WA - Water Authority


WA – Waterkeeper Alliance


WA - Watershed Academy (EPA)


WA - Watershed Analysis


WA - Watershed Approach (EPA)


WA - Wave Action


WA - Wetland Acquisition


WA - Wilderness Act (1964)


WA - Wilderness Alliance


WA - Wilderness Association


WA - Wildland Adventures


WA - Wildlife Agent


WA - Wings of the Americas


WA - World Army


WAAS - The Wide Area Augmentation System (surveying and mapping)


Wabash River Heritage Corridor Fund - Matching assistance program that provides up to 75 percent of the cost for the acquisition and/or development of outdoor recreation sites along the Wabash River or its viewshed.


WA-CERT - Washington Community Economic Revitalization Team (Washington State)


WAC - Watershed Agricultural Council


WAC - World Affairs Council


WACD - Wyoming Association of Conservation Districts


WACP - World Affairs Council of Philadelphia


WAEI - Weighted Average Erosion Index (USDA)


WAERSA - World Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Abstracts


WAFC - Western Ancient Forest Campaign


WAJF - W. Alton Jones Foundation


Wall - The sides of a mine working; rock on either side of an ore body.


Wall Rocks - Rock units on either side of an orebody. The hangingwall and footwall rocks of an orebody.


WAM - Work Assignment Manager


WAN - Wide Area Network


WAP - Waste Analysis Plan


WAP - Watershed Assessment and Protection


WAPA - Western Area Power Administration


The War Powers Act - During the aftermath of withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam and the Paris Peace Accords, Congress seized the opportunity on November 7, 1973 to enact the War Powers Act. This piece of legislation was created in response to the attitude shift that had taken place in Congress since the 1964 passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Many members of Congress and the American public felt that the Executive Branch had waged a war with far more sweeping powers than the Constitution permitted. In some regards, the War Powers Act was the result of concerted action by members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate who had been generally opposed to the escalation of the war. The War Powers Act also was created in response to some members of Congress and the American public who believed both the Johnson and Nixon Administrations had lied on numerous occasions with regard to U.S. participation in Vietnam.  The War Powers Act essentially limits the power of the President in waging hostilities without congressional approval. The War Powers Act mandates that the President notify Congress, if possible, before committing troops to action. Once American forces are committed to combat they can stay no more than sixty days unless Congress extends their mission.  The War Powers Act is principally viewed as a means to prevent the presidency from embroiling the United States in a war similar to the Vietnam experience.  The War Powers Act was passed in 1973 over a Presidential veto was an attempt for Congress to reign in the executive power in foreign policy issues, particularly in the commitment of US armed forces overseas. It is generally thought of as being in response to Vietnam. Many Presidents since then have frequently abused this Act or have informed Congress of aggressions out of "courtesy" often after troops have been deployed. This is not only the result of abusive administrations ("institutional aggrandizement of presidents"), but often due to a consenting Congresses (through acquiescence or silence), and a Judicial branch that won't take sides.


Warm-Season Plant Species - Plants whose major growth occurs during the spring, summer, or fall, and are usually dormant in winter.


WASDE - World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates


Wash (Dry Wash) - The channel of a flat-floored ephemeral stream, commonly with very steep to vertical banks cut in unconsolidated material.  It is usually dry but can be transformed into a temporary watercourse or short-lived torrent after heavy rain within the watershed. In southern Nevada, dry washes are commonly used transportation corridors due to flat sand or gravel surfaces, lack of vegetation and accessibility as compared to the surrounding terrain.  Casual off-road vehicle use would be limited to those dry washes greater than 8 feet in width. - BLM


WASL - Washington Assessment of Student Learning


WASL - Washington Math-Science List


WASP - Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program


Waste - Mineralized or un-mineralized rock that is not ore.


Waste Management - An umbrella term that is applied to the processes of determining where and how to dispose of industrial or household waste. (UNESCO)


Waste Treatment Pond - A shallow lagoon or similar storage facility, often man-made, used to treat liquid agricultural wastes, particularly liquid manure from livestock production farms, through the interaction of sunlight, wind, algae, and oxygen. Through natural biological processes, microscopic organisms consume wastes present in the water.  


Waste Rock (Waste) - Barren rock at a mine or material that is too low in grade to be of economic value. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.


Waste stream(s) – The unused solid or liquid byproducts of a process. - Bioenergy Glossary 2. The waste material output of a community, region or facility. – EPA


Wastewater - Water that has been used and is no longer clean. (WB-UN)


Wastewater Reuse - Utilization of water whose source contains contaminates from human activities. – Everglades Plan glossary


Wastewater Treatment - The process of removing pollutants from water that has been used. There are different stages of treatment. Primary sewage treatment involves screening the water to remove the largest solids from wastewater and then letting the water sit in settling tanks so that the smaller solids and particles sink to the bottom. Secondary treatment involves another stage in which microbes added to the wastewater to eat the biological pollutants, or the wastewater is put through another filter. Then the treated water is disinfected and released back into nature. The more steps included in the treatment, the more expensive the process. (WB-UN)


Water (USAID definition of water as seen by farmers) - "...to farmers, water is a means to an end, and that end is income. They need land, seed, labour, capital, traction, storage and any other input. They cannot farm without water, but they cannot maximise their returns from the investment of that labour without a wider range of other inputs as well. Irrigation agencies miss the point when they organise farmers into Water User Associations (WUA's) primarily for canal construction and operation and maintenance. Farmers will organise readily to get government assistance to repair or extend their irrigation systems, but only if improved operation and maintenance promises more income. If the WUA program means more work for the same return, they are unlikely to go along...." – Participation and Empowerment, USAID - ISPAN 1994 2. A General cover category consisting of permanent water, such as a perennial stream, lake, or pond with at least 25 percent open water. If the vegetative canopy obscures more than 75 percent of the water surface from view, the area is recorded under the category appropriate for the canopy vegetation. Four types of water areas are large streams, large water bodies, small streams, and small water bodies. - National Resources Inventory


Water acquisition - The purchase of water from willing sellers. - Bureau Of Reclamation (BOR) Water Acquisition Glossary


Water and soil resource management - Impoundment of fishing/canoeing streams or of more than 25 percent of their watersheds will be discouraged. - USDA Forest Service


Water areas - A Land cover/use category comprising water bodies and streams that are permanent open water. - National Resources Inventory


Water balance - See Hydrologic budget. - USGS


Water Bank Program (WBP) - A program to set aside wetlands for a period of 10 years (renewable) for conservation purposes. Participants receive annual rental payments. As these contracts expire, participants are offered the opportunity to place the land in the Wetland Reserve Program. 


Water body - A type of (permanent open) water area that includes ponds, lakes, reservoirs, bays or gulfs, and estuaries. There are three size categories: less than 2 acres, 2 to 40 acres, and at least 40 acres. - National Resources Inventory


Water-breaks (or water bars) - A mound or small dikelike surface drainage structure, properly used only in closing retired roads to traffic and on fire lines and abandoned skid trails. – USDA


Water Budget - An account of all water inflows, outflows and changes in storage for a pre-specified period of time. – Everglades Plan glossary


Water Budget - An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage in, a hydrologic unit.


Water Catchment Area - See Watershed.


Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) - Everglades marshland areas that were modified for use as storage to prevent flooding, to irrigate agriculture and recharge well fields and as input for agricultural and urban runoff. The Water Conservation Areas WCA-1, WCA-2A, WCA-2B, WCA-3A and WCA-3B comprise five surface water management basins in the Everglades; bounded by the Everglades Agricultural Area on the north and the Everglades National Park basin on the south, the WCAs are confined by levees and water control structures that regulate the inflows and outflows to each one of them. Restoration of more natural water levels and flows to the WCAs is a main objective of the CERP. – Everglades Plan glossary


Water content of snow - See Water equivalent of snow. – USGS


Water-cooled vibrating grate - A boiler grate made up of a tuyere grate surface mounted on a grid of water tubes interconnected with the boiler circulation system for positive cooling. The structure is supported by flexing plates allowing the grid and grate to move in a vibrating action. Ashes are automatically discharged. - Bioenergy Glossary


Watercourse - A system of surface and underground waters that constitute, by virtue of their physical relationship, a unitary whole and that flow into a common terminus. – WB


Watercourse - A system of surface and underground waters that constitute, by virtue of their physical relationship, a unitary whole and that flow into a common terminus. (FAO-UN)


Water crop - See Water yield. - USGS


Water equivalent of snow - Amount of water that would be obtained if the snow should be completely melted. Water content may be merely the amount of liquid water in the snow at the time of observation. (Wilson, 1942a, p. 153-154.) - USGS


Waterlogging - Waterlogging occurs when soil is fully saturated with water. The water may be from rising groundwater or surface run-off. - NHT


Water loss - The difference between the average precipitation over a drainage basin and the water yield from the basin for a given period. (After Williams and others, 1940, p. 3.) The basic concept is that water loss is equal to evapotranspiration, that is, water that returns to the atmosphere and thus is no longer available for use. However, the term is also applied to differences between measured inflow and outflow even where part of the difference may be seepage. - USGS


Watermaster - An official of the Water Resources Department that allocates available surface or groundwater in the state. - Bioenergy Glossary


Water Pollution - One or more chemicals in high enough concentration in water to harm humans, other animals, vegetation or materials. (UNESCO)


Water Preserve Areas (WPAs) - Multi-purpose water management areas planned between urban areas and the eastern Everglades, which will be utilized to treat urban runoff, store water, reduce seepage and improve existing wetland areas. – Everglades Plan glossary


Water Quality – The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability for a particular use. – DOI/BLM


Water Quality - The condition of water, especially in relation to its suitability for drinking. Water is safe or unsafe depending on the amount of bacteria in it. An adequate amount of water is enough to satisfy metabolic, hygienic, and domestic requirements, usually about 20 liters (about 4 gallons) per person per day. 'Access to safe water' is a development indicator that refers to the number of people who have a reasonable means of getting and adequate amount of clean water, expressed as a percentage of the total population. In urban areas 'reasonable' access means there is a public fountain or water spigot located within 200 meters of the household. In rural areas, it implies that members of the household do not have to spend excessive time each day fetching water. (UNESCO)


Water Quality Incentives Program - This program was authorized in the FACT Act of 1990 and is administered by the Farm Service Agency. It was repealed and replaced by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program in the FAIR Act of 1996. It provided cost-share assistance to implement comprehensive water quality protection plans and was funded by earmarking a portion of the Agricultural Conservation Program. 


Water Quality Initiative - A multi-agency effort, initiated by USDA in 1990, to determine relationships between agricultural activities and water quality, and develop and implement strategies that protect surface and groundwater quality. This program, which builds earlier USDA water quality protection efforts, includes research activities, projects involving landowners, and information and data development. Landowners participate in demonstration projects, hydrologic unit area projects, water quality special projects, and water quality incentive projects.  


Water Quality Standards - State-adopted and EPA-approved ambient standards for water bodies. The standards prescribe the use of the water body and establish the water quality criteria that must be met to protect designated uses, and contain policies to protect against degradation of water quality once standards are attained and maintained.   Standards for water quality established under Section 303 of the U.S. Clean Water Act. The water quality standards program is covered by an implementing regulation in 40 CFR 131. A water quality standard is a rule or law consisting of three elements: (1) the designated use (or uses) to be made of the water body or segment; (2) the water quality criteria needed to protect that use (or uses); and (3) an antidegradation policy. Standards are to protect the public health or welfare, improve water quality, and serve the purpose of the Clean Water Act. Criteria are usually established thresholds that when violated may result in harm to beneficial uses of water.


Water Quality Standard - A standard that defines the goals for a water body or portion of a water body, by designating the beneficial use or uses to be made of the water and by setting criteria necessary to protect the uses. Water quality standards should provide for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and for recreation in and on the water, and should take into consideration the use and value of public water supplies. Such standards establish water quality goals for a specific water body and serve as the regulatory basis for the establishment of water quality-based treatment controls and strategies beyond the technology-based treatment required by sections 301(b) and 306 of the CWA. - USDA/FS


Water repellent treated wood - Lumber impregnated with water repellent and preservatives. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary


Water Retention Curve - a graph showing the soil-water content versus applied tension, suction, or water potential.  Also called water release characteristic curve.


Water requirement - The quantity of water, regardless of its source, required by a crop in a given period of time, for its normal growth under field conditions. It includes surface evaporation and other economically unavoidable wastes. (Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) – USGS


Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) – The WRDA provides for the conservation and development of water and related resources and authorizes the Secretary of the Army to construct various projects for improvements to rivers and harbors of the United States, and for other purposes deemed appropriate by the U.S. Congress and the President of the United States.


Water Rights - The legal rights to the use of water.


Water rights - California recognizes riparian and appropriative water rights. - Bureau Of Reclamation (BOR) Water Acquisition Glossary


Water Service Contract - a type of contract, authorized by the Reclamation Project Act of 1939, whereby water is furnished for irrigation or municipal or miscellaneous purposes at rates to produce revenue sufficient to cover charges reimbursable to the federal government.  


Watershed - The area of land above a given point on a stream that contributes water to the volume of a body of surface water; also referred to as a drainage basin. - USDA/FS 2. The line separating waters flowing into different rivers, basins or seas. Often used to mean catchment area or river basin. – WB


Watershed - A geographic area of land, water, and biota within the confines of a drainage divide. The total area above a given point of a water body that contributes flow to that point. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html


Watershed approach - A framework to guide watershed management that: 1) uses watershed assessments to determine existing and reference conditions; 2) incorporates assessment results into resource management planning; and 3) fosters collaboration with all landowners in the watershed. The framework considers both ground and surface water flow within a hydrologically defined geographical area. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html


Watershed assessment - An analysis and interpretation of the physical and landscape characteristics of a watershed using scientific principles to describe watershed conditions as they affect water quality and aquatic resources. Initial watershed assessments will be conducted using existing data, where available. Data gaps may suggest the collection of additional data. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html


Watershed coordinators - This program is available to Non-profit organizations, local and regional units of government. Organizations can request a six-year declining grant to employ a watershed coordinator to work on watershed planning and implementation to control nonpoint souce pollution. Grant covers salary and fringe benefits for the coordinator; 100 percent (up to $40,000) in year one and declining to 50 percent in year six. Contact: Rosida Porter; 614-265-6647. Page 49 of the 87-page "Final Report" from USFWS. http://midwest.fws.gov/planning/ldarbyfinalreport.pdf


Watershed condition - The state of the watershed based on physical and biogeochemical characteristics and processes (e.g., hydrologic, geomorphic, landscape, topographic, vegetative cover, and aquatic habitat), water flow characteristics and processes (e.g., volume and timing), and water quality characteristics and processes (e.g., chemical, physical, and biological), as it affects water quality and water resources. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html


Water spreading - Diverting or collecting runoff from natural channels, gullies, or streams with a system of dams, dikes, ditches, or other means, and spreading it over a relatively flat area. - National Resources Inventory


Water Table - The upper boundary or top surface of the zone of saturation in a soil profile or geologic formation.  The underground level at which the ground is saturated with water. The level at which water will stand in an excavation.


Water table - The level of water in the Earth. - UNEP Children's Glossary


Water table - The upper surface of a zone of saturation. No water table exists where that surface is formed by an impermeable body. (Meinzer ,1923, p. 22.) – USGS


Water transfers - A transaction between a water supplier, agreeing to transfer a volume of water, and the recipient of the water, under mutually acceptable terms, including the volume of water, the price paid, the time period, and the condition of the water for transfer. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary


Water year - In Geological Survey reports dealing with surface-water supply, the 12-month period, October 1 through September 30. The water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends and which includes 9 of the 12 months. Thus, the year ended September 30, 1959, is called the "1959 water year." - USGS


Water 2000 Initiative - The program administered by the Rural Utility Service goal is to improve the quality of drinking water in distressed rural areas with the most serious safe drinking water problems.  


Water Yield - The quantity of water derived from a unit area of watershed. (BLM)


Water yield (water crop or runout) - The runoff from the drainage basin, including ground-water outflow that appears in the stream plus groundwater outflow that bypasses the gaging station and leaves the basin underground. Water yield is the precipitation minus the evpotranspiration. – USGS


WATERS - Water Administration Technical Engineering Resource System


Waters of the State - All streams, lakes, ponds, marshes, watercourses, waterways, wells, springs, irrigation systems, drainage systems, and all other bodies of water above or below ground which are partially or wholly in the state, border on the state, or are within the jurisdiction of the state. Private waters that do not combine or have a junction with natural surface or underground waters are not included (for example, an isolated farm pond that does not infiltrate to ground water or connect to surface water).  The ocean and its estuaries, all springs, streams and bodies of surface or ground water, whether natural or artificial, within the boundaries of the State or subject to its jurisdiction.


Waterfowl Production Areas - A small component of the National Wildlife Refuge System. There are over 2,000,000 acres of this prime duck-producing land, mostly prairie potholes in the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Montana. The Fish and Wildlife Service owns, leases, or holds easements on the lands.  


Watershed - The total land area, regardless of size, above a given point on a waterway that contributes runoff water to the flow at that point. It is a major subdivision of a drainage basin. The United States is generally divided into 18 major drainage areas and 160 principal river drainage basins containing about 12,700 smaller watersheds.  The entire region or land area that contributes water to a drainage system or stream, collects and drains water into a stream or stream system, or is drained by a waterway (or into a lake or reservoir).  More specifically, a watershed is an area of land above a given point on a stream that contributes water to the streamflow at that point.  A region or area where surface runoff and groundwater drain to a common water course or body

of water.  The area drained by a river or river system enclosed by drainage divides.  An area of land that drains to a single water outlet.  The entire land area that collects and drains water into a stream or stream system.  A watershed is also known as a sub-basin. 2. All land and water within the confines of a drainage divide. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 3. The line separating waters flowing into different rivers, basins or seas. Often used to mean catchment area or river basin. (UN) 3. The divide separating one drainage basin from another and in the past has been generally used to convey this meaning. However, over the years, use of the term to signify drainage basin or catchment area has come to predominate, although

drainage basin is preferred. Drainage divide, or just divide, is used to denote the boundary between one drainage area and another. Used alone, the term "watershed" is ambiguous and should not be used unless the intended meaning is made clear. - USGS


Watershed Scenarios - To consider human derived impacts on watershed quality. Before this can be done, however, characteristics specific to each watershed must be analyzed and information must be generated for each unique area. – EPA


Watershed-based Zoning - Achieves watershed protection goals by creating a watershed development plan, using zoning as the basis (flexible density and subdivision layout specifications), that falls within the range of density and imperviousness allowable for the watershed to prevent environmental impacts. Watershed- based zoning usually employs a mixture of zoning practices. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary


Watershed And Flood Prevention Operations - A program area of the Natural Resources Conservation Service that includes Flood Prevention Operations (under the Flood Control Act of 1944, P.L. 78-534), Emergency Watershed Protection, and Small Watershed Operations (under the Watershed and Flood Prevention Act of 1954, P.L. 83-566). These programs have built small watershed projects that reduce floods, protect watersheds, improve water quality, reduce soil erosion, improve water supply, and provide recreation. They involve strong partnerships with local interests. 


Watershed Conservation Area - The Watershed Conservation Area is an area of the watershed surrounding the Voluntary Purchase Area.  Within this area, easements would be acquired from willing sellers by USFWS, the State, or some other interested entity to ensure long-term farmland integrity in a way that compliments and enhances the preservation and restoration of habitats acquired in the Voluntary Purchase Area. (USFWS-Region 3, proposed Little Darby National Wildlife Refuge)


Water Table - The upper surface of groundwater.  The top of a section of saturated groundwater.  Below it, the soil is saturated with water.


Waters of the U.S. - The term waters of the United States means (1) All waters which are currently used, or were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all water which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide; (2) All interstate waters including interstate wetlands; (3) All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds, the use, degradation or destruction of which could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters: (i) Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes; or (ii) From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or (iii) Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce; (4) All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as waters of the United States under this definition; (5) Tributaries of waters identified in paragraphs (1)-(4); (6) The territorial seas; (7) Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetland) identified in paragraphs (1)-(6). Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the requirements of CWA (other than cooling ponds as defined in 40 CFR § 123.11(m) which also meet the criteria of this definition) are not waters of the United States. 33 CFR § 328.3(a); 40 CFR § 230.3(s).


Waterway - Any channel, natural or constructed, in which water flows.


Water Yield - The measured output of streams.  The runoff from a watershed, including groundwater outflow.


WAVE - Working Against Violence Everywhere


WB - World Bank


WBC - White Blood Cell


WBCA - Wild Bird Conservation Act (1992)


WBCSDS - World Business Council for Sustainable Development and Sustainability


WBE - Women’s Business Enterprise


WBGEF - World Bank Global Environment Facility


WBM - World Biosphere Management


WBP - Winnebago Bison Project


WBSMNP - World Bank Symposium on Movement of Natural Persons (UN)


WBSMP - Watershed Based Storm Management Plans


WC - Walkable Communities


WC - Watershed Change


WC - Watershed Council


WC - Watershed Councils


WC - Wealth Creation


WC - We Care


WC - Western Caucus


WC - Wetland Creation


WC - Wholesale Customer


WC - Wicca Circle


WCA - Washington County Alliance (Maine)


WCA - Western Counties Alliance


WCA - World Citizen Association


WCA - Wolf Core Areas


WCAC - Walkable Communities Advisory Committee


WCAR - World Conference Against Racism – indigenous peoples(UN)


WCARRD - World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (UN, Rome, June, 1979)


WCB - Wildlife Conservation Biology


WCB - Wildlife Conservation Board


WCC - Winter Cover Crops


WCC - World Council of Churches (originated in Yellow Springs, OH)


WCCD - World Commission on Culture and Development (UNESCO)


WCD - World Commission on Dams


WCED - Western Center for Environmental Decision-Making


WCED - World Commission on Environment and Development (IUCN)


WCED - World Commission on the Environment and Development (Bruntland Commission)


WCES - World Community Educational Society


WCGMP - Water Conservancy Groundwater Monitoring Program


WCI - Wildlife Connectivity Issues


WCMC - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (IUCN - UN) - Provides information services on conservation and sustainable use of the world's living resources, and helps others to develop information systems of their own.


WCIND - The West Coast Inland Navigation District (Florida)


WCL - World Confederation of Labor


WCLA - Washington Contract Logging Association


WCMC - World Conservation Monitoring Center


WCNDR - World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction (UN)


WCP - Wildlands Conservation Planning


WCPR - Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads


WCPR - The Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads (Missoula, MT and Boulder, CO)


WCRR - World Climate Research Program (UN)


WCS - World Conservation Strategy (IUCN)


WCS - Worst-Case Scenario


WCT - World Confederation of Teachers


WCU - World Conservation Union (aka IUCN)


WCWI - Western Civil War of Incorporation


WD - Watershed District


WD - Wildland Defense


WD - Winter’s Doctrine


WD - Workforce Diversity


WD - Working Definition


WDIYC - Worldwide Do-It-Yourself Council


WDB - Workforce Development Board(s)


WDCB - Wolf Depredation Compensation Board


WDC - Well Decommissioning


WDF - World Development Federation


WDI - Water Delivery Infrastructure


WDI - Workforce Development Infrastructure


WDP - Workforce Development Policy


WDR - World Development Report (UN)


WDRU - Wildlife-Dependent Recreational Uses (USFWS)


WDRUP - Wildlife-Dependent Recreation Uses Policy (USFWS)


WDS - Workforce Development System


WDT - World Debt Tables


WE - Watershed Ecology


WE - Wealth Extraction


WE - Wetland Enhancement


WE - Wilderness Extensions


WE - Windbreak Establishment


WE - Work Ethic


WE - World Exports


Weathering - The group of processes (such as chemical action of air and rainwater and the biological action of plants and animals) whereby rocks and minerals change in character, disintegrate, decompose, and synthesize new compounds and clay minerals.


Weathering - The disintegration and decomposition of rocks and other earth materials through exposure to the atmosphere. Weathering is one of the major factors in soil formation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.


WEB - Watershed Enhancement Board


WebCASPAR - Computer-Aided Science Policy Analysis and Research database system


WEBWORLD - Through the portal webworld the reader can access theme pages on information policies and strategies, public domain, legal and ethical issues, and on infostructure (network development, information management etc.) http://www.unesco.org/webworld/index.shtml


WECA - Wild-Eyed Conservative Activist


WeCARE - Wolf Creek Awareness and Resource Evaluation Project (234 square miles, or 149,000 acres, in Morgan and Washington Counties, Ohio -- includes 37 named tributaries) DOI/USFWS


WED - Water Enforcement Division

WEDO - Women’s Environment Development Organization

Weed - Any plant that is not valued by the human society and usually tends to overgrow or compete with valued flora. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary


WEF - Water Environment Federation


WEFA - Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates


WEHAB – The Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture and Biodiversity framework (UN)


WEHF - Walter and Elise Haas Fund


WELC - Western Environmental Law Center


Wellhead Protection Area - A designated surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field that supplies a public water supply and through which contaminants or pollutants are likely to pass and eventually reach the aquifer that supplies the well or well field. The purpose of designating the area is to provide protection from the potential of contamination of the water supply. These areas are designated in accordance with laws, regulations, and plans that protect public drinking water supplies.


Well-logging - A technique used in oil and gas exploration to help predict the commercial viability of new or existing wells. It involves lowering a well-logging tool, including a sealed source of radioactive material, into a well on a wire. This device sends data on the well's underground characteristics to the surface, where it is plotted on a chart. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission


Well graded - Refers to soil material consisting of coarse grained particles that are well distributed over a wide range in size or diameter. Such soil normally can be easily increased in density and bearing properties by compaction. Contrasts with poorly graded soil. - USDA


WELU - Western Environmental Law Update


WELUT - Western Energy and Land Use Team (USFWS, Ft. Collins, CO)


WEMO - West Mojave Management Plan http://www.ca.blm.gov/cdd/wemo.html


WENDB - Water Enforcement National Data Base


WERC - Wolf Education Research Center


WESC - The Water and Environmental Standards Council


WESL - Wind Erosion Soils List


WESTA - The Western European Seafood Technology Association


Western Oregon Digital DataBase (WODDB) - A very high resolution (l"=400') geographic digital (computer) database derived from aerial photography for BLM lands in western Oregon. (BLM)


The West Virginia National Interest River Conservation Act of 1987 - TITLE 16 > CHAPTER 1 > SUBCHAPTER LXXI-A > Sec. 460m-15. Notes on Sec. 460m-15. SOURCE: Pub. L. 95-625, title XI, Sec. 1101, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3544 Pub. L. 100-534, title I, Sec. 101, Oct. 26, 1988, 102 Stat. 2700 Pub. L. 104-333, div. I, title IV, Sec. 406(a)(1), Nov. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 4149. AMENDMENTS: 1996 - Pub. L. 104-333 substituted ''NERI-80,028A, dated March 1996'' for ''NERI-80,023, dated January 1987.'' 1988 - Pub. L. 100-534 substituted ''NERI-80,023, dated January 1987'' for ''NERI-20,002, dated July 1978.'' SHORT TITLE OF 1988 AMENDMENT: Section 1 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''This Act (enacting sections 460m-26 to 460m-29 and 460ww to 460ww-5 of this title, amending this section and section 1274 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1274 of this title) may be cited as the 'West Virginia National Interest River Conservation Act of 1987.''' NEW, GAULEY, MEADOW, AND BLUESTONE RIVERS; CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND PURPOSE: Section 2 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''(a) Findings. - The Congress finds that - ''(1) The outstanding natural, scenic, cultural and recreational values of the segment of the New River in West Virginia within the boundaries of the New River Gorge National River have been preserved and enhanced by its inclusion in the National Park System. ''(2) The establishment of the New River Gorge National River has provided the basis for increased recreation and tourism activities in southern West Virginia due to its nationally recognized status and has greatly contributed to the regional economy. ''(3) Certain boundary modifications to the New River Gorge National River are necessary to further protect the scenic resources within the river's visual corridor and to provide for better management of the national park unit. ''(4) Several tributaries of the New River in West Virginia also possess remarkable and outstanding features of national significance. The segment of the Gauley River below Summersville Dam has gained national recognition as a premier whitewater recreation resource. The lower section of the Bluestone River and the lower section of the Meadow River possess remarkable and outstanding natural, scenic, and recreational values due to their predominantly undeveloped condition. ''(5) Portions of several of the New River tributaries, including segments of the Gauley River, the Meadow River, and the Bluestone River are suitable for inclusion in the National Park System or the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. ''(6) It is in the national interest to preserve the natural condition of certain segments of the New, Gauley, Meadow, and Bluestone Rivers in West Virginia and to enhance recreational opportunities available on the free-flowing segments. ''(b) Purpose. - The purpose of this Act (see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above) is to provide for the protection and enhancement of the natural, scenic, cultural, and recreational values on certain free-flowing segments of the New, Gauley, Meadow, and Bluestone Rivers in the State of West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations.'' COORDINATION AMONG RECREATIONAL RESOURCES: Section 401 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''Subject to existing authority, the Secretary of the Interior shall cooperate with, and assist, any regional authority comprised of representatives of West Virginia State authorities and local government authorities in or any combination of the foregoing Nicholas, Fayette, Raleigh, Summers, Greenbrier, and Mercer Counties, West Virginia, for the purposes of providing for coordinated development and promotion of recreation resources of regional or national significance which are located in southern West Virginia and management by State or Federal agencies, including State, local and National Park System units, State and National Forest System units, and historic sites.'' SPECIAL PROVISIONS: Section 402 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''Subject to his responsibilities to protect the natural resources of the National Park System, the Secretary of the Interior shall enter into a cooperative agreement with the State of West Virginia providing for the State's regulation, in accordance with State law, of persons providing commercial recreational watercraft services on units of the National Park System and components of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System subject to this Act (see

Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above).'' CONSOLIDATED MANAGEMENT: Section 404 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''In order to achieve the maximum economy and efficiency of operations in the administration of the National Park System units established or expanded pursuant to this Act (see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above), the Secretary shall consolidate offices and personnel administering all such units to the extent practicable and shall utilize the existing facilities of the New River Gorge National River to the extent practicable.'' NEW SPENDING AUTHORITY: Section 405 of Pub. L. 100-534 provided that: ''Any new spending authority which is provided under this Act (see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above) shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent or in such amounts as provided in appropriation Acts.'' http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/16/460m-15.notes.html


Western Wood Preservers Institute (WWPI) - The trade association representing the pressure-treating industry in western North America. WWPI technical staff provides information on use, selection, and specification of pressure-treated wood. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary


WESTFORNET - Western Forest Information Network (USFS)


WESTPO - Western Governors’ Policy Office


WET - Wetland Evaluation Technique


WET - Whole Effluent Toxicity


WET - Water Education for Teachers


WETA - Western Environmental Trade Association


Wet deposition - Precipitation of all kinds. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary


WETMAAP - Wetlands Education Through Maps And Aerial Photography. A geographic approach that combines aerial photography, topographic maps, and manual & computerized Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for wetland habitat assessment. These WETMAAP materials provide the chance to explore wetland issues through ten representative wetland sites in the US. WETMAAP case study sites, workshop materials, and data resources are available on the website. The site also

provides teachers materials such as slide shows, lesson plans and tests. http://www.wetmaap.org/


Wet Meadows - Areas where grasses predominate. Normally waterlogged within a few inches of the ground surface. (BLM)


Wetland - Areas such as lakes, marshes, bogs, swamps, wet meadows and shallow streams that are inundated by surface or ground water for a long enough period of time each year to support, and that do support under natural conditions, plants and animals that require saturated or seasonally saturated soils.  Soil areas that have evidence of saturated conditions part of the year (ponded water, hydric soil, wet-area plants, such as cattails). Wetlands are an important natural resource that provides flood control, pollution control and habitat for fishes, birds and mammals as well as aquatic life. Wetlands such as marshes, swamps, bogs and fens are amongst the most fertile and productive ecosystems in the world. Wetlands cover 6% of the Earth's land surface and are found in all countries and in all climates. They are important breeding grounds for fish and other wildlife. They also help maintain the global water cycle and act as a filtering system to clean up polluted water, encouraging plant growth and improving water quality. Wetlands are the only ecosystem that is protected by a specific international convention - the RAMSAR Convention. (UNESCO)


Wetland Complex - The aggregation of wetlands and associated ecological features (e.g., corridors, uplands, buffers, etc.) with the landscape.


Wetland complex frequency – A measure of how many wetland complexes are in this Natural Disturbance Type (NDT) relative to other NDTs. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary


Wetland Finding Procedure - The wetland finding procedure establishes the criteria and procedures for satisfying the wetland finding requirements of Executive Order 11990.  It requires documentation of wetlands associated with the project including a description of the wetlands, identification of wetland impacts, documentation of alternative analysis, and development of a mitigation plan for unavoidable wetland impacts.


Wetland habitat - Wetland habitat consists of water-tolerant plants in open, marshy or swampy, shallow water areas. Examples of wildlife attracted to this habitat are ducks, geese, herons, bitterns, rails, kingfishers, muskrat, otter, mink, and beaver. - NRCS, USDA


Wetland Identification, Delineation and Functional Assessment Report - Provides both written and illustrated data to define the boundaries of those topographic features within a study area and which meet the Federal definition of “wetland” as contained in 33CFR 323.2.  A delineation report represents the first step in the overall wetland study process, evaluates the importance of a wetland, and ultimately assesses the effects of a project on a wetland.


Wetland losses - Wetland losses are described in terms of gross and net. Net change is defined as the gross gain minus the gross loss, and can be either positive (net gain) or negative (net loss) for a given region. Wetland losses were attributed to one of the following categories: 1. Development - Loss occurring on land cover/use category of urban and built-up or rural transportation. 2. Agriculture - Loss occurring on land cover/use category of cropland, pastureland, CRP land, farmsteads or other farmland. 3. Silviculture - Loss occurring on forest land. 4. Miscellaneous - Loss occurring on all other land cover/use categories, including mined land, rangeland, and other barren lands. Natural variations in climatic cycles and hydrology are responsible for the majority of these losses. - National Resources Inventory


Wetland System - Complex of wetland habitats that share the influence of similar hydrologic, geomorphologic, chemical, or biological factors. [USFWS] - NRI Glossary


Wetlands - Permanently wet or intermittently water-covered land areas, such as swamps, marshes, bogs, muskegs, potholes, swales, and glades.  Areas that are inundated by surface or ground water with a frequency sufficient to support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction.  Areas that are permanently wet or are intermittently covered with water.  Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and natural ponds.


Wetlands - 2. Lands including swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas, such as wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and natural ponds. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 3. Areas of marsh, fen, peatland, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water less than six metres deep at low tide. (FAO-UN) 4. Lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For purposes of this classification wetlands must have one or more of the following three attributes: (1) at least periodically, the land supports predominantly hydrophytes; (2) the substrate is predominantly undrained hydric soil; and (3) the substrate is nonsoil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at some time during the growing season of each year. (Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.) - National Resources Inventory 5. Areas of marsh, fen, peatland, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water less than six metres deep at low tide. - WB


Wetlands Mitigation Bank - A bank is created when wetlands at a site are restored, enhanced or created in advance of destruction of similar wetlands in nearby locations. The bank then sells 'credits' in the bank to permit applicants under Section 404 who are required, as a permit condition, to offset the negative impacts their project will have on wetlands. Public entities or private enterprise may establish Banks. The FAIR Act of 1996 has a provision allowing USDA to establish a pilot-banking program.


Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) - A program authorized by FACT Act of 1990 to provide long-term protection for wetlands. Producers enrolling in the program must agree to implement an approved wetlands restoration and protection plan. In return, participating producers receive payments based on the difference in the value of their land caused by placing an easement on a portion of it. The FAIR Act of 1996 limits enrollment of the WRP to 975,000 acres. USDA is required to divide new enrollments among permanent easements, 30-year easements, and restoration cost-share agreements. Previously, all enrollment had been permanent easements.


Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) - WRP provides funding to farmers to preserve wetlands on their property. WRP is funded at $1.5 billion, with the acreage cap increased to 2.28 million acres.


Wet Meadow – A meadow where the surface remains wet or moist throughout the growing season, usually characterized by sedges and rushes. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho


Wet Milling - A process in which feed material is steeped in water, with or without sulphur dioxide, to soften the seed kernel in order to help separate the kernel's various components. For example, wet-milling plants can separate a bushel of corn into more than 31 pounds of starch (which in turn can be converted into corn sweeteners or ethanol), 15 pounds of animal feed, and nearly 2 pounds of corn oil.  


Wet Season - Hydrologically, the months associated with a higher than average incident of rainfall. – Everglades Plan glossary


Wetted Perimeter - The length of the wetted contact between a stream of flowing water and the stream bottom in a vertical plane at right angles to the direction of flow. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.


WF - Wallis Foundation


WF - Watering Facility


WF - Weeden Foundation


WF - Wilberforce Foundation


WFA - World Federalists Association


WFB - World Food Bank


WFC - World Food Conference (UN)


WFC - World Food Council (UN)


WFEA - Western Farm Economics Association (NAS)


WFEC - Western Fire Ecology Center for the American Lands Alliance (Eugene, Oregon)


WFF - World Wide Fund for Nature (yes, this acronym is correct although certainly misleading)


WFGD - Wyoming Game and Fish Department


WFI - Warrant Further Investigation


WFI - With Fraudulent Intent


WFI - Without Further Investigation


WFM - Weather as a Force Multiplier


WFP - Wetland Finding Procedure


WFP - World Food Program (UN)


WFP - Watershed Forestry Program


WFPA - Washington Forest Protection Association


WFR - Wild Forest Review


WFS - Warranting Further Study


WFSD - Wildlands Fire Suppression Division


WG - Wage Grade (USFWS employee pay scale)


WG - Working Group


WG - World Government


WGA - Western Growers Association


WGA - The Western Governors Association Board of Directors is comprised of the governors of Alaska, American Samoa, Arizona, California, Colorado, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Northern Mariana Islands, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming.


WGF - Wallace Genetic Foundation


WGIP - Working Group on Indigenous Populations (UN - WIPO - CHR)


WGMA - Working Group on Multilateral Assistance


WGP - World Gold Prices (World Bank)


WGS-84 - World Geodetic System 1984 (GPS)


WGV - Weight of Grassland Vegetation


WH - Woodland Habitat


WHA - Workforce Housing Affordability


WHB - Wildlife Habitat Biologist


WHC - Wildlife Habitat Connectivity


WHC - Water Harvesting Catchment


WHC - Wildlife Habitat Council


WHC - World Heritage Committee


WHC - World Heritage Convention


WHC - UNESCO's World Heritage Centre (Paris, France)


WHCEQ - The White House Council on Environmental Quality


WHCHC - White House Conference on Hate Crimes


WHCM - Wildlife Habitat Capability Model


WHD - World Heritage Designation (UN/DOI/NPS)


Wheeling - The process of transferring electrical energy between buyer and seller by way of an intermediate utility or utilities. - Bioenergy Glossary


WHFC - Woods Hole Field Center (USGS)


WHIP - Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program


White wood - Lumber intended for treating that has not yet treated been treated. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary


WHMP - Wild Horse Management Plan


WHN - World Heritage Newsletter



WHO - World Health Organization (United Nations)


Whole Herd Buyout Program - Another term for the dairy termination program.


Whole-tree harvesting - A harvesting method in which the whole tree (above the stump) is removed. - Bioenergy Glossary


Wholesale Price Index - A composite index of prices of commodities sold in primary U.S. markets. 'Wholesale' refers to sale in large quantities by producers, not to prices received by wholesalers, jobbers, or distributors. In agriculture, it is the average price received by farmers for their farm commodities at the first point of sale when the commodity leaves the farm.  


WHORM - White House Office of Records Management


WHROW – Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington


WHS - World Heritage Site (UN/DOI/NPS)


WHTA - Western Hemisphere Trade Alliance


WHYCOS - World Hydrological Cycle Observing System


WI - Waste Impoundments


WI - Wetlands Inventory


WIA – Workforce Investment Act


WIAC - Wildlife Issues and Activist Coordinator


WIC - Washington Information Center


WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Act of 1992 - P.L. 102-314 (July 2, 1992) WIC established a program authorizing projects that provide participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with food coupons that can be used to purchase fresh, unprocessed foods, such as fruits and vegetables at farmers' markets. 


WICEE - The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy (European think-tank for sustainable development and eco-efficiency)


WICEM - World Industry Conference on Environmental Management


WIFE - Women Involved in Farm Economics


WIG - Wildlife Interest Group



WIHA - Walk-In Hunting Areas (DOI/USFWS)


WILD - Wildland Defense


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