T & E - Threatened and Endangered (DOI/BLM)

T4Hs - The 4 Hs: Human, animal, plant and environmental health. The 4-Hs go beyond the agricultural component of insect sciences to include human health as the basis for development, and biodiversity and the environment as the basis for sustainability. (ICIPE)

T-value (or T-level) - For a specific soil, the maximum average annual soil loss expressed as tons per acre per year that will permit current production levels to be maintained economically and indefinitely, the soil loss tolerance level. T values range from 2 to 5 tons per acre per year. According to the 1992 national resources inventory, about 63 million acres of highly erodible cropland are still eroding at more than their 'T' value, including 21 million acres that are still eroding at three times 'T'.

T Erosion Factor T (Tolerable Soil Loss) - t/ac/yr tons/acre/year

T factor (USLE). See Soil loss tolerance factor. - National Resources Inventory

T&E - Threatened and Endangered - DOI/NPS/BLM

T&E - Threatened and Endangered Species - DOI/NPS/BLM

TA - Target Audience

TA - Tax Abatement

TA - Technical Assistance

TA - Technology Adaptation

TA - The Trade Act (1974)

TA - Toll Authority

TA - Trade Agreements

TA - Trade Authority

TA - Transit Authority

TA - Transitional Authority

TAA - Tax-Abated Area

TAA - Trade Adjustment Assistance Act

Trade Adjustment Assistance Act (TAA) - Enacted in 1962 to offset adverse effects that American workers may encounter due to stiff import competition, the Trade Adjustment Assistance Act (TAA) is administered jointly at the state and federal level. At the federal level, the U.S. Department of Labor operates the TAA program through the Employment and Training Administration (ETA). The ETA processes petitions for eligibility submitted by workers and issues certifications or denials. Petitions for benefits may be filed by three or more workers, their union, or an authorized representative of a group of workers. Obtaining federal certification is a fairly complicated process that involves applying a three-part test. At the state level, certified workers in Iowa apply for TAA benefits through the Department of Workforce Development. The state acts as a federal agent in providing information, processing applications, determining individual worker eligibility for benefits, issuing payments, and providing reemployment services and training opportunities. The North American Free Trade Agreement expanded the TAA to include workers who lost jobs to Canada or Mexico as a result of the 1993 trade agreement.

TAA - Travel And Access

TAAS - Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test

TAB - The Technical Assistance to Brownfields Communities program

The Technical Assistance to Brownfields Communities (TAB) program - A part of EPA's Brownfields Initiative that helps communities clean and redevelop properties that have been damaged or undervalued by environmental contamination. The purpose of these efforts is to create better jobs, increase the local tax base, improve neighborhood environments, and enhance the overall quality of life.

Tabular - A plate-like structure in certain minerals.

TAC - The Ad Council

TAC - The Archeological Conservancy

TAC - Town And Country

TAC - Type And Concentration

TAC - Type And Configuration

TACIS - Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States

Taconite - A highly abrasive iron ore.

Tactical - Military art and science applied to the employment of small scale units and capabilities of particular weapons. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Tacit Consent - Consent that is unwritten or inferred.

TAD - The American Dream

TAE - Tests And Experiments (by Department Of Defense contractors)

TAF - The Appraisal Foundation

TAG - Technical Advisory Group

TAG - Technical Assistance Grant

(TAG) - An EPA grant of up to $50,000 which can be awarded to a bona fide citizens group in a Superfund site area. The grant enables that group to hire a technical expert to review and interpret site reports issued by EPA or other parties. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

TAG - Trails And Greenways

Tag - The dealer tag, a flexible self-locking ribbon issued by NMFS for the identification of bluefin tuna under Sec. 300.26, or the BSD tag specified under Sec. 635.42 (a)(2) of this title. - MFCMA TAGLIT - Taking a Good Look at Instructional Technology

Tailings - Material rejected from a mill after most of the recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted.

Tailings Pond - A low-lying depression used to confine tailings, the prime function of which is to allow enough time for heavy metals to settle out or for cyanide to be destroyed before water is discharged into the receiving watershed.

Take - As defined by the Endangered Species Act, "to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, capture, or collect, or attempt to engage in any such conduct." - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Taking Endangered or Threatened Species - 'Taking,' in layman's terms, means killing or removing a plant or animal of a species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), or seriously damaging its chances of reproduction. Except under specified circumstances, taking is forbidden under the ESA. The definition of taking is one of the current issues in the ESA debate. Incidental take of a listed species is a taking that occurs in the course of some other legal activity, whether carried out by a federal or a nonfederal entity.

Taking - According to the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, "... nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation." See Regulatory Taking. Armstrong v. United States (U.S. Supreme Court 1960): One of the principle purposes of the Takings Clause is "to bar Government from forcing some people alone to bear public burdens which, in all fairness and justice, should be borne by the public as a whole." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Tall woody plants - A General cover category consisting of tall woody canopy cover of greater than 25 percent. Tall plants are 4 meters (about 13 feet) or more tall, usually single-stemmed trees. The distinction between tall (> 4m) and short (< 4m) is made according to current conditions, not potential. Thus, a 3-meter-tall Douglas fir is a short woody plant. - National Resources Inventory

Talus - An adjacent slope at the base of a steep incline characterized by unsorted rocky rubble. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Tamping - Manipulation of concrete in a form to settle concrete and eliminate voids. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Talus - The loose accumulation of fragmented rock material on slopes, such as at the base of a cliff. A heap of broken, coarse rock found at the base of a cliff or mountain.

TAMRA - The Technical And Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988

The Technical And Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (TAMRA) - Repealed the capitalization rules under 263A for pre-productive expenses on animals.

TAN - Talk America Network

TAN - Transportation Network

Tank - An artificial reservoir for stock water; local in Southwest. - USGS

TAP - The AESOPIAN Project

TAP - The Americas Program--A New World of Ideas, Analysis, and Policy Options -- An IRC Initiative

TAP - Transboundary Aquifer Project (UNESCO)

Taproot (plants) - The primary root from which secondary (smaller, lateral) roots arise. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

TAP - Transboundary Aquifer Project (UNESCO)

TAPPI - Technical Association for the Pulp, Paper and converting Industry http://www.tappi.org 

TAQLUL - Transportation, Air Quality, Land Use, Leadership

Tar Sand - A commonly used name to describe a sedimentary rock reservoir impregnated with a very heavy, viscous crude oil which cannot be produced by conventional production techniques. Tar-sand infers a sandy sedimentary rock as the host, but this is not always the case as other porous rocks such as siltstone and fractured carbonates have also been classified as tar-sand. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

TARE - personal computer Time and Attendance Remote Entry (HUD)

Target - A National Forest's annual goals for accomplishment for natural resource programs. Targets represent the commitment the Forest Service has with Congress to accomplish the work Congress has funded, and are often used as a measure of the agency's performance.

Target prices - Support levels established by past law for wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, rice, and upland cotton. Prior to 1996, farmers participating in annual Federal commodity programs received deficiency payments based on the difference between the established target price, and the higher of the national average market price during a specified time period, or the national average loan rate established for the crop year. Target prices were not reauthorized by the 1996 Act. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Target Stocking - The desirable number of well-spaced trees per acre at age of first commercial thinning. (BLM)

Targeted Export Assistance Program (TEA) - A program authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 to assist U.S. producer groups in promoting exports of products adversely affected by foreign governments' unfair trade practices. TEA is the predecessor of the Market Promotion Program (MPP), which has been replaced by the Market Access Program (MAP).

Tariff - A tariff is a list or schedule of taxes, while a duty is the tax imposed on a specific item. However, the terms duty and tariff have come to be used interchangeably. In international trade, these taxes must be paid to a government on selected imported or sometimes exported goods. The Harmonized Tariff schedules of the United States (HTSUS) lists the items on which the United States levies duties. Tariffs may be protective of domestic producers (keeping domestic prices higher than world prices) or serve as revenue generators for the government. Tariffs are considered transparent trade barriers in contrast to several non-tariff barriers. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture requires conversion of non-tariff barriers to bound tariffs.

Tariff Act of 1930 - P.L. 71-361, also known as the Smoot-Hawley Act, is widely recognized as one of the most ill conceived of the many tariff laws passed by Congress. This protectionist law raised U.S. import tariffs to their highest levels in history, prompting U.S. trading partners to adopt their own retaliatory trade barriers and exacerbating the Great Depression. Ensuing U.S. policies have virtually eliminated the Act's most onerous provisions, but some elements of the amended law still serve as the authorizing vehicle for a number of general trade provisions of importance to the agricultural sector, including countervailing duties, antidumping duties, and country-of-origin labeling.

Tariff Rate Quota - A trade policy tool used to protect a domestically produced commodity or product from competitive imports. A tariff rate quota (TRQ) combines two policy instruments that nations historically have used to restrict such imports: quotas and tariffs. In a TRQ, the quota component works together with a specified tariff level to provide the desired degree of import protection. Imports entering during a specific time period under the quota portion of a TRQ are usually subject to a lower, or sometimes a zero, tariff rate. Imports above the quota's quantitative threshold face a much higher (usually prohibitive) tariff. Currently, TRQs apply to imports of certain dairy products, beef, cotton, peanuts, sugar, certain sugar-containing products, and tobacco.

Tariff Schedule - A list or schedule of duties imposed in the conduct of international trade. The Harmonized Tariff Schedules of the United States (HTSUS) lists the items on which the United States levies a duty (or tariff) or imposes an import or tariff rate quota. A specific duty, and/or quota amount, is assigned to each item on the schedule.

Tariffication - The conversion of non-tariff barriers to tariffs or tariff-rate quotas.

TARN - Talk America Radio Network

TART - Traverse Area Recreation and Transportation Trails, Inc.

TART Trails - Traverse Area Recreation and Transportation Trails, Inc. (Michigan) (Excerpt from their mission statement: Promotes non-motorized transportation for business and every-day commuter activities.)

TAS - Thesis, Antithesis, and Synthesis

TAS - Trust Among Stakeholders

TASC - Total Administrative Services Corporation

TASSC - The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition

TAX - Agricultural Tax Project

Taxa - A group of organisms sharing common characteristics in varying degrees of distinction and constituting one of the categories in taxonomic classification, such as a phylum, order, family, genus, or species. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Taxadjuncts - Soils that cannot be classified in a series recognized in the classification system. Such soils are named for a series they strongly resemble and are designated as taxadjuncts to that series because they differ in ways too small to be of consequence in interpreting their use and behavior. - USDA

Tax-Base Inequities - A term for the differences in tax generating uses like property and business taxes, between rich and poor communities.

Taxon (plural: taxa) - Unit (group) of organisms used in taxonomy (UN).

Taxon-based biodiversity surrogates - Taxon-based biodiversity surrogates schemes have been used widely in conservation management efforts in many parts of the world. The search for indicators of biodiversity has tended to focus on biological entities (e.g., gene frequencies, populations, species, species assemblages and communities) that might function as surrogates or proxies for other forms of biodiversity and/or reflect changes in ecosystem patterns or processes (Burgman & Lindenmayer 1998). Many types of biodiversity surrogate schemes have been proposed. Some of these include: indicator species, management indicator species, keystone species, umbrella species, and the focal species approach (Lindenmayer et al. 2000). The biodiversity surrogate scheme that has received greatest attention has been 'indicator species'. The term 'indicator species' has been used to mean many different things. Some examples of types of indicator species include: a species whose presence indicates the presence of a set of other species and whose absence indicates the lack of that entire set of species a keystone species, sensu Terborgh (1986), which is a species whose addition to, or loss from, an ecosystem leads to major changes in abundance or occurrence of at least one other species (e.g. Mills et al. 1993) a species whose presence indicates human-created abiotic conditions such as air or water pollution (often termed a pollution indicator species, Spellerberg 1994) a dominant species in the sense that it provides much of the biomass or number of individuals in an area a species that indicates particular environmental conditions like certain soil or rock types (Klinka et al. 1989) a species thought likely to be sensitive to, and to therefore serve as an early warning indicator of, environmental changes like global warming (Parsons 1991) or modified fire regimes (Wolseley & Aguirre-Hudson 1991) (sometimes termed a bioindicator species) a management indicator species, which is a species believed to reflect the effects of a disturbance regime or the efficacy of efforts to mitigate disturbance effects (Milledge et al. 1991). Types 1, 2 and 4 have been proposed as indicators of biodiversity and types 3, 5, 6 and 7 as indicators of abiotic conditions and/or changes in ecological processes. Taxon-based biodiversity surrogate schemes have wide appeal because it is simply impossible to measure, monitor and manage all of biodiversity (Burgman & Lindenmayer 1998). The fundamental assumption of all taxon-based surrogate schemes is that if resource management or landscape restoration efforts are targeted at a group of species, the needs of other taxa will be provided. However, as early as the 1980s, several workers raised concerns about the conceptual, theoretical and practical basis for taxon-based surrogate schemes (e.g. Landres et al. 1988). None of these concerns have been adequately answered in the intervening years (Lindenmayer et al. 2000). Some of the many problems which afflict taxon-based surrogate schemes are outlined below. The effects of human perturbation such as landscape change and habitat fragmentation varies for each species and also between groups of species. Hence, the response of a given species or suite of species to landscape modification may reveal very little about the response of many other species in the same or different assemblage or group. Any species that is the specific target for conservation by particular management actions can no longer be an independent yardstick of those actions and, in turn, be regarded as a suitable surrogate for other taxa. There are problems stemming simply from choosing the wrong biodiversity surrogate that can arise from a lack of understanding of the causal relationship between the response of that species and the ecosystem conditions for which it is supposed to be indicate. There are also problems stemming simply from choosing the wrong indicator species. The case of the Bivalve Mollusc (Velesunio ambiguus) in Australian river systems is a classic example. Early research suggested that the species was an indicator of the presence of heavy metals (Walker 1981). Subsequent work found that the uptake of heavy metals by Velesunio ambiguus did not reflect the extent of pollution in the surrounding riverine system, making the mollusc an unreliable, and thus entirely unsuitable, indicator species (Millington & Walker 1983). Robust causal relationships between surrogates and other elements of biodiversity have never been demonstrated (Lindenmayer et al. 2000). A recent study of surrogate schemes by Andelman and Fagan (2000) examined the efficacy of an array of types of taxon-based surrogate schemes including indicator species, flagship species and umbrella species. Andelman and Fagan (2000) found that none of the surrogate schemes captured more species or better protected habitat than a given species selected at random from the large databases they assembled to conduct their tests. Thus, a key problem with taxon-based surrogate schemes is that when a landscape is managed or restored in an attempt to meet the requirements of a given suite of species such as birds (e.g. through the focal species approach) it may be inappropriate to automatically assume that the food, shelter and breeding requirements of other plants and animals in the landscape have also been met. The inherent problems associated with the use of indicator species and other biodiversity surrogate schemes means that other approaches may be needed to conserve biodiversity as part of ecologically sustainable natural resource management. In the case of forest landscapes, Lindenmayer et al. (2000) recommended the adoption of what they termed 'structure-based' indicators. These included stand and landscape (spatial) level features of forests such as stand structural complexity and plant species composition, connectivity and heterogeneity. In addition to these structure-based indicators, Lindenmayer et al. (2000) advocated the following four key approaches to enhance biodiversity conservation in forests: the establishment of biodiversity priority areas (e.g., reserves) managed primarily for the conservation of biodiversity within production forests, the application of structure-based indicators, including structural complexity, connectivity and heterogeneity the deployment of a risk-spreading approach in wood production forests using multiple conservation strategies at multiple spatial scales the adoption of an adaptive management approach to test the validity of structure-based indices of biodiversity by treating management practices as experiments. Source: David Lindenmayer, Australian National University. http://ea.gov.au/soe/2001/biodiversity/biodiversity05-2.html 

Taxonomic - The classification of biological organisms. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Taxonomy - Classification of fossil and living organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (United Nations).

Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 (TGA) - P.L. 73-482 (June 28, 1934) provides for the regulation of grazing on the public lands (excluding Alaska) to improve rangeland conditions and stabilize the western livestock industry. The law initially permitted 80 million acres of previously unreserved public lands of the United States to be placed into grazing districts to be administered by the Department of the Interior as Division of Grazing (later renamed the Grazing Service). The Act created Taylor Grazing Districts. These districts were established to halt overgrazing and to control grazing pressure. TGA conferred broad powers on the Secretary of the Interior to do all things needed for the preservation and use of the unreserved public lands of the United States.. As amended, the law now sets no limit on the amount of lands in grazing districts. There are currently approximately 150 million acres in grazing districts. 1946 BLM created to take over the Taylor Grazing Districts and other unreserved public lands. It was not until 1976 that the BLM finally received legislative direction to manage these public lands. 1960 National Grasslands were created and administered by the Forest Service (subject to the Taylor Grazing Act). The National Grasslands approximately total 3.8 million acres. These laws are a result of the large amount of controversy regarding the management of grazing lands throughout the U.S., particularly in the West. To this day, there is still considerable controversy as to the management, degree of regulation and ownership of public grazing lands (e.g., Sagebrush Rebellion in Nevada during the Carter administration). The overall health of U.S. rangelands has improved and continues to improve as a result of increasing management and regulation since 1934.

Taylor-Raymond hoist - The most successful of several ammunition hoist designs, developed by Harry Taylor through a series of improvements upon an earlier design by Robert Raymond; Taylor and Raymond were both army engineer officers. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

TAZ - Traffic Analysis Zone

TB - Touring Bicycle

TBA - Take Back America

TBA - Take Back Arkansas

TBBC - The Black Book of Communism

TBCD - Technology-Based Curriculum Delivery

TBK - Take Back Kentucky

TBP - Telematics Best Practice

TBT - Take Back Tennessee

TBYNC - The Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council

TC - Takings Clause

TC - Tax Credits

TC - Teleconferencing

TC - Tenant Concerns (Conservation Fund)

TC - The Ten Commandments

TC - Thermal Cover (wildlife habitat)

TC - Territorial Conquest

TC - TransCore "TransCore is a world leader in providing transaction-based systems and services for mobile payment such as toll collection systems. TransCore is also a leader in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and provides traffic management systems and services throughout the world." Working to establish 'transportation corridors' in 'multiple species habitat conservation plans.' "...a global data exchange system to the United Nations Economic Commission..." http://www.transcore.com 

TC - Treasure Coast (Florida)

TC - Tides Center

TC - Traditional Communities

TC - Transportation Corridor

TC - Travel Corridors

TC - Treaty Commitments

TCA - Training in Community Analysis

TCA - Transportation Authority

TCC - Transit Coordination Committee

TCC - Treasure Coast Coalition (Florida)

TCCCCTI - The Compact of Cape Cod Conservation Trusts, Inc.

TCDC - Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (UN)

TCDIOBTCTI - They Can Dish It Out, But They Can't Take It

TCI - The Cordage Institute

TCK Smut - Tilletia controversa kuhn is a wheat fungus present in the Pacific Northwest. It takes on policy significance because China applies a zero tolerance on TCK spores resulting in a ban since 1974 on shipments from the Pacific Northwest. Until the summer of 1996, China accepted shipments of U.S. wheat from the Gulf coast, even if they contained traces of TCK and negotiated price discounts with the shippers to cover the cost of decontamination before the affected wheat was unloaded. In June 1996, China rejected cargoes of U.S. wheat with traces of TCK. China and the United States since have exchanged scientific teams as part of an effort to resolve the problem.

TCLSC - Thompson Chain of Lakes Steering Committee

TCM - Transportation Control Measures

TCMs - Transportation Control Measures (EPA/Clean Air Act) http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/tcm.htm 

TCNR - Texas Committee on Natural Resources (an anti-logging group)

TCP - The Coming Peace

TCP - The Cadiz Project (Mojave Desert, between Amboy and Danby)

TCP - Traditional Cultural Property

Traditional Cultural Property (TCP) - A cultural property that is eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places because of its association with a living community's cultural practices or beliefs that (a) are rooted in that community's history and (b) are important in maintaining the community's continuing cultural identity. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. A specific location where a community traditionally conducted exclusive or special activities, or has a unique significance in its spiritual or religious world. Its principal values are often intangible, and not restricted to locations of archaeological artifacts or locations. A Traditional Cultural Property may be encompassed by a Traditional Lifeway Area. - BLM

TCPS - Texas Center for Policy Studies

TCR - The Club of Rome

TCRF - Texas Constitution Ratification Fund

TCS - Taxpayers for Common Sense

TCSF - The Tahoe Center for a Sustainable Future

TCSP - Transportation and Community and System Preservation

TCT - Thaw Charitable Trust

TC2000 - Texas Constitution 2000

TD - Trip Diversion

TD - Talloires Declaration

The Talloires Declaration (TD) - ULSF is the Secretariat for signatories of the Talloires (pronounced Tal-Whar) Declaration. Composed in 1990 at an international conference in Talloires, France, this is the first official statement made by university administrators of a commitment to environmental sustainability in higher education. The Talloires Declaration (TD) is a ten-point action plan for incorporating sustainability and environmental literacy in teaching, research, operations and outreach at colleges and universities. It has been signed by over 300 university presidents and chancellors in over 40 countries. http://www.ulsf.org/programs_talloires.html  Text of The Tallories Declaration: We, the presidents, rectors, and vice chancellors of universities from all regions of the world are deeply concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air and water pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. These environmental changes are caused by inequitable and unsustainable production and consumption patterns that aggravate poverty in many regions of the world. We believe that urgent actions are needed to address these fundamental problems and reverse the trends. Stabilization of human population, adoption of environmentally sound industrial and agricultural technologies, reforestation, and ecological restoration are crucial elements in creating an equitable and sustainable future for all humankind in harmony with nature. Universities have a major role in the education, research, policy formation, and information exchange necessary to make these goals possible. Thus, university leaders must initiate and support mobilization of internal and external resources so that their institutions respond to this urgent challenge. We, therefore, agree to take the following actions: 1. Increase Awareness of Environmentally Sustainable Development. Use every opportunity to raise public, government, industry, foundation, and university awareness by openly addressing the urgent need to move toward an environmentally sustainable future. 2. Create an Institutional Culture of Sustainability. Encourage all universities to engage in education, research, policy formation, and information exchange on population, environment, and development to move toward global sustainability. 3. Educate for Environmentally Responsible Citizenship. Establish programs to produce expertise in environmental management, sustainable economic development, population, and related fields to ensure that all university graduates are environmentally literate and have the awareness and understanding to be ecologically responsible citizens. 4. Foster Environmental Literacy For All. Create programs to develop the capability of university faculty to teach environmental literacy to all undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. 5. Practice Institutional Ecology. Set an example of environmental responsibility by establishing institutional ecology policies and practices of resource conservation, recycling, waste reduction, and environmentally sound operations. 6. Involve All Stakeholders. Encourage involvement of government, foundations, and industry in supporting interdisciplinary research, education, policy formation, and information exchange in environmentally sustainable development. Expand work with community and non-governmental organizations to assist in finding solutions to environmental problems. 7. Collaborate for Interdisciplinary Approaches. Convene university faculty and administrators with environmental practitioners to develop interdisciplinary approaches to curricula, research initiatives, operations, and outreach activities that support an environmentally sustainable future. 8. Enhance Capacity of Primary and Secondary Schools. Establish partnerships with primary and secondary schools to help develop the capacity for interdisciplinary teaching about population, environment, and sustainable development. 9. Broaden Service and Outreach Nationally and Internationally. Work with national and international organizations to promote a worldwide university effort toward a sustainable future. 10. Maintain the Movement. Establish a Secretariat and a steering committee to continue this momentum, and to inform and support each other's efforts in carrying out this declaration. Creators and Original Signatories: Jean Mayer, President, Tufts University, U.S.A. (Conference Convener); Pablo Arce, Vice Chancellor, Universidad Autonoma de Centro America, Costa Rica; L. Ayo Banjo, Vice Chancellor, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Boonrod Binson, Chancellor, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Robert W. Charlton, Vice Chancellor & Principal, University of Witwatersrand, Union of South Africa; Constantine W. Curris, President, University of Northern Iowa, U.S.A.; Michele Gendreau-Massaloux, Rector, l'Academie de Paris, France; Mario Ojeda Gomez, President, Colegio de Mexico, Mexico; Adamu Nayaya Mohammed, Vice Chancellor, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria; Augusto Frederico Muller, President, Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; Calvin H. Plimpton, President Emeritus, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Wesley Posvar, President, University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A.; T. Navaneeth Rao, Vice Chancellor, Osmania University, India; Moonis Raza, Vice Chancellor Emeritus, University of New Delhi, India; Pavel D. Sarkisov, Rector, D. I. Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology U.S.S.R.; Stuart Saunders, Vice Chancellor & Principal, University of Cape Town, Union of South Africa; Akilagpa Sawyerr, Vice Chancellor, University of Ghana, Ghana: Carlos Vogt, President, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil; David Ward, Vice Chancellor (University of Wisconsin-Madison, U.S.A.); Xide Xie, President Emeritus, Fudan University, People's Republic of China http://www.ulsf.org/programs_talloires_td.html 

TD - Troop Deployment

TD - Trust Document

TDC - Toxic Discharge Control

TDC - Tourist Development Council

TDM - Travel Demand Management

TDPHO - Total Duck Production Habitat Objective

TDR - Transfer of Development Rights

TDRs - Transferable Development Rights

Transferable Development Rights - In lieu of purchasing a conservation easement by eminent domain or otherwise, a governing body prohibits construction and awards property owners "transferable development rights" (TDR's) which allow increased development elsewhere above the zoning restrictions. TDR's are supposed to be saleable on the open market to some other person in the planning district. The governing body does not offer to buy the TDR's at the fair market value of conservation easements. In an example under litigation presently, after decreeing that certain lands were allowed no construction, the Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency broke up the remnants of the fee simple ownership of property into the unbuildable land and TDR's that had components of residential development rights, land coverage rights and residential allocations. In the Amicus Curiae Brief of Richard Epstein with the Institute for Justice for Bernadine Suitum v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency pending before the U.S. Supreme Court, the discussion of Transferable Development rights states, "These propositions confuse an owner's right to use her own property with the owner's obligation to sell it in order to minimize the State's constitutional duty to provide just compensation for the state-imposed restrictions." (See Suitum v. Tahoe Regional Development Agency 80 F. 3d 359, 9th Cir. 1996.) (See Ripeness) TDR's use one theft as a palliative for another, What government takes away from one person by zoning, it gives to a second person (or to the same person, as in the Penn Central case) for taking away his property. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

TDS - Total Dissolved Solids

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) - Salt (an aggregate of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, sulfates, and nitrates of calcium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, and other cations) that form salts. High TDS solutions can change the chemical nature of water, exert varying degrees of osmotic pressure, and often become lethal to aquatic life. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. The total quantity (reported in milligrams per liter) of dissolved materials in water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

TE - Tax-Exempt

TE - Trainable Employees

TE - Transportation Enhancements

TEA - Transportation Enhancement Activity

TEAs - Transportation Enhancement Activities

TECS - Treasury Enforcement Communications System

Telautograph booth - A free-standing concrete structure (but also a recess) that housed a telautograph, an electro-mechanical distance-writing instrument. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Telluride - A chemical compound consisting of tellurium and another element, often gold or silver.

TEAM - Taxpayers for the Environment and its Management

TEAMFM - TEAM Families for Montana

TEAMS - Texas Assessment of Minimum Skills test

TEA-21 - Transportation Equity Act

Technical Co-operation - Includes both (a) grants to nationals of aid recipient countries receiving education or training at home or abroad, and (b) payments to consultants, advisers and similar personnel as well as teachers and administrators serving in recipient countries, (including the cost of associated equipment). Assistance of this kind provided specifically to facilitate the implementation of a capital project is included indistinguishably among bilateral project and programme expenditures, and not separately identified as technical co operation in statistics of aggregate flows. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary 2. Article 22 of the Convention establishes the provision of assistance for technical co-operation to States Parties for the conservation of properties included in the World Heritage List. Technical co-operation is one of the types of international assistance available from the World Heritage Fund. States Parties can request technical co-operation for a number of specified purposes as outlined in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 34-36, Paragraphs 99-106) using the form entitled "Request for Technical Co-operation" (UNESCO 1990a). The form is also available electronically via the INTERNET at the following address See International assistance - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Technical evaluations - See Evaluation, ICOMOS evaluation, IUCN Evaluation - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Technically justified - Justified on the basis of conclusions reached by using an appropriate pest risk analysis or, where applicable, another comparable examination and evaluation of available scientific information. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

TED - Turner Environmental Division

TEET - Technological, Economic and Educational Tools

TEK - Traditional Ecological Knowledge

TEMA - The East Manzano Alliance

TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

Temperate forest - Forests situated between the tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere or between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere. A climate which is warm in the summer, cold in the winter, and moderate in the spring and fall. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Temple of Understanding - See National Religious Partnership for the Environment.

Temporal - Of, pertaining to, or limited by time.

Temporal Scales - Time-constrained modeling system management.

Temporary road - A subset of a road, a temporary road is authorized by contract, permit, lease, other written authorization or emergency operation, not intended to be a part of the forest transportation system and not necessary for long-term resource management. - USDA/FS

Temporary Taking - First English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v. Los Angeles County, California, (U.S. Supreme Court 1987, Chief Justice Rehnquist): The Supreme Court ruled that where regulation destroys the right of a landowner to use his property, the burden to a "property owner in extinguishing such an interest for a period of years may be great indeed." "Where this burden results from governmental action that amounted to a taking, the Just Compensation Clause of the Fifth Amendment requires that the government pay the landowner for the value of the use of the land during this period." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Temperate - Geographic regions with moderate temperatures and climate e.g. Midwestern and Eastern United States. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Tender vessel - A vessel that does not engage in purse seine fishing but tends to FADs in support of tuna fishing operations. - MFCMA

The Tennessee Valley Authority's Land Between The Lakes Biosphere Reserve - See Land Between The Lakes Biosphere

Tenor - The relative value or mineral content of an ore.

Tensile force - Force which seeks to pull materials apart. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Tentative Grazing Capacity - An estimated grazing capacity based on the initial range allotment analysis inventory, but not verified under actual grazing conditions. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Tentative list - Article 11 of the Convention establishes the requirement for States Parties to prepare an inventory of property (UNESCO 1972). The Operational Guidelines refer to these inventories as tentative lists. Paragraphs 7 and 8 of the Operational Guidelines provide further advice to States Parties as to the definition of tentative lists. 7. The Committee requests each State Party to submit to it a tentative list of properties which it intends to nominate for inscription to the World Heritage List during the following five to ten years. This tentative list will constitute the "inventory" (provided for in Article 11 of the Convention) of the cultural and natural properties situated within the territory of each State Party and which it considers suitable for inclusion in the World Heritage List. The purpose of these tentative lists is to enable the Committee to evaluate within the widest possible context the "outstanding universal value" of each property nominated to the List. The Committee hopes that States Parties that have not yet submitted a tentative list will do so as early as possible. States Parties are reminded of the Committee's earlier decision not to consider cultural nominations unless such a list of cultural properties has been submitted. 8. In order to facilitate the work of all concerned, the Committee requests States Parties to submit their tentative lists in a standard format (See Annex 1) which provides for information under the following headings: the name of the property; the geographical location of the property; a brief description of the property; a justification of the "outstanding universal value" of the property in accordance with the criteria and conditions of authenticity or integrity set out in paragraphs 24 and 44 below, taking account of similar properties both inside and outside the boundaries of the State concerned. Natural properties should be grouped according to biogeographical provinces and cultural properties should be grouped according to cultural periods or areas. The order in which the properties listed would be presented for inscription should also be indicated, if possible (UNESCO February 1996: 3-4). As stated above the "Model for presenting a tentative list" is included as Annex 1 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996). See Inventory of property - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

TEP - Teacher Education Program

TERA - Tracking Ecosystem Restoration Activities

Terete - Cylindrical; circular in cross-section. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

TERI - Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (UN)

Term - Refers to the specific meaning of a word used to define/express a concept. The definitions of terms for a particular classification should be precise, accompanied by explanatory definitions which will make them readily understood by non-experts, and agreed upon by the classification experts and main users of the resulting statistics. (UN)

Terminal Elevator - Large elevator (warehouse) facility with the capacity to transfer grain to rail cars, barges, or ships for transport to domestic or foreign markets.

Terminal Market - A central site, often in a metropolitan area, that serves as an assembly and trading place for agricultural commodities. Terminal markets are usually at or near major transportation hubs.

Terminology (classification) - Refers to the system of terms commonly used or adapted for use in a classification. Wording or terminology, which may have broader meanings within the wider community, may have specific meaning within the context of given classifications. For example, `industry' and `homogeneity ratios' have unique definitions in the context of industry classifications. (UN)

Terminology - The representative of the United States of America inquired about the extent of collaboration by United Nations terminology services in the preparation of the document, and whether there had been any duplication of effort by the two bodies. He was informed that the Working Group was autonomous, but that the United Nations would be involved in the production of the glossary. It was reported on behalf of the Terminology Committee of the Place-Name Survey of the United States (PLANSUS) that PLANSUS would await publication of the United Nations Glossary, in order to avoid any duplication of effort or discrepancies in the production of its own dictionary of toponymic terms. The United States and Canada were of the opinion that any glossary prepared by PLANSUS should be specialized and aimed at the research community. Hungary presented a paper containing remarks on definitions. As these were based on the previous version of the glossary, published in May 1991, several terms had already been corrected. Czechoslovakia supported the corrections of some terms, as mentioned in the paper. The representative of Israel thought it necessary to add the term "minority name". The new glossary had been used for both lectures and exercises at the recent training course held in Pretoria, South Africa. The United States of America presented a paper on linguistic terminology in toponymy and emphasized that approximately one third of the terms in the glossary were derived from the science of linguistics. It was felt that terminology was needed for the purposes of communication, and it was recommended that definitions be explicit, objective and succinct. The representative of the United States elaborated on the high level of interrelationship of terms, and highlighted the consequent danger of arbitrary additions, deletions and modifications by providing several examples. - Fifth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, Montreal, 18-31 August 1987, vol. I, Report of the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.88.I.7), chap. III. Also 17 December 1993, New York. Also sixth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, New York, 25 August - 3 September 1992

Terms of trade - The ratio of export prices to import prices. A high ratio benefits an economy, because then the country can pay for many imports by selling a small amount of exports. If terms of trade worsen, the country needs to sell more exports to buy the same amount of imports. - WB

Terrace - A relatively flat area lying between the various levels of bench gravels. An embankment, ridge, or leveled strip constructed across sloping soils on the contour or at a right angle to the contour. The terrace intercepts surface runoff so that it can soak into the soil or flow slowly to a prepared outlet, decreasing rates of soil erosion.

Terrace - A berm or discontinuous segments of a berm, in a valley at some height above the flood plain, representing a former abandoned flood plain of the stream. - USGS 2. An embankment, or ridge, constructed across sloping soils on the contour or at a slight angle to the contour. The terrace intercepts surface runoff so that water soaks into the soil or flows slowly to a prepared outlet. - USDA

Terrace (geologic) - An old alluvial plain, ordinarily flat or undulating, bordering a river, a lake, or the sea. - USDA

Terrain - The physical features of a piece of land. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Terrestrial - Growing or living in or on the land.

Terrestrial radiation - The portion of the natural background radiation that is emitted by naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium, and radon in the earth. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Terrestrial Species - Ground-dwelling plants and animals. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Terrestrial wildlife habitat restored or enhanced (acres) - Restoration and enhancement is accomplished using appropriated funds through application of a variety of management practices such as prescribed burns, seeding to improve foraging habitat for game birds, or manipulating vegetation to obtain the desired habitat condition. - FS 2. - The total number of acres restored or enhanced to achieve desired future condition of habitat using appropriated funds. Restoration and improvement techniques include prescribed burns, seeding to improve foraging habitat for game birds, and manipulating vegetation to obtain desired habitat condition. - FS

Territory - A region within an animal's home range that is defended from conspecifics. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

TERSA - Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness

TERT - Taxable Estate Revocable Trust

Tertiary consumers - Larger consumers in the fourth trophic level like adult northern pike, ospreys and humans that eat fish. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

TES - Terrestrial

TES - The Ecotourism Society

TES - Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive (Species) (DOI/BLM)

TES - Threatened and Endangered Species

TESF - The Turner Endangered Species Fund "Each year tens of thousands of species and attendant ecological actions, fine-tuned by time and place, disappear at the hand of man. These losses strip away the redundancy and certainty of nature and diminish the lives of millions of people. If these trends continue, the world will become a dismal place indeed, with silent springs and hot summers and little left to excite the senses except the weeds. Without doubt, the extinction crisis looms as one of humanity's most pressing problems. In response to the crisis, Mr. Ted Turner and his family launched in June 1997 the Turner Endangered Species Fund. This private, non-profit charity dedicates itself to conserving biodiversity by ensuring the persistence of imperiled species and their habitats. We at the Turner Endangered Species Fund concentrate our efforts on carnivores, grasslands, plant-pollinator complexes, and species that historically ranged onto properties owned by Ted Turner. Our activities rest upon the principles of conservation biology. We support the distribution of reliable scientific and policy information on biodiversity conservation. (TESF publications and presentations) We work closely with state and federal agencies, universities, and private organizations. We operate on the belief that many minds wrapped around a problem build a certain route to success. Whether we endeavor to manage an existing population or restore an extinct one, our goal is population persistence with little or no human intervention. We believe that self-sustaining populations of native species indicate a landscape that is healthy or at least recovering. It clearly will take much work to establish the Turner Endangered Species Fund as an effective force in conservation. This work will be difficult because private stewardship of biodiversity is new, the problems are complex, and effective solutions require broad-based biological, sociopolitical, geographic, and fiscal considerations. Many of our projects will be controversial, slow to succeed, and fraught with uncertainty, and some may fail. The difficulty will come not because we were ill prepared or because we did not work hard but because restoration is an imprecise process about which scientists as yet know little. But this will not diminish our substantial resolve. We believe that real solutions to the extinction crisis will come through the genius and determination of mankind. We intend to contribute by establishing a new measure for conserving the wondrous diversity of life on Earth." http://tesf.org/ 

TESS - The Threatened and Endangered Species System online database http://ecos.fws.gov/servlet/TESSSpeciesQuery 

TEST - Total Educational Solutions in Technology (based in Lewiston, MT)

TF - Task Force

TF - Tax-Free

TF - Tectonic Features

TF - The Firm

TF - Toxic Fuel

TF - Transportation Facility

TF - Turfgrass Foundation (NJ)

TFAP - Teach For America Program

TFAP - Tropical Forestry Action Plan (IUCN)

TFAP - Tropical Forest Action Program (IUCN)

TFC - The Foundation Center

TFCA - Tropical Forest Conservation Act

TFERSGPR - Task Force on Environmental Regulation, Smart Growth and Property Rights (AASPO)

TFF - Transportation Founders Fund http://www.itre.ncsu.edu/ITREmain/TFF/index.html 

TFFM - Tax-Free Foundation Money

TFL - Traditional Freedom Lovers

TFM - The Feminine Mystique

TFM - Tranportacion Ferroviaria Mexicana (NAFTA Railway)

TFP - Total Factor Productivity

TFP - Transboundary Flathead Project

TFPA - Traditional Flood Plain Area(s)

TFRB - Tax-Free Revenue Bonds

TFRK - Local/traditional forest-related knowledge (UN) http://www.un.int/malaysia/CC/CC1Feb00.html 

TG - Territorial Growth

TG - Tribal Government

TGA - Taylor Grazing Act (1934)

TGB - Teacher's Guide on Biodiversity

TGH - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

TGP - Temporary Government Program (author's note: an oxymoron if ever there WAS one!)

TGR - The Golden Rule

TGT - Tying the Generations Together

TH - Timber Harvest

TH - Title Holder

TH - Town Hall

TH - Trunk Highway

THC - Time-Honored Concept

The Club of Rome - See Club of Rome.

THEMIS - Thermal Emission Imaging System (NASA)

Thermal Coal - Coal burned to generate the steam that drives turbines to generate electricity.

Thermal Cover - Cover used by animals to modify the adverse effects of weather. For elk, thermal cover can be found in a stand of coniferous trees at least forty feet tall with a crown closure of at least seventy percent.

Thermal stratification (of a lake) - Vertical temperature stratification that shows the following: The upper layer of the lake, known as the epilimnion, in which the water temperature is virtually uniform; a stratum next below, known as the thermocline, in which there is a marked drop in temperature per unit of depth; and the lowermost region or stratum, known as the hypolimnion, in which the temperature from its upper limit to the bottom is nearly uniform. (Welch, 1952, p. 51.) - USGS

Thematic studies - Thematic and regional studies of cultural and natural heritage are important contributions of the Global Strategy. Such studies provide the comparative basis from which to evaluate the outstanding universal value of properties nominated for inclusion in the World Heritage List. In recent years a number of regional and thematic meetings have been held on the subject of cultural landscapes of outstanding universal value. See Global Strategy - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Thermocline - See Thermal stratification. - USGS

Thickener - A large, round tank used in milling operations to separate solids from liquids; clear fluid overflows from the tank and rock particles sink to the bottom.

Thinning - A cutting made in an immature stand of trees to accelerate growth of the remaining trees, redistribute growth potential, or to improve the form of the remaining trees.

Theme - The general focus or subject of variations on landscape character settings. Themes range from a naturally evolving landscape to an urban landscape. - FS

THP - Timber Harvest Plan

THPO - Tribal Historic Preservation Officer

THPOs - Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

Threatened Species - Those plant or animal species likely to become endangered throughout all or a specific portion of their range within the foreseeable future as designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. A plant or animal identified and defined in accordance with the 1973 Endangered Species Act and published in the Federal Register.

Threatened And Endangered Species Grants - Also known a Section 6 Grants, because they are specified and explained in Section 6 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Eligible Participants: Any state or territory, which establishes and maintains an adequate and active program for the conservation of endangered and threatened species is eligible. The state natural resource agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must enter into a Cooperative Agreement, which specifies the state's authority for management of endangered and threatened species, before the Service can provide funds for projects proposed by the state. Continued eligibility is renewed annually by reviewing any changes to the state's management authority or to their endangered and threatened species program. ... The Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region usually receives about $450,000 to 500,000 in Section 6 grants. However, the proposed projects received from the states usually total more than three times that amount. Pages 69 and 70 http://midwest.fws.gov/planning/ldarbyfinalreport.pdf

Thin layer - Otherwise suitable soil material too thin for the specified use. - USDA

Thriving Ecological Natural Balance - A thriving ecological balance occurs when: 1) use of key perennial forage species within Herd Management Areas does not exceed 50 percent for grasses and 45 percent of current year's growth for shrubs and forbs; 2) forage plant species exhibit static or apparent upward trend; 3) sufficient water is available for the number of animals found in the Herd Management Area; and 4) the wild horses and burros found in an area are in fair to good physical condition throughout the year. - BLM

Throughfall - In a vegetated area, the precipitation that falls directly to the ground or the rainwater or snowmelt that drops from twigs or leaves. (After Hoover, 1953, p. 1.) (See Stemflow. ) - USGS

TI - Tectonic Interpretations

TI - Terra Industries

TI - Thoreau Institute

TI - Transportation Infrastructure

TIA - Takings Implication Assessment

TIAA - Travel Industry Association of America

TIAER - Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research http://tiaer.tarleton.edu 

TIC - Talk Is Cheap

TIC - Tenants In Common

TIC - Traffic Information Center

Tidal waters - Those waters that rise and fall in a predictable and measurable rhythm or cycle due to the gravitational pulls of the moon and sun. Tidal waters end where the rise and fall of the water surface can no longer be practically measured in a predictable rhythm due to masking by hydrologic, wind, or other effects. 33 CFR 328.3(f).

Tide - The periodic variation in the surface level of the oceans and of bays, gulfs, inlets and estuaries caused by gravitational attraction of the moon and sun. - Everglades Plan glossary

Tie - The bearings and dimensions or other evidence or information that accurately defines the location of a point or monument. - Cadastral Data glossary

Tie Points - Offset monuments set by the city engineer to mark street lines are commonly called tie points. - Cadastral Data glossary

Tied - As used in surveying, monuments are tied together by measurements. A property corner is tied to offset monuments or to other property corners. - Cadastral Data glossary

Tied Aid Credits - Official or officially supported Loans, credits or Associated Financing packages where procurement of the goods or services involved is limited to the donor country or to a group of countries which does not include substantially all developing countries (or CEEC/NIS countries in transition, cf. PARTIALLY UNTIED AID). Tied Aid Credits are subject to certain disciplines concerning their concessionality levels, the countries to which they may be directed, and their developmental relevance so as to avoid using aid funds on projects that would be commercially viable with private finance, and to ensure that recipient countries receive good value. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Tier - The east-west row of townships. - Cadastral Data glossary

Tiering - Refers to the coverage of general matter in broader Environmental Impact Statements or Environmental Assessments with subsequent other related statements in Environmental Assessments incorporated, by reference, the discussions contained in the previous document, solely on the issues specific to the statement subsequently prepared.

Tiering - The procedure which allows an agency to avoid duplication of paperwork through incorporation by reference of the general discussions and relevant specific discussions from an environmental impact statement (EIS) of broader scope into a subsequent EIS of narrower scope. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Tiered EIS - Tiering refers to the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as national program or policy statements) with subsequent narrower statements or environmental analyses (such as regional or basinwide program statements or ultimately site-specific statements) incorporating by reference the general discussions and concentrating solely on the issues specific to the statement subsequently prepared. Tiering is appropriate when the sequence of statements or analyses is: (1) From a program, plan, or policy environmental impact statement to a program, plan, or policy statement or analysis of lesser scope or to a site-specific statement or analysis; or (2) From an environmental impact statement on a specific action at an early stage (such as need and site selection) to a supplement (which is preferred) or a subsequent statement or analysis at a later stage (such as environmental mitigation). Tiering in such cases is appropriate when it helps the lead agency to focus on the issues which are ripe for decision and exclude from consideration issues already decided or not yet ripe. 40 CFR 1508.28.

TIES - The International Ecotourism Society

TIF - Tax Increment Financing

Tile Drain - Lines of concrete or ceramic (clay) pipe placed in the subsoil to collect and drain water from the soil to an outlet.

Till - An un-stratified and unconsolidated sediment deposited by glaciers.

Till plain - An extensive area of nearly level to undulating soils underlain by glacial till. - USDA

TLR - The Trust for Land Restoration (Mr. Pat Willits, Director of the FLR and mayor of Ridgeway, Colorado. Former Southwest Colorado Program Manager for The Nature Conservancy and a former board member of the Black Canyon Regional Land Trust in Montrose, Colorado.)

Tilth, soil - The physical condition of the soil as related to tillage, seedbed preparation, seedling emergence, and root penetration. - USDA

Timber - A size classification of lumber in which the smallest dimension is at least five inches. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Timber Classification - The classification of forested lands into land management alternatives according to how the land relates to management of the timber resource.

Timber Dependency - As used in this report, the percentage of all earnings in a county represented by timber-related earnings (SIC codes 08 and 24 of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis). - USDA/FS

Timber Management Plan - An activity plan that specifically addresses procedures related to the offering and sale of timber volume consistent with the approved allowable sale quantity. (BLM)

Timber Production Capability Classification (TPCC) - The process of partitioning forestland into major classes indicating relative suitability to produce timber on a sustained yield basis. (BLM)

Timberland - Lands that can grow annually a minimum amount of wood that can be used to produce commercial wood products; excludes lands where timber cutting is prohibited by law or by executive decision.

Timberland - Forested land that is capable of producing crops of industrial wood at a rate of at least 20 cf/ac per year and has not been withdrawn from timber production. (Some forest lands are not classified by the FIA as timberland because they are unproductive and some-such as national parks and wildernesses-because by law, they are off limits to harvesting.) - USDA/FS

Timberland - Forest land capable of producing 20 cubic feet of wood per acre per year. - Bioenergy Glossary

Timber Market Zones - Geographic areas used as a basis for analyzing the economic effects of timber sale programs on national forests. The zones comprise counties with national forest lands plus those counties that have mills that purchase national forest timber. - USDA/FS

Timber Products - Roundwood products and byproducts. - USDA/FS

Timber removals - The merchantable volume of trees removed from the inventory by harvesting, cultural operations such as stand improvement, land clearing, or changes in land use. - USDA/FS

Timber-Significant County - A county where the forest products industry represents a significant share of the economy. - USDA/FS

Timber Sale - a contract for the sale of federal timber to a private purchaser with the right to cut and remove trees for an agreed-upon stumpage price; the contract includes an estimated volume of wood and an appraised stumpage price, which is the basis for competitive bidding by purchasers.

Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) - Actions to improve growing conditions for trees in a stand, such as thinning, pruning, prescribed fire, or release cutting.

Timber stand improvement - Intermediate pruning, weeding, and thinning of a stand of timber prior to its reaching mature rotation age to improve growing conditions and control stand composition.

Timber Types - A descriptive classification of forest land based on present occupancy of an area by tree species (i.e. lodgepole, mixed conifer). More appropriately called cover types, this category is further defined by the composition of its vegetation and/or environmental factors that influence its locality.

TIME - Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades

Time of concentration - The time required for water to flow from the farthest point on the watershed to the gaging station. (Ramser, 1927, p. 804.) - USGS

Time reference - A point in time or a period of time to which the data collected refer. A point of time may be either a specific date or day of enumeration. A period is used for reporting the activities, such as employment or production, and refers usually to an agricultural year. -FAO UN Glossary

Timetable - The procedure and timetable for the processing of nominations (including deadlines for the receipt, examination and evaluation of nominations) is presented in Paragraphs 65 to 67 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 23-25). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Tinajas - Surface depressions in rock formations, particularly sandstone, that collect water and provide habitat for specialized plant and animal species. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

TIO - Total Industrial Output

Total Industrial Output (TIO) - The value of production by industry for a given time period. Output can be measured by the total value of purchases by intermediate and final consumers, or by intermediate outlays plus value added. Output can also be thought of as value of sales plus or minus inventory (p. 233, MN IMPLAN 1997b). - USDA/FS

Tioga County REAP Zone - Tioga County, New York, experienced a substantial drop in non-agricultural and manufacturing jobs between 1990 and 1993. Over 2,400 jobs were lost through reductions in force by IBM and Department of Defense spending cutbacks. The lack of adequate employment within the Tioga County requires up to 55 percent of the County's workforce to commute outside the county. At the same time, Tioga County has many assets and natural amenities that contribute to its appeal and potential as a highly desirable and livable rural community. The Susquehanna River running along the southern tier of the County provides commercial, recreational, and educational opportunities to the communities located on its banks. Tioga's agricultural based economy is experimenting with agri-clusters and agri-tourism with some early signs of success; and large stands of privately held forests provide local businesses an opportunity to develop a value-added wood product industry. In addition to these attributes, Tioga County's educational system is competitive and local elected officials seem eager to capitalize on this track record to build stronger ties between the school system and local communities it serves. The Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP), as a pilot program, is established to mitigate the negative effects of a lack of employment opportunities and job losses. REAP Zones are also established to create an environment for communities to find strategies to solve their own problems. The outcomes and lessons learned will help USDA to assist other communities throughout rural America experiencing similar problems.

TIP - Tax-based Income Policy

TIP - Transportation Improvement Programs

Tipping fee - A fee for disposal of waste. - Bioenergy Glossary

TIS - Technical Information System

Titanium - A gray, light and strong metallic chemical element used in metal alloys. Alloys of titanium are used in aerospace and other applications where high strength-to-weight ratios are required. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Title - Ownership. - Cadastral Data glossary

Title of Land - The means whereby an owner has just possession of his property. It is the evidence of his right, extent of his interest, or means whereby he is able to assert, maintain, or continue his possession. - Cadastral Data glossary

TL! - Tread Lightly!

TLBWSD - Tulare Lake Basin Water Storage District (California)

TLC - The Liberty Committee

TLC - Transportation for Livable Communities (The Metropolitan Transportation Commission - MTC)

TLC - Trilateral Commission

TLE - Toxic Lead Emissions

TLN - Teaching Leader Network

TLV - Traditional Lifeway Values

Traditional Lifeway Values (TLV) - Values that are important for maintaining a specific group's traditional system of religious belief, cultural practice, or social interaction. A group's shared traditional lifeway values are abstract, nonmaterial, ascribed ideas that cannot be discovered except through discussions with members of the group. These values may or may not be closely associated with definite locations. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

TLS - Transport Layer Security

TM - Temporary Morgue

TM - Tex Mex (NAFTA Railway)

TM - Trade Mark

TM - Training Modules

TMA - The Museum Approach

TMA - Toy Manufacturers of America, Incorporated

TMA - Transportation Management Area

TMC - Tecumseh Marketing Club

TMC - The Magic Circle (used to ask "family values" questions of children to learn their upbringings)

TMDF - The Mule Deer Foundation (also MDF) http://www.muledeer.org/ 

TMDL - Total Maximum Daily Load

TMDTL - Total maximum daily thermal load (EPA)

TMG - The Maestros Group (Mexican power company)

TMI - Three Mile Island

TMI - Typical Mineral Inventory

TMI - The Mountain Institute

TMIP - The Travel Model Improvement Program (UN)

TMLA - Te-Moak Livestock Association (NV - Western Shoshone)

TMO - Timber Management Objective(s)

TMP - The Maine Project. The Appalachian Mountain Club is working on a new, model project for outdoor recreation and land protection in Maine. In early June, Gerry Whiting, AMCs Special Projects Manager in Maine, and I held meetings in Portland and Bangor to obtain input from AMC members on the project's concept. While turnout was not as high as we hoped, we did get feedback that's helping to shape the project. One important thing we learned is that the name we have been using, the Recreational Corridor, does not adequately describe the scale of the project. It's a lot more than just recreation. While we have not yet come up with a new name (we're calling it the "Maine Project" for now), the following description of its goals and objectives will let you know what it's all about. The Maine Project is being designed to provide a variety of opportunities for non-motorized, backcountry recreation; for example, hiking, paddling, cross-country skiing, and mountain biking. It will ensure continued public access to large tracts of forestland in the North Woods. The project will be part of a landscape that includes sustainable forestry and protection of ecologically significant lands. We anticipate the timeline of this project to unfold slowly, and be a focus for AMC activities for next 50-100 years. Through this project, we hope to: provide and protect recreational access to the North Woods; create new, and needed, long-distance and day hiking opportunities; create opportunities for quiet paddling and backcountry, nordic skiing, within a framework of already existing uses, such as fishing and hunting; work with conservation partners to ensure protection of important wildlife habitat; provide a physical base for environmental education, especially for school children; provide for low-impact backcountry overnight facilities; protect jobs and ensure the economic viability of Maine's forest land by supporting a model sustainable forestry project. As this project is still very much in its early stages, it will benefit from your continued input. Feedback received so far indicates members are very interested in the AMC playing a lead role to protect North Woods land from development and to ensure continued public access. Members also feel wilderness protection should be an important part of the project mix; that we should create new opportunities for multi-day hiking, paddling, and nordic skiing; that any facilities or camps should be used for many purposes, including environmental education; and that we should work with existing users, such as snowmobilers and sportsmen, to work out compatible use arrangements. Gerry is currently talking with potential partners and looking for land that we might purchase outright or acquire some less-than-full-title interest in (an easement). We are very open to the possibilities for this project. As Maine-based AMC staff, Gerry and I look forward to keeping our members informed about the project as it progresses, and welcome members, the Chapter board and its committees to become involved in this project. The AMC views the Maine Project as an important investment in Maine, the Northern Forest, and ensuring a balance between recreation, conservation, education and sustainable forestry. http://home.gwi.net/amcmaine/articles/article53.htm 

TMP - Topographic Mapping Program

TMP - Treaty-Making Power

TMW - Trained and Motivated Workforce (under GPRA)

TN - Transnational Network

TN - Treaty Negotiations

TN - Trespass Notice

TNC - Texas Nature Conservancy

TNC - The Nature Conservancy ("Nature's real estate agent")

TNC - Transnational Company

TNC - Transnational Corporation

TNC - Trans National Corporations

TND - Traditional Neighborhood Development

Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) - Related to Smart Growth. Traditional Neighborhood Developments are a particular type of developer created housing and retail developments that stress density, walkability, mixed-use, and pedestrian-friendly layout. This contrasts to the typical housing development built these days which emphasize automobile ownership, large homes, and separation between living, working, and commercial districts. The term is often used interchangeably with New Urbanism. The developments are created to mimic the look and feel of "traditional" neighborhoods, i.e., those that were built before the development of the interstate highway system and widespread use of automobiles.

TNDC - Traditional Neighborhood Development Code

TNG - The Next Generation

TNNCC - Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission

TNOT - The Nature Of Things

TNP - The Noah Project

TNS - The Natural Step

TNS - The Newspaper Society

TNT - The National Trust

TNT - Tying Nashville Together

To - "To", "on", "by", "at" and "along" a road carry title to the center line unless otherwise qualified. "To" implies contact. "To" does not always include an object, as "to a certain property" does not include the property. But "to a stone" usually means "to the center of the stone". "To" is directional, as "90 degrees to (not with)" or "at right angles to". "To" is a word of exclusion rather than inclusion. If you go "to" an object, you exclude other objects. - Cadastral Data glossary

TOA - Terms Of Agreement

"To Be" Process Model - A process model that results from a business process redesign/reengineering action. The "to be" model shows how the business process will function after the improvement action is implemented. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

TOC - The Ocean Conservancy

TODS - Tourist Oriented Directional Sign

Toe slope - The outermost inclined surface at the base of a hill; part of a foot slope. - USDA

Tolerance - The maximum amount of a pesticide allowable in a food or feed product before it is considered adulterated, usually specified in parts per million. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Tons-per-vertical-meter - Common unit used to describe the amount of ore in a deposit - ore length is multiplied by the width and divided by the appropriate rock factor to give the amount of ore for each vertical meter of depth.

TOO - Target Of Opportunity

Topic - Refers to the specific meaning of a word used to define/express a concept. The definitions of terms for a particular classification should be precise, accompanied by explanatory definitions which will make them readily understood by non-experts, and agreed upon by the classification experts and main users of the resulting statistics. (UN)

Topographic - The surface landscape of a geographic area, especially changes in elevation. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Topography - The physical features of the surface in an area.

Topping cycle - A cogeneration system in which electric power is produced first. The reject heat from power production is then used to produce useful process heat. - Bioenergy Glossary

TOPS - Targeting Outcomes of Programs

Topsoil - The surface layer of soil containing partly decomposed organic debris, which is usually high in nutrients, contains many seeds, and is rich in mycorrhizae. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

TOR - The Trustees Of Reservations ('land trust' or 'conservation organization') http://www.thetrustees.org/ 

Toronto Terms - Toronto Terms originated at the Toronto world economic summit in June 1988. They apply to countries designated by the World Bank as "IDA-only" borrowers which have very heavy debt-service, low per capita income and chronic balance of payment problems. - WB

Tortuous - Bent or twisted in various directions. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Total Income - the sum of employees' compensation, proprietor's income, and property type income. - USDA/FS

Total maximum daily load - An estimate of the total quantity of pollutants (from all sources - point, nonpoint, and natural) that may be allowed into waters without exceeding applicable water quality standards. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html 

Total Quality Management - An approach that motivates, supports, and enables quality management in all activities of the organization, focusing on the needs and expectations of internal and external customers. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Total Receipts - The inflow of resources to aid recipient countries includes, in addition to ODF, official and private EXPORT CREDITS (q.v.), and long and short term private transactions (see PRIVATE FLOWS). Total receipts are measured net of amortisation payments and repatriation of capital by private investors. Bilateral flows are provided directly by a donor country to an aid recipient country. Multilateral flows are channelled via an international organisation active in development (e.g. World Bank, UNDP). In tables showing total receipts of recipient countries, the outflows of multilateral agencies to those countries is shown, not the contributions which the agencies received from donors. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Total storage - The volume of a reservoir below the maximum controllable level including dead storage. (Thomas and Harbeck, 1956, p. 13.) - USGS

Total Supply - Total water supply available to an area; surface water plus groundwater. - EvergladesPlan glossary

TOTI - Tip Of The Iceberg

TOU - Temple Of Understanding (gaia)

Tourism - The operation of tours and businesses that attract visitors from outside the country or region. Tourism has become one of the world's leading industries, employing 1 in every 16 workers worldwide. Money generated by tourism should soon exceed earnings from sales of oil. (UNESCO)

Tourism Capability - The ability of a set of natural resources (such as forests, rivers, lakes, fish, wildlife, etc.) to support a particular tourism product.

Tourism Product - The tourism activity or experience that a tourist participates in.

TOW - Theater Of War

TOW - Transfer Of Wealth

Towns - See Groups of urban buildings, Inhabited historic Towns - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Township - A township then consists of a number of villages, one of which is called the "township seat". A township seat is by definition a "village" rather than a "town", since a township classifies a rural area. If the county seat is officially rural rather than urban, such as in remote counties, then the county seat is also a township seat.

Township - A township is an approximately 6-mile square area of land containing 36 sections. - Cadastral Data glossary

Toxic Substances Control Act - 15 U.S.C. s/s 2601 et seq. (1976) The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was enacted by Congress to give EPA the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard. EPA can ban the manufacture and import of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk. Also, EPA has mechanisms in place to track the thousands of new chemicals that industry develops each year with either unknown or dangerous characteristics. EPA then can control these chemicals as necessary to protect human health and the environment. TSCA supplements other Federal statutes, including the Clean Air Act and the Toxic Release Inventory under EPCRA.

Toxic Pollutants - "Toxic pollutants" include, but are not limited to, those chemicals at a Federal facility subject to the provisions of Section 313 of EPCRA as of December 1, 1993. Federal agencies also may choose to include releases and transfers of other chemicals, such as "extremely hazardous chemicals" as defined in Section 329(3) and EPCRA, hazardous wastes as defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6901-6986) (RCRA), or hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments (42 U.S.C. 7403-7626); however, for the purposes of establishing the agency's baseline under 3-302(c), such "other chemicals" are in addition to (not instead of) the section 313 chemicals. The term "toxic pollutants" does not include hazardous waste subject to remedial action generation prior to that date.

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) - P.L. 94-469 (October 11, 1976) authorizes EPA to regulate toxic substances (any chemical that may present a risk of unreasonable harm to man or the environment). By definition, however, the Act excludes from EPA regulation under TSCA certain substances, including pesticides (as defined by and regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act), tobacco or tobacco products, and any food or food additive (as defined by and regulated under the Poultry Products Inspection Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Egg Products Inspection Act, or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act).

TP - Talking Point(s)

TP - Tectonic Plates

TP - Thoroughfare Plan

TP - Tide Pool

TP - Till Plain

TP - Trading Partner

TP - Transition Pathways

TP - Transition Plan

TP - Treatment Program

TP - Trust Planning

TPA - Take Pride in America program

TPA - Timber Producers Association

TPA - Trade Promotion Authority

TPC - Technologies of Political Control

TPC - Trade Policy Committee

TPD - Trust Planning Document

TPG - The Pennsylvania Group

TPI - Trading Post Initiative (DOI)

TPI - The Pulling Together Initiative (National Fish & Wildlife Foundation)

TPIC - Transportation Program Investment Committee

TPL - Trust for Public Lands

TPMG - Tanaka Precious Metals Group

TPPF - Texas Public Policy Foundation

TPRI - The Pacific Research Institute

TPTF - Tax Policy Tax Force

TQM - Total Quality Management

TR - Tailwater Recovery

TR - Temperate Rainforests

TR - Transition Radiation

TR - Transverse Ranges

TR - Trust Reform (DOI)

TR - Tulloch Rule

TRA - Tax Reform Act

TRA - The Tax Reform Association

TRA - Traditional Rural America

TRA - Trails and Recreational Access

Trace elements - Chemical elements, for example, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and iron, are in soils in extremely small amounts. They are essential to plant growth. - USDA

Trace Metals - Metals that are present in small concentrations. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Tract - 1. A portion or a sub-division of land which is under single management. It is either a whole holding, an agricultural or non-agricultural part of a holding. Tract is determined, therefore, by definition of a holding and by boundaries of a segment. A holding is composed of one or more tracts. - FAO UN Glossary 2. An indefinite stretch of land. In a subdivision, a defined area of land. - Cadastral Data glossary

Traditional farming - Way of farming that has been going on for generations. - UNEP Children's Glossary

TRAPA - Toledo Regional Area Plan for Action

TRB - Transportation Research Board http://trb.org/ 

TRC - Tax Relief Coalition

TRC - The Recreational Corridor (See The Maine Project - TMP)

TRC - Transportation and Recreation Corridors

TRC - Transportation Research Center

Tract - An independent land parcel identification system used by the National Park Service. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Tractor Logging - A logging method that uses tractors to carry or drag logs from the stump to the collection point.

Trade Act of 1974 - P.L. 93-618 provided the President with tariff and non-tariff trade barrier-negotiating authority for the Tokyo Round of multilateral trade negotiations. It also gave the President broad authority to counteract injurious and unfair foreign trade practices. Section 201 of the Act requires the U.S. International Trade Commission to investigate petitions filed by domestic industries or workers claiming injury or threat of injury due to expanding imports. Investigations must be completed within 6 months. If such injury is found, restrictive measures may be implemented. Action under Section 201 is allowed under the GATT escape clause, GATT Article XIX. Section 301 was designed to eliminate unfair foreign trade practices that adversely affect U.S. trade and investment in both goods and services. Under Section 301, the President must determine whether the alleged practices are unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory and burden or restrict U.S. commerce. If the President determines that action is necessary, the law directs that all appropriate and feasible action within the President's power should be taken to secure the elimination of the practice.

Trade Adjustment Assistance - Assistance provided by the Departments of Labor and Commerce to workers and firms that are adversely affected by increased imports. The Labor Department administers a program offering certified workers monetary benefits for direct trade readjustment allowances and service benefits that include allocations for job search, relocation, and training. The Department of Commerce sponsors programs that provide technical services to certified firms designed to restore the economic viability of U.S. industries adversely affected by international import competition. This assistance is authorized by subchapter II of the Trade Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-618, approved January 3, 1975). The Act was been amended several times, including 1993 when transitional assistance was approved for workers affected by increased imports from Canada or Mexico or by shifts of U.S. production to those countries as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The law expired on September 30, 1998.

Trade Agreements Act of 1979 - P.L. 96-39 (July 26, 1979) provided the implementing legislation for the Tokyo Round of multilateral trade agreements in such areas as customs valuation, standards, subsidies and government procurement.

Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 - P.L. 98-573 (October 30, 1984) clarified the conditions under which unfair trade cases under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 can be pursued. It also provided bilateral trade negotiating authority for the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement and the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, and set out procedures to be followed for congressional approval of future bilateral free trade agreements.

Trade Promotion Authority - A key component of the Administration's legislative trade agenda is Trade Promotion Authority (TPA). TPA grants the President the ability to negotiate trade agreements, beneficial to consumers, business, and American farmers. It gives trade negotiators credibility at the negotiating table by requiring Congress to vote "up or down" on a trade agreement within a given period of time. The negotiating power of the United States is enhanced because other governments know that agreements made by the President are not renegotiated after they have been signed.

Trade Secret (trade secret) - Business information that is the subject of reasonable efforts to preserve confidentiality and has value because it is not generally known in the trade. Such confidential information is protected against those who gain access to it through improper methods or by a breach of confidence. Infringement of a trade secret is a type of unfair competition.

Trademark - A word, slogan, design, picture, or other symbol used to identify and distinguish goods. 2. Any identifying symbol, including a word, design, or shape of a product or container, that qualifies for legal status as a trademark, service mark, collective mark, certification mark, trade name, or trade dress. Trademarks identify one seller's goods and distinguish them from goods sold by others. They signify that all goods bearing the mark come from or are controlled by a single source and are of an equal level of quality. And they advertise, promote, and generally assist in selling goods. A trademark is infringed by another if the second use causes confusion of source, affiliation, connection, or sponsorship.

Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) - Advocates a human scale, pedestrian orientation and mix of land uses in a community with a clearly defined, higher density core, an integrated circulation system which ensures connectivity, a balance between housing and employment and prominently located civic and open space functions.

Traffic Calming - Using physical devices to reduce traffic speed and volume while maintaining mobility and access for the purpose of balancing the needs of motorists with those of pedestrians, bicyclists, playing children and other users of street space.

Trail(s) - Corridor, on land or in water, with public access for recreation or transportation, and protected from development. Linear corridors for movement by pedestrians, cyclists and equestrians. They often coincide with Greenways, but not all Greenways are Trails.

Trailing - (1) Controlled directional movement of livestock. (2) Natural trailing is the habit of livestock or wildlife repeatedly treading in the same line or path.

Training - Articles 22(c) and 23 of the World Heritage Convention provide for international assistance in the form of training of staff and specialists in the conservation of cultural and natural heritage relating to the implementation of the World Heritage Convention (UNESCO 1972). Priority is given to group training at the local or regional level. States Parties may submit requests for international assistance with training as outlined in Paragraphs 94 to 98 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 32-34) using the form entitled "Requests for the Organization of Training Activities" (UNESCO 1990b). In adopting a "Training Strategy" at its nineteenth session in Berlin, Germany in December 1995 the Committee stated that: Training is defined as a broadly encompassing term that includes education, training and promotion (UNESCO 31 January 1996: 55-56). See International assistance - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Tram - To haul cars of ore or waste in a mine.

Transboundary Damage - Implies the erga omnes effect of violations of fundamental human rights or of International Humanitarian Law and establishes the right of any State to make reprisals against the State responsible for such violations. (UN)

Transfer (general) - An act by which title to property is conveyed from one living person to another. The words "convey" or "transfer", as operative work in a deed, is equivalent signification and as effective as the word "grant". Synonymous with "sale". - Cadastral Data glossary

Transfer (straight) - The direct sale of the whole parcel of land, or of an interest in the whole parcel of land; whereas, the term "name change" is less definite and implies either a direct sale of the whole parcel or a change in name only; and the word "segregation" implies a sale of only part of a larger parcel of land or a division of the larger parcel. The word "transfer" alone could mean either "straight transfer" or "segregation". - Cadastral Data glossary

Transfer of Certain Real Property for Wildlife Conservation Purposes Act (1948) - Provides that upon a determination by the Administrator of the General Services Administration, real property no longer needed by a Federal agency can be transferred without reimbursement to the Secretary of Interior if the land has particular value for migratory birds, or to a State agency for other wildlife conservation purposes.

Transfer payments - Payments from the government to individuals used to redistribute a country's wealth. Examples are pensions, welfare, and unemployment benefits. - WB

Transfer of Development Rights - A form of Density Transfer.

Transferable Development Rights (TDR) - Refers to a process by which landowners can transfer development rights from a restricted parcel to another parcel or sell such rights. NPS - DOI

Transformist Landscape - A landscape from which any indication of the original character has been removed and been replaced entirely by a foreign landscape. For example, a Japanese garden.

Transition - Refers to the demographic change that occurs as countries move to lower rates of fertility and mortality. Many factors contribute to transition including improved health services, greater access to education and improved social and economic conditions. Several developing countries in Asia are now in the later stages of transition, while many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are in the early stages of transition. The demographic transition is complete when fertility has reached replacement level, which is the case in most industrial countries. (UNESCO)(WB-UN)

Transition countries - See countries with transition economies. - WB

Translate, or Translation - to bring existing data into compliance with the Standard; to put data into the format to comply with the Cadastral Data Content Standard. - Cadastral Data glossary

Translocation - The artificial movement of wild organisms between or within populations to achieve management objectives. Originally, translocation referred to the movement of animals from captive to wild populations, but the term has been expanded to include movements (by artificial means) within and between wild populations. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Transmission - The World Heritage Convention and the Operational Guidelines do not specifically define transmission. Throughout the Convention reference is made to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage". Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission" (UNESCO 1972). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) - The name of a number of degenerative brain diseases that infect humans and animals. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infects cattle; Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) infects humans. Also known as mad cow disease.

Transmissivity - A measure of the rate at which water will move through an aquifer. Transmissivity incorporates the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, aquifer thickness, water temperature and fluid properties to describe water movement.

Transnational Interactions - The movement of tangible or intangible items across state boundaries when at least one actor is not the agent of a government or an intergovernmental organization.

Transnational Organizations - Transnational interactions institutionalized.

Transpiration - The movement of water and water vapor from a living being through a membrane or pores. The process by which plants and animals lose water, as vapor, into the atmosphere.

Transpiration - The photosynthetic and physiological process by which water in plants is transported as water vapor to the atmosphere. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Transportation Corridor - A combination of principal transportation routes involving a linear network of one or more highways of four or more lanes, rail lines, or other primary and secondary access facilities which support a development corridor.

Transportation Enhancement - Enhancement projects are defined as provisions of facilities for pedestrians and bicycles; acquisition of scenic easements...or historic sites; scenic or historic highway programs; landscaping and other scenic beautification; historic preservation, rehabilitation and operation of historic highway buildings, structures, or facilities (including railroad facilities); preservation of abandoned railway corridors (including the conversion and use thereof for pedestrian or bicycle trails); control and removal of outdoor advertising, archaeological planning and research; and mitigation of water pollution due to highway runoff.

Transportation Enhancements (TE) - Twelve different community focused activities defined in TEA-21. The twelve activities are:

1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities 2. Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety and Education Activities 3. Acquisition of Scenic or Historic Easements and Sites 4. Scenic or Historic Highway Programs, Including Tourist and Welcome Centers 5. Landscaping and Scenic Beautification 6. Historic Preservation 7. Rehabilitation and Operation of Historic Transportation Buildings, Structures, or Facilities 8. Preservation of Abandoned Railway Corridors 9. Control and Removal of Outdoor Advertising 10. Archaeological Planning and Research 11. Mitigation of Highway Runoff and Provision of Wildlife Connectivity 12. Establishment of Transportation Museums

The basic Federal eligibility requirements for TE projects are that they be one of the 12 defined activities, and be related to surface transportation. States can have additional eligibility requirements. Each state must set aside ten percent of its Surface Transportation Program funds for use on TE activities. Transportation Enhancements are Federal-aid reimbursement activities; TE is not a grant program. In most cases, the Federal government pays 80% of the project cost, and the project sponsor is responsible for the remaining 20%, also called the matching funds. States can take advantage of Congressionally-approved innovative financing measures that make the financing process more flexible. If you are interested in applying for TE funds, you should learn the specifics of how TE is managed in your state and contact your state Department of Transportation. For more information, contact the National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse. Since Congress introduced TE in 1991, more than $2.4 billion has been invested around the country in facilities for walking and bicycling, historic preservation, scenic beautification, land acquisition, and environmental mitigation. In 1998, the TE program was reauthorized in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), ensuring that through 2003, about $620 million in annual funds will be made available to State transportation agencies for these types of projects.

Transportation Enhancement Activities (TEA) - Activities that enhance transportation facilities and are eligible for funding through the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991.

Transportation Facility Jurisdiction - The legal right to control or regulate use of a transportation facility derived from fee title, an easement, an agreement, or other similar method. While jurisdiction requires authority, it does not necessarily reflect ownership. - FS

Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) - A five-year plan that lists all highway and transit projects to be developed and implemented within the timeframe of the program. The list contains projects that are included in the long-range transportation plan.

Transportation System - Network of roads used to manage BLM-administered lands. Includes BLM controlled roads and some privately controlled roads. Does not include Department of Transportation, county and municipal roads. (BLM)

Transportation System Management - The strategies available to decision makers in both the public and private sectors to increase the capacity of the transportation system to move goods and people, especially during peak periods, such as high-occupancy vehicle lanes, flex-time, ride-sharing, and shuttle buses, without adding new highway lanes.

Transporter (RCRA/40 CFR 260.10) (RCRA/40 CFR 270.2) - A person engaged in the offsite transportation of hazardous waste by air, rail, highway, or water. - EPA

Transship - To unload fish from a vessel that caught fish to another vessel. - MFCMA

Transshipment - Refers to the primary export of U.S. farm products to certain countries (notably Canada and the Netherlands) and their further shipment to other countries. Unless there is 'adjustment for transshipment,' export statistics can reflect a distorted picture.

Transshipment receiving vessel - Any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft that is used to receive fish from a fishing vessel. - MFCMA

Transverse Dispersivity - The distribution or suspension of fine particles in directions normal to the flow line of a dispersion medium, such as contaminants in ground water. A derived quantity generally obtained by first deciding on a contaminant transport model and then adjusting parameters to match field data. - EPA

Trapped lee waves - The classic downwind train of waves that produces low Altocumulus or high Stratocumulus cloud bands that extend downwind from the mountain range. The individual bands are parallel to the mountain range that produces them, and on satellite there may be many bands evident downstream. The dynamics of these waves is non-hydrostatic; their occurrence is favored by a narrow mountain range (specifically, by higher wave number components of the terrain perpendicular to the mountain-top flow) and in our area by an upstream stratification and hodograph characterized by lower static stability and much stronger cross-mountain flow in the upper troposphere (say, 500mb and above) than below. This configuration favors "trapping" of wave energy in the lower part of the atmosphere. These wave clouds usually occur at altitudes zero to 2 km above the summit of the mountain range. These are landmark identifiers. - NOAA-NWS-WMO

Travel Management Plan (TMP) - A Forest Service or BLM document specifying which routes in a national forest of BLM resource area will be closed or designated open or ORVs, street vehicles, mountain bikes, hiking and other types of travel. The travel system laid out in a TMP is determined by environmental analysis and public input, as specified in NEPA. - USDA/FS

Travel time - The time required for a wave train to travel from its source to a point of observation. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Traveling grate - A type of furnace in which assembled links of grates are joined together in a perpetual belt arrangement. Fuel is fed in at one end and ash is discharged at the other. - Bioenergy Glossary

Travelway - Represent linear concentrations of public-viewing, including freeways, highways, roads, railroads, trails, commercial flight paths, rivers, canals and other waterways. - FS

Traveled Way - The portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles exclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

Traverse - A method of surveying in which a sequence of lengths and directions of lines between points are measured. - Cadastral Data glossary

TREASURE - Timber Recreation Environment Aesthetics Sustained Usable REsource (Alabama Forestry Dept.)

Treaty/Treaties - The term "treaty" can be used as a common generic term or as a particular term that indicates an instrument with certain characteristics. (a) Treaty as a generic term: The term "treaty" has regularly been used as a generic term embracing all instruments binding at international law concluded between international entities, regardless of their formal designation. Both the 1969 Vienna Convention and the 1986 Vienna Convention confirm this generic use of the term "treaty". The 1969 Vienna Convention defines a treaty as "an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation". The 1986 Vienna Convention extends the definition of treaties to include international agreements involving international organizations as parties. In order to speak of a "treaty" in the generic sense, an instrument has to meet various criteria. First of all, it has to be a binding instrument, which means that the contracting parties intended to create legal rights and duties. Secondly, the instrument must be concluded by states or international organizations with treaty-making power. Thirdly, it has to be governed by international law. Finally the engagement has to be in writing. Even before the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, the word "treaty" in its generic sense had been generally reserved for engagements concluded in written form. (b) Treaty as a specific term: There are no consistent rules when state practice employs the terms "treaty" as a title for an international instrument. Usually the term "treaty" is reserved for matters of some gravity that require more solemn agreements. Their signatures are usually sealed and they normally require ratification. Typical examples of international instruments designated as "treaties" are Peace Treaties, Border Treaties, Delimitation Treaties, Extradition Treaties and Treaties of Friendship, Commerce and Cooperation. The use of the term "treaty" for international instruments has considerably declined in the last decades in favor of other terms. (UN)

Treatment Area - The site-specific location of a resource improvement activity.

Treatment Wetlands - Constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas, to treat urban and agricultural runoff water before it is discharged to the natural areas throughout the system. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Treaty - As used by the United Nations, interchangeable with the word convention.

Treaty - Formal agreement between states that defines and modifies their mutual duties and obligations; used synonymously with Convention and Covenant. When conventions are adopted by the UN General Assembly, they create legally binding international obligations for the Member States who have signed the treaty. When a national government Ratifies a treaty, the articles of that treaty become part of its domestic legal obligations. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (summary) - Treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement between the United States of America and the United Mexican States concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848; ratification advised by Senate, with amendments, March 10, 1848; ratified by President, March 16, 1848; ratifications exchanged at Queretaro, May 30, 1848; proclaimed, July 4, 1848. IN THE NAME OF ALMIGHTY GOD The United States of America and the United Mexican States animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two Republics and to establish Upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits upon the citizens of both, and assure the concord, harmony, and mutual confidence wherein the two people should live, as good neighbors ... 5. The boundary ... the Rio Grande ... to the river Gila ... a straight line ... where it unites with the Colorado, to a point on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, distant one marine league due south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego 9. The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid ... shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States. and be admitted at the proper time ... to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the mean time, shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without; restriction. 10. [Stricken out by U.S.] - would have allowed land titles 12. ... to pay to that of the Mexican Republic the sum of fifteen millions of dollars. 13. ... to assume and pay to the claimants all the amounts now due them... 17. The treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, concluded at the city of Mexico, on the fifth day of April, A. D. 1831, between the United States of America and the United Mexican States, ... is hereby revived for the period of eight years from the day of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty,

The Treaty of Rome of 1957 (TOR) - Serves as a quasi-constitution of the European Community; treaties concluded by the EC with other nations are usually designated as agreements. Also, the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) was established by the Treaty of Montevideo of 1980, but the sub-regional instruments entered into under its framework are called agreements. (UN)

Treble Damages - CERCLA provides that EPA can sue potentially responsible parties (PRPs) for up to three times the cost of cleanup, if the PRPs consistently do not comply with a negotiated settlement. - EPA

TRED - Committee on Taxation, Resources and Economic Development

Tree - Woody plants having one erect perennial stem or trunk at least 3 inches d.b.h., a more or less definitely formed crown of foliage, and a height of at least 13 feet (at maturity). - USDA/FS

Tree-Free Paper - Because it can be rough-textured and brittle, not all tree-free paper is suitable for book publishers, or for copy machines. Some of the best and most versatile tree-free paper comes from the industrial fiber plant kenaf. Other agricultural products including reclaimed waste-are also being sourced as raw material. Tree-free fiber sources are as diverse as the agricultural byproducts wheat straw, corn and banana stalks, and rye grass; wild reeds and grasses (including bamboo and esparto grass); and industrial waste like textile remnants and bagasse, a sugarcane processing product. Lyons Falls is even experimenting with a post-consumer paper made with fiber from used disposable diapers. Totally Chlorine-Free (TCF) paper is made in the U.S. by only one company, Lyons Falls Pulp and Paper in upstate New York. The company's TCF stock-which is both white and bright-is competitively priced and has been adopted by 14 university presses, several printers and an increasing number of book publishers. Harcourt Brace uses Swedish-sourced TCF paper exclusively on the two million children's books it produces annually. Another children's book publisher, North-South Books, also uses European-sourced TCF.

Tree measurement sale - A type of timber sale contract in which the buyer and seller argree upon the volume at the time of the sale. - Bioenergy Glossary

Tree Measurement Sales - A timber sale where purchasers pay the total bid value (the estimated timber volume times the stumpage price) regardless of the volume of timber actually removed.

Tree Opening - An opening in the forest created by even-aged silvicultural practices.

TREES - Timber Resources Equals Economic Stability

Trekking - A popular recreational activity that involves walking through natural areas, often staying over night (or many nights) in tents or guesthouses along the way. Opportunities for trekking attract many tourists to countries such as Nepal and parts of South America. (UNESCO)

Trench - A long, narrow excavation dug through overburden, or blasted out of rock, to expose a vein or ore structure.

Trend - Direction or bearing of any rock formation.

Trend - A continuation of historic growth patterns, consisting of relatively unmanaged growth driven by market forces, resulting in lower density development being extended past the suburban fringe into rural areas. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Trend - The direction of change in ecological status or resource value ratings [that is] observed over time. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Trend In Range Condition - An interpretation of the direction of change in range condition. These determinations may relate to ecological site or forage conditions. Also vegetation trend that is improving (upward) not changing (static) and declining (downward). - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Trespass - Any unauthorized occupancy, use of, or action on Indian lands. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Triage - The screening or classification of Special Use applications for timely and successful action. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Tribal Governing Body (10 CFR 61.2) - A Tribal organization as defined in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450).

Tribal land - The surface estate of land or any interest therein held by the United States in trust for a tribe, band, community, group or pueblo of Indians, and land that is held by a tribe, band, community, group or pueblo of Indians, subject to federal restrictions against alienation or encumbrance, and includes such land reserved for BIA administrative purposes when it is not immediately needed for such purposes. The term also includes lands held by the United States in trust for an Indian corporation chartered under section 17 of the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984; 25 U.S.C. 476). - DOI-BIA Glossary

Tribal law - The body of non-federal law that governs lands and activities under the jurisdiction of a tribe, including ordinances or other enactments by the tribe, tribal court rulings, and tribal common law. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Tribal Member - An enrolled member of an Indian Tribe. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

Tribe - See Indian tribe. - BLM

Tributary - A stream feeding into a larger stream, canal or water body. - Everglades Plan glossary

Tributary - A stream feeding a larger stream, river, or lake. - USDA/FS

Trickle Irrigation / Drip Irrigation - Method in which water drips to the soil from perforated tubes or emitters. This irrigation technology is water-conserving compared to flooding, furrows, and sprinklers.

TRIM - Tax Reform Immediately

TRIM - Terrain Resource Inventory Mapping

TRIM - Transfer Income Model

TRIM - Transportation Research and Investment Management division

TRIP - Geneva Trade, Intellectual Property, Food and Biodiversity

TRIP - Trade-Related Intellectual Property (UN - CBD)

TRIP - Transboundary Resource and Inventory Program

Trip - A single or one-way vehicle movement to or from a property or study area. "Trips" can be added together to calculate the total number of vehicles expected to enter or leave a specific land use or site over a designated period of time.

Trip Demand Management - Strategies aimed at reducing the number of vehicle trips, shortening trip lengths, and moving trips from peak hours to hours with excess capacity. These strategies encourage the use of transit, carpools, vanpools, bicycling, and walking, and typically focus on the journey-to-work. They also include efforts to provide housing close to jobs to shorten trip lengths. These strategies usually require the joint cooperation of developers, employers, and local governments.

Triple Base Plan - Also called the flexible base plan. A proposal under which farmers who raise program crops would receive program payments only on a certain percentage of their permitted acreage. A producer participating in a federal price support program actually would have three categories of base acres for program purposes: 1) permitted acres on which deficiency payments would be made; 2) permitted acres on which no federal payments would be made, but could be planted to other crops, either specified or unspecified; 3) idled acres (those required to be set aside under acreage reduction rules) where no crops other than those for conservation could be planted. Triple base is another name for what came to be known as normal flex acres. Production flexibility contracts now have eliminated the linkage between payments and actual plantings.

TRM - The Ranching Myth

TRM - Tenure-Related Mechanisms -Australia Trommel - A heavy-duty revolving drum and screen, utilized for washing, breaking up, and removing larger rocks and retrieving the sands and pebbles for processing in other placer recovery equipment.

TRMASM - Tenure-Related Mechanisms for Achieving Sustainable Management -Australia

TRMM - Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA)

TRNP - Theodore Roosevelt National Park

TRNPBE - Theodore Roosevelt National Park Boundary Expansion

TRO - Temporary Restraining Order

Trophic Level - Position in the food chain, determined by the number of energy-transfer steps to that level. - UNDP/WRI 2. The level in a nutritive series of an ecosystem in which a group of organisms in a certain stage in the food chain secures food in the same general manner. The first or lower trophic level consists of producers (green plants), the second level consists of herbivores, the third level consists of secondary carnivores, and the fourth level consists of reducers (decomposers). - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Trophic State - The state of nutrient enrichment of a lake or reservoir.

Tropical - Referring to climatic conditions like those found in the region on the earth today between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn; it includes high temperature, high humidity, and abundant rainfall.

Tropical - Something inside the tropics. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Tropics - Regions between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, latitudes 30 North and South of the equator. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Trophic webs - Conceptual model of the interconnections of species of organisms according to their different feeding groups. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

TRORE - The Realities Of Restoration Ecology

TROUS - Trade Representative, Office of United States

Trout Maintenance/Trout Production Waters - Waters designated for the support of trout throughout the year or for spawning or nursery purposes during trout's first summer.

Troy Ounce - The most common unit of weight used to measure quantities of precious metals. One troy ounce equals 1.09714 avoirdupois ounces.

TRQ - Tariff Rate Quote

TRR - Tolerance Reassessment & Reregistration (EPA)

TRS - Total Run Size (fish)

Truck crops - Truck crops include those crops that are not processed before selling and directly used or sold fresh such as lettuce, celery and flowers. - USDA

Trust land - Any tract, or interest therein, that the United States holds in trust status for the benefit of a tribe or individual Indian. - DOI-BIA Glossary

TS - Tariff Schedule

TS - Test Site

TS - Threatened Species

TS - Tracking System

TS - Transboundary Species

TS - Tree Spiking

TS - Trium Stand (Family, Church and State)

TSCA - Toxic Substances Control Act

TSCRA - Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association

TSCW - Taxpayer-Sponsored Corporate Welfare

TSDF - Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities for Hazardous Waste

TSE - Technology for a Sustainable Environment

TSE - total support estimate

TSE - Tree/Shrub Establishment

TSGR - Texas Sheep and Goat Raisers

TSHP - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (USGS)

TSI - Timber Stand Improvement

TSM - Transportation System Management

TSO - Time Sharing Option

TSP - Total Savings Package

TSP - Total Suspended Particulates

Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) - Particulate matter in the atmosphere that is generally less than 50 micrometers in diameter and that settles slowly and includes droplets, dust, fumes, pollen, sand, and soot. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

TSR - Temporary Stormwater Rules

TSR - Toxic Salt Reduction

TSS - Total Suspended Solids

TSS - Technical Support Staff

TSSDS - Tri-Service Spatial Data Standards

TSWG - Technical Support Working Group

TT - Tetra Tech, Inc. (watershed management)

TT - Think Tank

TT - Tobin Tax (UN)

TTC - Technology Transfer Center

TTDATP - To The Detriment of American Taxpayers

TTF - Ted Turner Fund

TTFET - Three Trailers For Every Truck (one on the dock, one waiting to be loaded, and one on the road) (OP)

TTI - The Thoreau Institute

TTM - Teacher Training Manual

TTM - Top Ten Markets (the Ad Council)

TTW - The Third Way

TTF - Ted Turner Fund

TTP - Ten Tribes Partnership

TTR - The Trustees of Reservations (Massachusetts - 1891)

TTRA - Tongass Timber Reform Act (Alaska)

TTS - TRI Tracking System

TU - Trout Unlimited

Tube Mill - An apparatus consisting of a revolving cylinder about half-filled with steel rods or balls and into which crushed ore is fed for fine grinding.

Tuber - A short, thickened, fleshy part of an underground stem.

Tuberculosis (TB) - An infectious disease of body tissue. The pathogen is easily inhaled and a primary site of infection is quickly formed. The body's natural immune system may heal it at this stage and when this happens a lasting immunity develops. Other people may become infected but show no signs of illness. They act as carriers of the disease, transmitting the pathogen by coughing and sneezing. TB is curable with antibiotics, and a vaccine gives protection to those who have not already developed immunity to the disease. (UNESCO)

Tuff - Rock composed of fine volcanic ash.

Tufted - A close-growing cluster of stems, as in certain bunchgrasses, sedges, and mat-forming herbs. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

TUG - The Umbrella Group

TUGI - The Urban Governance Initiative

Tundra - Arctic and alpine regions characterized by bare ground, absence of trees, and growth of mosses, lichens, and low shrubs. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. Treeless arctic and alpine areas where cover may consist of bare ground, grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs, mosses, or lichens. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Tunnel - A nearly horizontal underground passage open to the surface at both ends. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Tunnel boring machine - A machine used to excavate a tunnel through soil or rock by mechanical means as opposed to drilling and blasting.

TUPSO - The Universal Scientific Publications Company, Inc.

Turbidity - A cloudy or hazy appearance in a naturally clear liquid caused by the suspension of fine solids or colloids in the liquid.

Turbidity - Amount of sediment or particles suspended in water. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Turn of logs - A group of logs yarded at the same time by the same machine. - Bioenergy Glossary

Turnover - Fall cooling and spring warming of surface water act to make density uniform throughout the water column. This allows wind and wave action to mix the entire lake. Mixing allows bottom waters to contact the atmosphere, raising the water's oxygen content. However, warming may occur too rapidly in the spring for mixing to be effective, especially in small sheltered kettle lakes. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Turtle Island - The Native American name for North America. (according to TWP - The Wildlands Project)

Tussock - A compact, densely tufted growth form of some grasses and sedges. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

TUT - The Unholy Trinity (me, myself and I)

TV - Travel Volume

TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority

TVA - The Vail Agenda

TWA - Time Weighted Authority

TWC - Third World Country

TWC -Threshold Watershed Conditions

TWF - Texas Water Foundation

TWIG - Toxic Waste Investigative Group

TWM - Total Water Management

TWMD - Toxics and Waste Management Division

TWN - Third World Nation

TWNS - Third World Nation Status

Two story fishery - An upper warm water fishery overlying a deeper coldwater salmonid (trout or salmon) fishery; typically these are relatively deep and unproductive lakes that maintain oxygen >5 ppm in much of the hypolimnion throughout the summer. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

The 2002 Farm Bill - A total of $9.2 billion will be available for conservation programs during the six-year farm law. More information is at the USDA Web site: www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/farmbill

Two-Wheel-Drive (2WD) - Vehicle clearance generally lower than with a 4WD. Not designed to travel off-pavement. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

TWP - The Wildlands Project (Dave Foreman and Reed Noss, co-authors)

TWP - The Wildlands Project (rewilding of the world)

TWR - Taxation Without Representation

TWRA - Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency

TWRI - Texas Water Resources Institute

TWS - The Wall of Shame (eco-terrorists putting contact info of farmers who had signed up for government programs, on the Internet)

TWWW - The Way We Were

Type Conversion - The conversion of the dominant vegetation in an area from forested to non-forested or from one species to another.

Type of Agreement (multilateral, bilateral) Signature/Adoption Date Date of Entry into Force Participants (states, international organizations, UN organs and agencies) Subject Terms (available from a scroll-down list) Title (words appearing in the title of an agreement) Registration Number (unique number, which identifies a treaty and all its associated entries in the United Nations Treaty Collection)

TZ - Treatment Zone

free hit counter