods assumed to occur prior to the occurrence of an inflow design flood.


Antecedent precipitation index – An index of moisture stored within a drainage basin before a storm. (Linsley and others, 1949, p. 414.) – USGS


Ante-mortem – Before slaughter. As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the term refers to the examination that USDA meat inspectors are required to conduct of all live animals just before they are killed.


Anthropocentric – Of, relating to, or resulting from the influence of humans on nature. 2. Looking at life from a human perspective.


Anthropogenic – Human-created.


Anthropogenic – Relating to the scientific study of the origin of human beings and the results of their influence on nature. - USDA glossary


Anthropogenic – Refers to the effects of human activities. – "DEIS for EFH for the Gulf of Mexico FMPs" – Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Generic Essential Fish Habitat Amendment to the following fishery management plans for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM): Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Red Drum Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Coral and Coral Reef Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; and the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic. This is a publication of the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council pursuant to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Award No. NA17FC102.

%20Gulf%20EFH%20EIS%20703.pdf (pages 9-13 of 654) 2. Of man-made origin, not occurring naturally; human-caused or derived. Effects or processes that are derived from human activities, as opposed to natural effects or processes that occur in the environment without human influence. – Great Lakes glossary


ANTI – Antietam National Battlefield – See National Capital Region Network


Anti-Backsliding – A federal policy to ensure that water bodies that have been improved are kept at that higher quality. Point source dischargers are required by governments to meet effluent limits, but if discharges become cleaner, or fall below the limit, they are not allowed to go up again. Relaxation of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit limits are not allowed except in certain, limited circumstances. – Great Lakes glossary


Anti-Degradation – A federal policy to protect water quality. The policy states that the existing high quality of a particular water resource cannot get worse unless justified by economic and social development considerations. Contained in the U.S. Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System. Also see "Clean Water Act." – Great Lakes glossary


Anticline – A fold in rocks that curves upward in a convex way.


Anticyclonic – Referring to an area or system of high atmospheric pressure having a characteristic pattern of air circulation, which usually induces settled weather conditions. Light winds flow clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.


Antidumping duty – A duty or levy imposed under authority of Title VII of the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930. Title VII states that if the U.S. Department of Commerce determines that an imported product is being sold at less than its fair value, and if the U.S. International Trade Commission determines that a U.S. producer is thereby being injured, the Commerce Department shall apply antidumping duties equivalent to the dumping margin.


Antietam National Battlefield (ANTI) – One of the11 parks that make up the National Capital Region Network (NCRN) — The NCRN includes 11 parks with significant natural resources including Antietam National Battlefield (ANTI), Catoctin Mountain Park (CATO), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH), George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP), Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (HAFE), Manassas National Battlefield (MANA), Monocacy National Battlefield (MONO), National Capital Parks East (NACE), Prince William Forest Park (PRWI), Rock Creek Park (ROCR), and Wolf Trap Park for the Performing Arts (WOTR). The NCRN also supports monitoring activities of National Mall and Memorial Parks. – (DOI/NPS) Long-Term Monitoring Plan – National Capital Region Network, September 30, 2005. Submitted by: Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Capital Region Network, Center for Urban Ecology, 4598 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. (Pages G-1 through G-8 - Glossary – or pages 150 through 156 of 156 pages) (Very Important Note: The URL for this pdf document is not a or such a government URL: it is a Nature Conservancy URL.)


The Antiquities Act (1906) – Authorizes the scientific investigation of antiquities on Federal land and provides penalties for unauthorized removal of objects taken or collected without a permit.


Antiquities Act of 1906 (PL 59-209; 16 USC 431 et seq.; 34 Stat. 225.) – The first general act providing protection for archeological resources. It protects all historic and prehistoric sites on Federal lands and prohibits excavation or destruction of such antiquities without the permission (Antiquities Permit) of the Secretary of the department, which has the jurisdiction over those lands. It also authorizes the President to declare areas of public lands as National Monuments and to reserve or accept private lands for that purpose. Applicable regulation is 43 CFR 3, Antiquities Act of 1906.

ANWR – Artic National Wildlife Refuge

ANZECC – The Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council

ANZFA Amendment Act – The Australia New Zealand Food Authority Amendment Act of 2001


ANZUS – Security Treaty Between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, signed September 1, 1951. The Parties to this Treaty, Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all Governments, and desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace in the Pacific Area, Noting that the United States already has arrangements pursuant to which its armed forces are stationed in the Philippines,(2) and has armed forces and administrative responsibilities in the Ryukyus, and upon the coming into force of the Japanese Peace Treaty may also station armed forces in and about Japan to assist in the preservation of peace and security in the Japan Area,(3) Recognizing that Australia and New Zealand as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations have military obligations outside as well as within the Pacific Area, Desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of unity, so that no potential aggressor could be under the illusion that any of them stand alone in the Pacific Area, and Desiring further to coordinate their efforts for collective defense for the preservation of peace and security pending the development of a more comprehensive system of regional security in the Pacific Area, Therefore declare and agree as follows: ARTICLE I: The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. ... ARTICLE VI: This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.