R&PP - Recreation and Public Purposes - DOI/NPS/BLM

R&PP - Recreation and Public Purposes Act

RA - Rainforest Alliance

RA - Range Analysis

RA - Recreation Authority

RA - Refuse Act

RA - Relocation Assistance

RA - Removal Action

RA - Resource Allocation

RA - Resource Area

RA - Risk Assessment

RA - River Authority

RA - Road Agents

RA - Roadway Adequacy

RA - Row Arrangement

RAC - Related Accreditation Commission

RAC - Resource Advisory Committee

RAC - Resource Advisory Council

RAC - Resource Assessment Commission (IUCN)

RAC - Rural Advancement Center (IUCN)

Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) (1970) - This federal law was designed to combat organized crime but citizens affected by graft and other aspects of zoning and building codes have been allowed to challenge government officials (Joe DeFalco, lawsuit against Delaware Town and Sullivan County officials decided in 1996 in Federal Court, White Plains, N.Y.) and, on other matters, non-profits National Organization for Women, Inc. et al v. Scheidler et al (U.S. Supreme Court 1993, Justice Rehnquist ): "We hold that RICO contains no economic motive requirement." The court held that not only people involved in money making but people involved in an idealistic cause could be sued for conspiracy to deny someone's constitutional rights. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

RACR - The Roadless Area Conservation Rule

RACT - Reasonable Available Control Technology

R & D - Research and Development

RADA - Rural Agriculture Development Authority http://www.nepa.gov.jm 

Radio Peace - Short wave radio program hosted by the United Nations University

Radioactivity - The property of spontaneously emitting alpha, beta or gamma rays by the decay of the nuclei of atoms.

Radon Gas - Colorless, naturally occurring, radioactive inert gas formed by radioactive decay. At higher than normal concentrations, it may have serious health effects, such as causing of lung cancer. (UN)

Radon Survey - A geochemical survey technique that detects traces of radon gas, a product of radioactivity.

RAE - Restoration And Enhancement

RAE - Restore America's Estuaries

RAFI - Rural Advancement Foundation International

RAG (also known as The RAG Project) - Removal of Aquatic Growths (Corps of Engineers)

RAH - Riparian Area Health

RAI - Recreation Area Improvement

RAI - Resident Assessment Instrument

Railroads - A category of Rural transportation areas that includes all operational rail systems and their rights-of-way. Abandoned railroad beds are not included as railroad areas. - National Resources Inventory

Rails-to-Trails - Conversion of a closed-down railway line into a recreational trail.

RAIN - The Regional Alliance for Information Networking http://rain.org 

Rain - Liquid precipitation. - USGS

Rainfall - The quantity of water that falls as rain only. Not synonymous with precipitation. - USGS

Rainfall and runoff (R factor - USLE) - The number of rainfall erosion index units, plus a factor for runoff from snowmelt or applied water where such runoff is significant. - National Resources Inventory

Rainfall excess - The volume of rainfall available for direct runoff. It is equal to the total rainfall minus interception, depression storage, and absorption. (See Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, 1949, p. 106.) - USGS

Rainfall, excessive - Rainfall in which the rate of fall is greater than certain adopted limits, chosen with regard to the normal precipitation (excluding snow) of a given place or area. In the U.S. Weather Bureau, it is defined, for States along the southern Atlantic coast and the Gulf coast, as rainfall in which the depth of precipitation is 0.90 inch at the end of 30 minutes and 1.50 inches at the end of an hour, and for the rest of the country as rainfall in which the depth of precipitation at the end of each of the same periods is 0.50 and 0.80 inch, respectively. - USGS

Rainforest - A category for describing forests with high levels of annual rainfall. Described as being among the most biologically rich habitats on the planet, rainforests are densely wooded with large varieties of plants and animals occupying every possible space throughout and within the forest. (UNESCO)

Raise - A vertical or inclined underground working that has been excavated from the bottom upward.

Rake - Similar to plunge (see), being the trend of an orebody along the direction of its strike.

The Raker Act of 1913 - The Raker Act of 1913 granted the City and County of San Francisco water and power resource rights-of-way in Yosemite National Park and Stanislaus National Forest and required the City to generate hydroelectric power through the Hetch Hetchy system. The Raker Act requires the SFPUC -- San Francisco Public Utilities Commission -- to recognize prior water rights of the Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts and obligates the release of water into the upper Tuolumne for fishery purposes (according to various agreements with the U.S. Dept. of Interior). The Raker Act also prohibits the sale of water or power to private entities for resale. The Raker Act also requires the City to sell excess Hetch Hetchy power at cost, when available above the City's own municipal needs, to Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts for agricultural pumping and municipal needs.

RAM - Recycling Advocates of Middle Tennessee

RAMP - Recreation Area Management Plan (DOI/BLM)

RAMP - Rural Abandoned Mine Program

RAMSAR - United Nations Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971)

Ramsar Convention - Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat, done at Ramsar on 2 February 1971 and signed by 22 European States. It came into force on 21 December 1975. - WB

RAN - Rainforest Action Network

RAND - Rand Corp.: A contraction of the term "research and development." http://www.rand.org 

RAND - Research ANd Development

Random - 1.) having an undefined distribution (not clumped and not uniform). 2.) having a likelihood of being selected that is not biased from any other item in the selectable area. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Range - A vertical column of townships in the rectangular survey system. - Cadastral Data glossary

Range - Rangelands, forests, woodlands, and riparian zones that support an understory or periodic cover of herbaceous or shrubby vegetation amenable to rangeland management principles or practices. Land on which the principal natural plant cover is composed of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs that are valuable as forage for livestock and big game. Any land supporting vegetation suitable for wildlife or domestic livestock grazing, including grasslands, woodlands, shrublands, and forest lands.

Range Adjudication - The range adjudication process followed in this suit -- Hage v U.S. -- is similar to that followed for homestead or water rights: application, permit, certificate or platte map, and survey. When Nevada ranges were adjudicated in the forest reserves in 1907 and 1908, a rancher had to make an application for a range and demonstrate three things: (1) that he had prior regular use of that range; (2) that he owned water rights that gave him control of that range under state law; and (3) that he had commensurate base property that made the entire range and base property an effective economic unit. When grazing districts began to be adjudicated by the BLM after 1934, and after 1952 in Nevada, the same three requirements (dating prior to 1934) were used. The USFS, however, was originally established as a land office for the purpose of disposal of lands in the forest reserves under a section of the Organic Act, which was titled "An Act to Survey the Public Lands." The disposal of such land was to be as a split estate, e.g., the surface estate would comply with various land disposal laws, and the mineral estate would be disposed of under mining law. The USFS was given only management of the vegetive portion of the surface estate (state law controlled the title to water, most of which was already privately owned at that time), and no ownership interest was vested. The USFS was to dispose of the vegetative estate in accordance with state law. Mr. Hage noted that, based on his research, the USFS recognized "early on" that if it disposed of those interests in that manner, it would put itself "out of business." Therefore, on December 9, 1906, in Denver, Colorado, the USFS made an agreement with the leading Rocky Mountain stockmen, to: Perpetuate the permit system beyond the adjudication if the stockmen's association would assist the USFS to grow and obtain more funding from Congress. Assist the stockmen in their operations. That relationship continued to exist for many years. After the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934 (an Act that was also passed for the purpose of disposal, as stated in Section 1), when the grazing service in the BLM was given the authority to adjudicate the land to grazing districts, the disposal was also to be done through a split estate. On June 25, 1910, immediately after the Act passed, the lands to be disposed of were withdrawn. Based on the USFS model, the USFS worked out a similar arrangement with the stockmen through a permitting system under which the adjudications would never be brought to conclusion. What has happened in recent years, he explained, is that the relationships among the stockmen's associations and the BLM and USFS have deteriorated and resulted in an estrangement, and the "new suitor" is the environmental movement. That new, more-profitable relationship has encouraged the BLM and the USFS to use its administrative rules to extinguish property held by the stockmen.

Range Analysis - Analysis of the land grazed by livestock.

Range Analysis - Systemic acquisition and evaluation of rangeland resource data needed for planning allotment management and overall land management. It consists of two basic parts: (1) an inventory of the resource; and (2), a narrative evaluation of the resource data, range management alternatives and other information that is key to management of the grazing area. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Range Betterment Fund - Money collected from livestock grazing on federal lands and used for rangeland improvements. The Bureau of Land Management calls these funds Range Improvement Funds and uses them solely for labor, materials, and final survey and design of projects to improve rangelands. The Forest Service calls these funds Range Betterment Funds and uses them for planning and building rangeland improvements.

Range Condition - The current productivity of a rangeland relative to what the land could naturally produce.

Range Extension - Establishment of a species population into areas previously unoccupied, but which now support habitats suitable to maintain that species.

Range Improvement - An authorized physical modification or treatment which is designed to improve production of forage; change vegetation composition; control patterns of use; provide water; stabilize soil and water conditions; restore, protect and improve the condition of rangeland ecosystems to benefit livestock, wild horses and burros, and fish and wildlife. The term includes but is not limited to, structures, treatment projects, and use of mechanical devices or modifications achieved through mechanical means. - BLM 2. (1) Any structure or excavation that facilitates management of range or livestock. (2) Any practice that is designed to improve range condition. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Range Lines - The north-south township boundary lines. - Cadastral Data glossary

Range Management - The art and science of planning and directing range use intended to yield the sustained maximum animal production and perpetuation of the natural resources.

Range Readiness - Stage of plant development at which grazing may begin in an area/pasture/allotment without damage to vegetation or soil. BLM-DOI

Range Site - Rangeland that differs in its ability to produce a characteristic natural plant community. A range site is the product of all the environmental factors responsible for its development. It is capable of supporting a native plant community typified by an association of species that differ from other range sites in the kind or proportion of species or in total production. - BLM

Range unit - Rangelands consolidated to form a unit of land for the management and administration of grazing under a permit. A range unit may consist of a combination of tribal, individually-owned Indian, and/or government land. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Range of Alternatives - An alternative is one way of managing the National Forest, expressed as management emphasis leading to a unique set of goods and services being available to the public. A range of alternatives is several different ways of managing the Forest, offering many different levels of goods and services.

Range of Variability - Also called the historic range of variability or natural range of variation; the components of healthy ecosystems fluctuate over time. The range of sustainable conditions in an ecosystem is determined by time, processes (such as fire), native species, and the land itself. For instance, ecosystems that have a ten year fire cycle have a narrower range of variation than ecosystems with 200-300 year fire cycles. Past management has placed some ecosystems outside their range of variability. Future management should move such ecosystems back toward their natural, sustainable range of variation.

Rangeland - Land on which the natural potential (climax) plant cover is principally native grasses, grasslike plants, and shrubs. It includes natural grasslands, savannahs, and certain shrubs and grasslike lands, most deserts, tundra, alpine communities, coastal marshlands, and wet meadows. It also includes lands that are revegetated naturally or artificially and are managed like native vegetation. The United States has 399 million acres of non-federal rangeland, about 30% of all non-federal rural lands, according to the 1992 National Resources Inventory. The BLM manages approximately 167 million acres of federal rangelands, and the Forest Serves manages approximately 95 million acres of federal rangelands. A kind of land on which the native vegetation, climax or natural potential, consists predominately of grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, or shrubs. Rangeland includes lands revegetated naturally or artificially to provide a plant cover that is managed like native vegetation. Rangelands may consist of natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, most deserts, tundra, alpine communities, coastal marshes, and wet meadows.

Rangeland - Indian land, excluding Indian forest land, on which native vegetation is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, half-shrubs or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing use, and includes lands re-vegetated naturally or artificially to provide a forage cover that is managed as native vegetation. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. A Land cover/use category on which the climax or potential plant cover is composed principally of native grasses, grasslike plants, forbs or shrubs suitable for grazing and browsing, and introduced forage species that are managed like rangeland. This would include areas where introduced hardy and persistent grasses, such as crested wheatgrass, are planted and such practices as deferred grazing, burning, chaining, and rotational grazing are used, with little or no chemicals or fertilizer being applied. Grasslands, savannas, many wetlands, some deserts, and tundra are considered to be rangeland. Certain communities of low forbs and shrubs, such as mesquite, chaparral, mountain shrub, and pinyon-juniper, are also included as rangeland. - National Resources Inventory

Rangeland Condition Trend - The direction of change in rangeland condition. - BLM

Rangeland Improvements - Any activity or program on or relating to rangelands that is designed to improve forage production, change vegetation composition, control patterns of use, provide water, stabilize soil and water conditions, and enhance habitat for livestock, wildlife, and wild horses and burros. Rangeland improvements include land treatments (e.g., chaining, seeding, burning, etc.), stockwater developments, fences, and trails. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Ranger District - The administrative sub-unit of a National Forest that is supervised by a District Ranger who reports directly to the Forest Supervisor.

RAP - Reasonable And Prudent

RAP - Roadless Area Policy

RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA; used as a genetic marker. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

RAPO - Riparian Area Protection Ordinance (USFWS)

Raptor - A bird of prey, such as an eagle or hawk.

RAR - Renovation And Repositioning

RAR - Response And Recovery (FEMA)

RAR - Restoration And Rewilding

RAR - Roadless Area Review

Rare - A classification reflecting a species' scarcity in a given area. Rare plants and animals (and eventually communities) are assigned rarity ranks according to The Nature Conservancy's global ranking system. - USDA/FS

RARE II - Roadless Area Review and Evaluation, The acronym for the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation conducted by the Forest Service in 1979 that resulted in an inventory of roadless areas considered for potential wilderness designations.

Rare Earth Elements - Relatively scarce minerals such as scandium and ytrium.

Rare Earth Metals - A group of widely distributed metals, consisting of the elements scandium, yttrium, and 15 elements of atomic numbers 57 to 71, inclusive. These metals have the same arrangement of the two external shells of electrons in their atoms and resemble one another closely in chemical and physical properties, being thus most difficult to separate from each other. It is to this property, rather than their actual rarity in nature, that they are so described. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Rare ecosystem - An ecosystem (site series or surrogate) that makes up less than 2% of a landscape unit and is not common in adjacent landscape units. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Rare Species - Any native or once-native species of wild plant or animal that exists in small numbers and has been determined to need monitoring (may include peripheral species). - USDA/FS

RAS - Registration, Admission, Status

RAS - Remote Access Services

RAS - Resource Analysis Section

Ratification, Ratify - Process by which the legislative body of a state confirms a government's action in signing a treaty; formal procedure by which a state becomes bound to a treaty after acceptance. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Ratification - Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty. [Arts.2 (1) (b), 14 (1) and 16, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Ratite - A family of large flightless birds that include ostriches, emus, and rheas, which U.S. farmers are beginning to domesticate and raise for food. Ratite inspection has become a policy issue because producers want USDA to include them under the mandatory meat and poultry inspection laws. If plants that slaughter and process these birds were under mandatory inspection, most of the cost would be covered by taxpayers. Currently, such plants must pay for USDA inspection on a fee-for- service basis, under a voluntary ratite inspection program instituted in 1995 under authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946.

Raw Agricultural Product - The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines this term as 'any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in the unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.' The non-regulatory definition generally means any agricultural commodity that has undergone little or no processing.

RAWS - Remote Automatic Weather Station

Rayleigh wave - A type of surface wave having a retrograde, elliptical motion at the Earth's surface, similar to the waves caused when a stone is dropped into a pond. These are the slowest, but often the largest and most destructive, of the wave types caused by an earthquake. They are usually felt as a rolling or rocking motion and in the case of major earthquakes, can be seen as they approach. Named after Lord Rayleigh, the English physicist who predicted its existence. - USGS Earthquake glossary

RB - Reserve Base

RB - Resource Base

RB - Restoration Board

RB - Revenue Bonds

RB - Riparian Buffers

RB - Road Bicycle

RB - Rolling Blackouts

RB - Rolling Brownouts

RBC - Red Blood Cell

RBC - Russian Biological Cocktails

RBCS - Rural Business Cooperative Service (USDA)

RBF - Rockefeller Brothers Foundation

RBF - Rockefeller Brothers Fund

RBO - river basin organization (FAO-UN)

RBR - River Buffer Rules

RC - Rainbow Coalition

RC - RAND Corporation (developer of the Delphi Technique to "achieve consensus")

RC - Range Commission

RC - Reasonable Concessions

RC - Reasonable Consideration

RC - The Recreation Community

RC - Refining Capacity

RC - Regional Coordination

RC - Regional Council

RC - Regulatory community

RC - Renewable Community (EZEC)

RC - Resource Crisis

RC - Rent Control

RC - Reproductive Cloning

RC - Research Campus

RC - Resident Coordinator

RC - Resource Conditions

RC - Responsible Care

RC - Restrictive Covenant

RC - Retail Commercial (a classification of land use)

RC - Retail Customer

RC - Reverse Circulation (mining)

RC - River Compacts

RC - River Corridors

RC - Rural Community

RC - Rural Conservation

RC & D - Resource Conservation and Development. "The purpose of the Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) program is to accelerate the conservation, development and utilization of natural resources, improve the general level of economic activity, and to enhance the environment and standard of living in designated RC&D areas. It improves the capability of State, tribal and local units of government and local nonprofit organizations in rural areas to plan, develop and carry out programs for resource conservation and development. The program also establishes or improves coordination systems in rural areas. Current program objectives focus on improvement of quality of life achieved through natural resources conservation and community development which leads to sustainable communities, prudent use (development), and the management and conservation of natural resources. RC&D areas are locally sponsored areas designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for RC&D technical and financial assistance program funds." The following items may be found at the website: RC & D Offices; RC & D Chairpersons; RC & D Regional Associations; RC & D State Associations; RC & D Partners; RC & D Coordinators; RC & D National Staff; Operations Partnership Liaisons; RC & D State Program Managers; NRCS Regional Conservationists; NRCS State Conservationists. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/rcd/  Also, this report - Why Wetlands are Important, Northwest Michigan RC&D Council - http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/rcd/WWtland.pdf 

RCA - Register of Conventional Arms (UN)

RCA - Riparian Conservation Area

R-CALF - Ranchers-Cattlemen Action Legal Fund

R-CALF - The Ranchers Cattlemen Action Legal Fund (United Stockgrowers of America) http://www.rcalf.com 

RCAP - Rural Community Assistance Program http://www.rcap.org/ 

RCC - Resource Conservation Challenge - EPA http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/conserve/index.htm  Also: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/conserve/reach.htm 

RCCA - Regional Climate Change and Agriculture

RCD - Resource Conservation District

RCD - River Corridor Development

RCD - Rural Conservation District

RCEO - Regional Council of Elected Officials. Towns, cities, and boroughs within one of the state's designated planning regions can form three types of regional planning organizations: an RCEO, an RPA, or a regional council of government (RCOG). An RPA and an RCEO may co-exist in the same region, but not with an RCOG. The region must terminate the RPA and the RCEO if it wants to establish an RCOG, which then assumes their duties. http://www.cga.state.ct.us/ps98/fc/7.htm 

RCERT - Regional Community Economic Revitalization Team

RCERT - Regional Computer Emergency Response Team

RCFB - Riverside County Farm Bureau (California)

RCFCU - Resource Conservation Federal Credit Union

RCIP - Riverside County Integrated Project (California) Other agencies involved: United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the California Department of Fish and Game, the Federal Highway Administration, the California Department of Transportation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.rcip.org 

RCM - Resource Condition Monitoring

RCMP - Refuge Comprehensive Management Plan

RCOG - Regional Council of Government. Towns, cities, and boroughs within one of the state's designated planning regions can form three types of regional planning organizations: an RCEO, an RPA, or a regional council of government (RCOG). An RPA and an RCEO may coexist in the same region, but not with an RCOG. The region must terminate the RPA and the RCEO if it wants to establish an RCOG, which then assumes their duties. http://www.cga.state.ct.us/ps98/fc/7.htm 

RCP - Regional Comprehensive Planning

RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976

RCRA - Resource Recovery and Conservation Act

RCSD - Rural Conservation Subdivision Development

RCSR - Restoring Common Sense to Regulation

RCV - the Recreation Community View

RCWMP - Rio Conchos Watershed Management Project

RCWR - River Corridor and Wetland Restoration (EPA) http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/restore/ 

RD - Rapid Dissipation

RD - Recorded Density (population)

RD - Regional Disarmament

RD - Rural Development

RDA - Resource Development Activities

RDB - Red Data Book (published by the IUCN)

RDB - Regional Development Board

RDC - Regional Development Commission

RDC - Research Data Collection

RDC - Rural Designated Communities (EZEC)

RDC - Rural Development Council

RDE - Remote Data Entry

RDF - Refuse-Derived Fuel

RDG - Roadwork Development Grant

RDP - Resource Development Plan

RDWFS - Rome Declaration on World Food Security (UN)

RE - Rare Earth

RE - Rational Environmentalist

RE - Reportable Event

RE - Restoration Ecology

RE - Restoration Enhancement (USFWS)

RE - Restoration and Establishment (Corps of Engineers) http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/pdfs/wlman87.pdf 

RE - Riparian Enhancements

RE - Rotation Effect

REA - Rapid Ecological Assessment

Reach - 1. The length of channel uniform with respect to discharge, depth, area, and slope. 2. The length of a channel for which a single gage affords a satisfactory measure of the stage and discharge. 3. The length of a river between two gaging stations. 4. More generally, any length of a river. - USGS

REACH - Road to Educational Achievement through CHoice (The REACH Alliance)

Reactive monitoring - One of the essential functions of the World Heritage Committee is to monitor the state of conservation of properties inscribed in the World Heritage List. The Operational Guidelines describe both systematic monitoring and reporting and reactive monitoring. 75. Reactive monitoring is the reporting by the World Heritage Centre, other sectors of UNESCO and the advisory bodies to the Bureau and the Committee on the state of conservation of specific World Heritage sites that are under threat. To this end, the States Parties shall submit to the Committee through the World Heritage Centre, specific reports and impact studies each time exceptional circumstances occur or work is undertaken which may have an effect on the state of conservation of the site. Reactive monitoring is foreseen in the procedures for the eventual deletion of properties from the World Heritage List as set out in paras. 48-56. It is also foreseen in reference to properties inscribed, or to be inscribed, on the List of World Heritage in Danger as set out in paras. 82-89 (UNESCO February 1996: 27). See Monitoring, State of conservation, Systematic monitoring and reporting - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Reactivity - A substance's tendency to undergo chemical reaction either by itself or with other materials with the release of energy. Undesirable effects such as pressure buildup, temperature increase, or formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts may result from a substance's reactivity to heating, burning, direct contact with other materials, or other conditions. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Real Estate - Leaseholds and licenses to use as well as any and every interest in land, whether corporeal or incorporeal, whether freehold or non-freehold, whether held separately or in common with others and whether the land is situated in this state or elsewhere. - Cadastral Data glossary

Real indicator - An economic indicator that uses the prices from some base year. This approach controls for fluctuating market prices so that other economic changes can be seen more clearly. In cross-country comparisons, this term also applies to the conversion of indicators calculated in local currency units into some common currency, most often US dollars. Real indicators are calculated with the help of purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors, while nominal indicators are those converted into US dollars using current exchange rates. - WB

Real Product or Real Quantity - The final product or quantity in two or more countries that is valued at common prices and, therefore, valued in comparable terms internationally. (UN)

Real Property - Land and generally whatever is erected, growing, or affixed to the land. - Cadastral Data glossary

Real Property - Property which is "real" estate (land vs. personal property). - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Real Property Tax Administration Rules - Part 194 Agricultural Assessments 194.1 Definitions. (a) Agricultural products means crops, livestock and livestock products and, to the extent that land used to produce woodland products qualifies for an agricultural assessment, woodland products. (b) Agricultural assessment means the sum of the products of the number of acres of land used in agricultural production and the appropriate agricultural assessment value for such land, as certified by the State Board, multiplied by the latest State equalization rate or special equalization rate. (c) Agricultural assessment value means the value per acre assigned to land used in agricultural production for assessment purposes pursuant to section 304-a of the Agriculture and Markets Law. (d) Agricultural district means a district created pursuant to article 25AA of the Agriculture and Markets Law. (e) Aquacultural enterprise means land and water bodies used in the production of aquaculture products. (f) Aquaculture products means aquatic plants or animals produced in a managed operation including but not limited to fish, fish products, water plants, and shellfish. (g) Commitment means a declaration by the owner of land used in agricultural production located outside an agricultural district that such land will be used exclusively for agricultural production for the next succeeding eight years. (h) County director means a director of a county real property tax service agency appointed pursuant to section 1530 of the Real Property Tax Law or, in a county that does not have a real property tax service agency, the person or body that is vested with the powers and duties of the county director as set forth in section 1532 of the Real Property Tax Law. (i) Conversion means an outward or affirmative act changing the use of agricultural land and shall not mean the nonuse or idling of such land. (j) Crops, livestock and livestock products shall include but not be limited to the following: (1) Field crops, including corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, hay, potatoes and dry beans. (2) Fruits, including apples, peaches, grapes, cherries and berries. (3) Vegetables, including tomatoes, snap beans, cabbage, carrots, beets and onions. (4) Horticultural specialties, including nursery stock, ornamental shrubs, ornamental trees and flowers. (5) Livestock and livestock products, including cattle, sheep, hogs, goats, horses, poultry, farmed deer, farmed buffalo, fur bearing animals, milk, eggs and furs. (6) Maple sap or syrup. (7) Christmas trees derived from a managed Christmas tree operation whether dug for transplanting or cut from the stump. (8) Aquaculture products, including fish, fish products, water plants and shellfish. (k) Farm woodland means not less than two acres of land used for the production for sale of woodland products, including but not limited to logs, lumber, posts and firewood. Farm woodland does not include land used to produce Christmas trees on land used for the processing or retail merchandising of woodland products. (l) Gross sales value means the proceeds from the sale of: (1) crops, livestock, livestock products, produced on land used in agricultural production; (2) woodland products from qualified farm woodland, not to exceed $2,000 annually; (3) aquaculture products; (4) honey and beeswax produced by bees in hives located on an otherwise qualified farm operation but which does not independently satisfy the gross sales requirement; and (5) maple syrup processed from maple sap produced on land used in agricultural production in conjunction with the same or an otherwise qualified farm operation. The proceeds from the sale of products enumerated herein shall be based upon the market value of any such product in its unprocessed state. The market value may be determined using published price information from the New York State Agricultural Statistics Service or other verifiable sources. The quantity of production prior to processing should be substantiated by the applicant in a manner acceptable to the assessor. (m) Land classification system means the system established by the Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets for ranking soils. (n) Land used in agricultural production means not less than 10 acres of land and/or water bodies used in aquacultural production used as a single operation in the preceding two years for the production for sale of crops, livestock and livestock products of an average gross sales value of $10,000 or more. It may include qualified rented land, qualified farm woodland and support land, land hereinafter defined as a managed Christmas tree operation used to produce Christmas trees, land hereinafter defined as sugarbush but not nonagricultural land. It may also include land set aside through participation in a Federal conservation program pursuant to title one of the Federal Food Security Act of 1985 or any subsequent Federal programs established for the purpose of replenishing highly erodible land which has been depleted by continuous tilling or reducing material surpluses of agricultural commodities provided it is part of and contiguous with a single farm operation which otherwise satisfies the requirements for eligibility for an agricultural assessment. (o) Managed Christmas tree operation means land where evergreens are planted and cultivated in an orderly fashion for the purpose of harvesting, whether dug for transplanting or cut from the stump, for sale as Christmas trees which otherwise satisfies the requirements for eligibility for an agricultural assessment in whole or, if part of the land used in agricultural production, is used in a single operation. (p) Nonagricultural land means land used for nonagricultural purposes such as a homestead; commercial gravel quarry or other mineral, oil or natural gas extraction; recreational uses such as camping, athletic and park facilities; retail establishments of any kind including restaurants, lodging facilities and roadside stands used for merchandising crops, livestock or livestock products; facilities, including sawmills, used to process crops, livestock or livestock products; fertilizer plants; and land used exclusively for hunting or game preserves. Nonagricultural land shall also include any land that is not actually being used to produce crops, livestock or livestock products for sale, where such land is not qualified farm woodland or support land. (q) Oil or gas exploration, development or extraction activities means the installation and use of fixtures and equipment which are necessary for the exploration, development or extraction of oil or natural gas, including access roads, drilling apparatus, pumping facilities and pipelines. (r) Orchard means land used for the production of apples, cherries, peaches, pears or other edible fruit grown on trees. (s) Parcel means a separately assessed lot, piece or portion of real property. (t) Payment means a charge imposed for the conversion of land granted an agricultural assessment. (u) Qualified farm woodland means farm woodland which is part of land otherwise qualified for an agricultural assessment, and which does not exceed 50 acres attributable to any separately assessed parcel. Farm woodland is considered to be part of land otherwise qualified for an agricultural assessment if it is used as a single operation and contiguous with such land. Lands divided by State, county or town roads, energy transmission corridors and similar facilities are to be considered contiguous. In determining average gross sales value, proceeds from the sale of woodland products from farm woodland qualified for an agricultural assessment may be included up to a maximum annual amount of $2,000. (v) Qualified rented land means land of an owner-applicant for an agricultural assessment and rented to another person, where: (1) the land otherwise satisfies the requirements for eligibility for an agricultural assessment; or (2) the land consists of not less than 10 acres used as a single operation for the production for sale of crops, livestock or livestock products, exclusive of woodland products, which does not independently satisfy the gross sales value requirement, where such land was used in such production for the preceding two years and currently is being so used under a written rental arrangement of five or more years in conjunction with land which qualifies for an agricultural assessment. w) Rental arrangement means a written lease signed by both of the parties to the agreement. (x) Single operation means lands used in agricultural production, whether owned or rented, that as a group comprise one distinct agricultural business enterprise. It is not required that the lands be contiguous nor in the same assessing unit. (y) Soil group or subdivision thereof means a class of soil mapping units established by the Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets. (z) Soil group worksheet means a statement for a parcel prepared by the soil and water conservation district office, which contains a tabulation of the number of acres in each soil group or subdivision thereof. (aa) Soil map means a cartographic description of the location of soils of different qualities prepared by the soil and water conservation district office. (ab) Soil mapping unit means a cartographic designation established by the National Cooperative Soil Survey for each soil, or subdivision thereof, found in New York State. (ac) Spatially integrated land means land that is located amid, between or on the perimeter of cropland, orchards, vineyards or land that is actually used to pasture livestock. (ad) State Board means the State Board of Real Property Services. (ae) Statewide information system code or SWIS code means a numbering system established by the Office of Real Property Services to uniquely identify each county, city town and village, and that portion of a town outside of incorporated villages. (af) Sugarbush means an area of sugar maple trees maintained for the purpose of producing maple syrup. This area is exclusive of the area defined as farm woodland. (ag) Support land means land constituting a portion of a parcel, as identified on an assessment roll, which also contains land qualified for an agricultural assessment, where such land is not actually being used to produce crops, livestock, livestock products or woodland products for sale, but is being used in support of a farm operation or in support of land used in agricultural production (examples include, but are not limited to, farm ponds, swamps used for drainage, land used for erosion control, hedgerows, access roads, land under farm buildings, dikes and levees used for flood protection, drainage ditches and land used for farm waste management). Support land also includes any other land, constituting a minor portion of such parcel, that is spatially integrated within the portion of the farm operation actually used to produce crops, livestock or livestock products for sale, where such land is not qualified farm woodland or nonagricultural land. (ah) Vineyard means land used for the production of grapes. (ai) Woodland products includes logs, lumber, posts and firewood.

Reaming - Enlarging the diameter of a hole.

Reaming Shell - A component of a string of rods used in diamond drilling, it is set with diamonds and placed between the bit and the core barrel to maintain the gauge (or diameter) of the hole.

REAP - Rural Economic Area Partnership (USDA)

REAP Zones - Rural Economic Area Partnership Zones

REAP Zones (Rural Economic Area Partnership) - Many rural areas face economic and community development issues of a very different character than communities whose needs are mainly defined by poverty. Often, the defining features are geographic isolation of communities separated by long distances, absence of large metropolitan centers, low-density settlement patterns, historic dependence on agriculture, continued population loss, outmigration, and economic upheaval or economic distress. To address these issues, USDA advocated a pilot concept for rural revitalization and community development called Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP) Zones. The REAP Initiative was established to address critical issues related to constraints in economic activity and growth, low density settlement patterns, stagnant or declining employment, and isolation that has led to disconnection from markets, suppliers, and centers of information and finance. Through local efforts in strategic planning and community action, millions of dollars in state, federal, private and non-profit assistance can be made to flow into these areas by: Improving economic viability, diversity, and competitiveness of the local economy and enhancing its participation in state, national and global markets; Assisting local communities to develop cooperative strategies that will maintain and expand essential community functions, basic infrastructure, education, health care, housing, and telecommunications; Assisting families with crises resulting from displaced employees and joblessness; and Providing financial and technical assistance to implement a citizen-built strategic plan. Memoranda of Agreement between the Zones and USDA establish USDA's Office of Community Development in the Rural Development mission area as the lead Federal Agency to assist the zones in the implementation of their programs. This pilot project sets up a collaborative and citizen-led effort to enhance economic development in the REAP Zones. This effort will become the model for building a new rural economy for other rural areas with similar problems. The Department of Agriculture has provided modest amounts of money to Zones for planning this program. This contribution has been augmented by USDA's community development technical assistance across all areas of Zone endeavor. Furthermore, priority consideration is given for Zone applications submitted for funding through USDA Rural Development. In 1995, two zones in North Dakota were initially designated to participate in the REAP initiative. Subsequently, in 1999, two areas in upstate New York were added as the third and fourth Zones. In 2000, an area in Vermont was designated as the fifth Zone. Both the North Dakota Zones and the Vermont Zone are multi-county in size, while the two in New York are, for the most part, single counties. Each REAP Zone developed a strategic plan for economic revitalization in their respective geographic areas. http://www.ezec.gov/Communit/reap.html  (USDA)

Rearing Habitat - Areas in rivers or streams where juvenile salmon and trout find food and shelter to live and grow. (BLM)

Rebuilding - The definition for the term "Rebuilding'' has been removed because it is a component of reconstruction or maintenance and is no longer needed as a separate definition. - USDA Forest Service

Recalcitrant Seed - Seed that does not survive drying and freezing. - UNDP/WRI

Receiving Waters - All distinct bodies of water that receive runoff, including channels, streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, estuaries, and in some cases, ground water.

Recession curve - A hydrograph showing the decreasing rate of runoff following a period of rain or snowmelt. Since direct runoff and base runoff recede at different rates, separate curves, called direct runoff recession curves or base runoff recession curves, are generally drawn. The term "depletion curve" in the sense of base runoff recession is not recommended. - USGS

Recharge - The addition of water to ground water by natural or artificial processes. The replenishment of ground water by seepage (deep percolation) of precipitation and runoff. Also stated as the process of addition of water to the saturated zone.

Recharge Area - An area that absorbs water that eventually reaches the zone of saturation in one or more aquifers. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Recipient Countries and Territories - See DAC Lists. Some details about recent changes in the List are given in the Notes on Definitions and Measurement below. Part I of the List is presented in income categories as follows (the word "countries" includes territories): - LLDCs: Least Developed Countries. Group established by the United Nations. To qualify for admission, countries must fall below thresholds established for income, economic diversification and social development. The DAC List is updated immediately to reflect any change in the LLDC group. - Other LICs: Other Low Income Countries. Includes all non LLDC countries with per capita GNP less than $765 in 1995 (World Bank Atlas basis). - LMICs: Lower Middle Income Countries, i.e. with GNP per capita (Atlas basis) between $766 and $3 035 in 1995. - UMICs: Upper Middle Income Countries, i.e. with GNP per capita (Atlas basis) between $3 036 and $9 385 in 1995. - HICs: High Income Countries, i.e. with GNP per capita (Atlas basis) more than $9 385 in 1995. Part II of the List comprises "Countries in Transition", i.e. more advanced Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. See also Official Aid. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development - (OECD) Glossary

Recirculation - Returning a fraction of the effluent outflow to the inlet to dilute incoming wastewater. - Bioenergy Glossary

Reciting - Stating something in a legal document.

Reclamation - 1. Alters an area to bring it to a healthy state unlike the original ecosystem. Syn: replacement - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. The process of restoring land disturbed as a result of some human activity to nearly its original state through contouring and seeding. 3. A type of withdraw in which public lands are or may be needed in connection with the construction and maintenance of a water development or irrigation project of the Bureau of Reclamation. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Reclamation - The restoration of a site after mining or exploration activity is completed. The process of rehabilitating disturbed lands, or converting unproductive lands to productive uses. The term is also used for the process of recycling or reusing water. In the context of the Reclamation Act and reclamation law, it means putting arid lands to use through irrigation.

Reclamation Act of 1902 - P.L. 57-161 (June 17, 1902), as amended, appropriated the receipts from the sale and disposal of public lands and resources in 17 western states to the construction of irrigation works for the reclamation of arid lands. Amendments made by the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 gave the Department of the Interior, among other things, the authority to amend repayment contracts and to extend repayment for not more than 40 years. Amendments made by the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 (RRA) eliminated the residency requirement provisions of reclamation law, raised the acreage limitation on lands irrigated with full-cost water, and established and required full-cost rates for land receiving water above the acreage limit.

Reclamation fund - A special fund established by Congress under the Reclamation Act of 1902, as amended, for receipts from the sale of public lands and timber, proceeds from the Mineral Leasing Act, and certain other revenues. Congress appropriates money from this fund for the investigation, construction, operation, and administration of Bureau of Reclamation projects. Collections from water users for payments made on the reimbursable costs of the federal projects are also returned to the fund.

Reclamation law - The body of law beginning with the Reclamation Act of 1902 that governs investigation, construction, and operation of Bureau of Reclamation projects.

Reclaimed Water System - A system of pipelines, pumps and storage basins for the storage and distribution of reclaimed wastewater. - Cornell Preservation Glossary\

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) - The technique of isolating DNA molecules and inserting them into the DNA of a cell ('recombining DNA'). Also known as genetic engineering.

RECON - Reconnaissance

Reconnaissance - A preliminary survey of ground.

Reconnaissance Study - The first phase of a USACE project; this phase is concerned with defining the problem, assessing the sponsor's level of interest and support, deciding to progress to the feasibility phase based on Federal interest, and estimating the time and money to complete the feasibility study. - Everglades Plan glossary

Record Date - The date by which a shareholder must be registered on the books of a company in order to receive a declared dividend, or to vote on company affairs.

Record of Decision (ROD) - A official document in which a deciding official states the alternative that will be implemented from a prepared EIS.

Record of Noncompliance - Under the 43 CFR 3809 regulations, an administrative compliance procedure and document that BLM issues to an operator who has not resolved a notice of noncompliance. If an operator is issued a record of noncompliance, BLM can upgrade all of the operator's Notice-level operations to Plan level operations and require the operations to be bonded at 100% of reclamation costs. See Notice of Noncompliance. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Record Owner - The owner of real estate at the time in question, as revealed by records. Usually used in reference to public records. - Cadastral Data glossary

Recorded - A deed, etc., is said to be recorded when it has been filed for record in the courthouse and made a matter of public record. - Cadastral Data glossary

Recourse loan program - A provision allowing farmers or processors participating in government commodity programs to pledge a quantity of a commodity as collateral and obtain a loan from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), subject to the condition that the borrower must repay the loan with interest within a specified period. This is unlike the condition with non-recourse loans whereby producers may settle their loans by giving the collateral to the CCC. The 1996 Act provides for a recourse loan program to be implemented for butter, nonfat dry milk, and cheese beginning in 2000 (but the starting time has subsequently been postponed). Loans for sugar are recourse when the tariff-rate import quota is at or below 1.5 million short tons, but these loans revert to non-recourse loans if the tariff-rate import quota is increased above 1.5 million short tons. The 2001 Appropriations Act made all sugar loans non-recourse regardless of the TRQ. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

RECOVER Leadership Group - A team, co-chaired by one staff member each from the USACE and the SFWMD, which has lead responsibility for the overall management of the RECOVER process, and is responsible for coordinating and integrating the activities of the RECOVER teams to ensure that the overall focus and direction of the implementation process remains consistent with the goals of system-wide restoration. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Recovery - The percentage of valuable metal in the ore that is recovered by metallurgical treatment.

Recovery Plan - A plan for the conservation and survival of an endangered species or a threatened species listed under the Endangered Species Act, to improve the status of the species to make continued listing unnecessary. (BLM)

Recovery - Species viability. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Recovery population - One of a set of populations designated necessary to the recovery of the species. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Recovery unit - One of a set of populations designated necessary to the recovery of the species. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Recreation Opportunity Spectrum - The land classification system that categorizes land by its setting and the probable recreation experiences and activities it affords.

Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) - A planning process that provides a framework for defining classes of outdoor recreation environments, activities, and experience opportunities. In ROS the settings, activities, and opportunities for experiences are arranged along a continuum or spectrum of six classes: primitive, semi-primitive non-motorized, semiprimitive motorized, roaded natural, rural, and urban. The resulting ROS analysis defines specific geographic areas on the ground, each of which encompasses one of the six classes. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Recreation and Public Purpose Act (R&PP) - The Act of June, 1926, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869,869-4). Allows the disposal of public lands to any state, local, federal, or political instrumentality or nonprofit organization for any recreational or public purpose, at the discretion of the authorized officer. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

The Recreational Corridor (TRC) - See The Maine Project

Recreational Resources - Those that provide either active or passive outdoor recreational activities directly dependent upon the natural or cultural elements of the landscape. These activities may include boating, saltwater and freshwater fishing, hiking, canoeing, camping (RV/Trailer and tent), biking, saltwater beach activities, wildlife viewing, horseback riding, driving, hunting, and picnicking. NPS - DOI

Recreational River - See Wild and Scenic River System. (BLM)

Recreational Visitor Day - A unit of measure equal to 1 person spending 1 full day (eight hours) recreating at a particular site. RVDs allow comparison between visitors who stay for only short periods of time and those who stay longer.

Recruitment - The addition of individuals into a breeding population through reproduction and/or immigration and attainment of a breeding position. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf  2. Process by which individuals that are lost from a population are replaced by new ones. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Recurrence Interval - The approximate length of time between earthquakes in a specific seismically active area. - USGS Earthquake glossary 2. Recurrence interval (return period) - The average interval of time within which the given flood will be equaled or exceeded once. (Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers, 1953, p. 1221.) - USGS

Recycle / Reuse - Minimizing waste generation by recovering and reprocessing usable products that might otherwise become waste (i.e., recycling of aluminum cans, paper, and bottles, etc.).

Recycling - The reclamation of potentially useful material from household, agricultural and industrial waste. The goal is to reduce pollution and save energy and costs while slowing down the rate at which non-renewable resources are depleted. As concern for the environment spreads, especially in the industrialized countries, the value of recycling has become more accepted. Recycling is not only good for the environment, it also creates jobs. (UNESCO)

RED - Responsible Economic Development

RED - Rural Economic Development

REDA - Rural Economic Development Authority

The Red Book Series (1993) - The Red Book series of publications provides market participants with a large amount of information on these important systems that is not readily available from other sources. (BIS)

Redd - The spawning ground or nest of various fishes. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Redevelopment - The removal and replacement, or adaptive reuse of an existing structure, or of land from which previous improvements have been removed. (UN)

Redox - Term for the overall reactions in which one substance is oxidized while another is reduced by the electron transfers. 2. The electron density of the media. Redox is measured in units of millivolts.

REDstart - A fish grow-out facility in Florida; an aquaculture project; a redfish enhancement project at Tarpon Bay on Sanibel Island.

Reduce - A chemical reaction in which the reference element or compound gains electrons or hydrogen atoms (which have one electron) from another "oxidized" element or compound. Reduction typically results in building complex compounds. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Reducers (Decomposers) - Organisms, usually bacteria or fungi, that break down complex organic material into simple compounds. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Redwoods National Park Act - (16 U.S.C. 79a-79q) - In 1978, Congress responded to pressure from the public for increased protection of Redwood National Park in California by passing an act known as the Redwood National Park Act. Besides resolving the situation at Redwood NP, the act generically strengthened the NPS' protection function. By amending the General Authorities Act of 1970, the act reasserted system-wide the high standard of protection described by Congress in the original Organic Act: Congress further reaffirms, declares, and directs that the promotion and regulation of the various areas of the NPS . . . shall be consistent with and founded in the purpose established by the Organic Act. The authorization of activities shall be conducted in light of the high public value and integrity of the National Park system and shall not be exercised in derogation of the values and purposes for which these various areas have been established, except as may have been or shall be directly and specifically provided by Congress."

REE - Rare Earth Element

REE - Research, Education and Economics

Reengineering - Radical change, requiring fundamental change, rapid progress toward radical goals and selective use of appropriate information technology. It is revolution, both in end and means. Once known as Methods and Procedure Analysis.

Re-establish Species - The establishment of a population of a species in a location or region where it historically occurred but no longer occurs there naturally.

REESWeb - Russian and East European Studies by Virtual Library

Reevaluation - (1) A written evaluation of a draft or final EIS prepared by the project sponsor in cooperation with FHWA/FTA for the purpose of determining whether or not a supplemental or new draft EIS is needed, (2) consultation between the project sponsor and FHWA/FTA after FHWA/FTA approval of an EIS, FONSI, or CE designation to establish whether or not the approved environmental document or CE designation remains valid. 23 CFR 771.129 and 771.130.

REF - Range Education Foundation

Reference Classifications - Are those economic and social classifications that are a product of international agreements approved by the United Nations Statistical Commission or another competent inter-government board, such as that of the International Labor Organization (ILO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), or the World Customs Organization (WCO) depending upon the subject matter area. Thus reference classifications have achieved broad acceptance and official agreement and are approved and recommended as guidelines for the preparation of classifications. They may be used as models for the development or revision of other classifications, both with respect to the structure and with respect to the character and definition of the categories. (UN)

Reference condition - The range of factors (for example, meteorology, surface and ground water, soils, geology, vegetation, topography, channel geometry factors, and natural and human disturbances) that is representative of the watershed's recent historical values prior to significant alteration of its environment. The reference could represent conditions found in a relic site or a site having had little significant disturbance. The reference condition does not necessarily represent conditions that are attainable. The purpose of references is to establish a basis for comparing what currently exists to what has existed in recent history. References can be obtained through actual data, such as paired watersheds or well-managed watersheds, or through extrapolated techniques, such as modeling. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html 

Reference man - A person with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of an average individual which is used in calculations assessing internal dose (also may be called "Standard Man"). - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Reference Point - Points established or used to aid in finding or relocating survey points or monuments; i.e. bearing trees. - Cadastral Data glossary

Referral - When examining nominations the Bureau may decide to recommend to the Committee that a nomination be referred back to the nominating State for further information or documentation" (UNESCO February 1996: 24, Paragraph 65 June/July). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Refining - Extracting and purifying metals and minerals.

Reforestation - The restocking of an area with forest trees, by either natural or artificial means, such as planting.

Refractory Ore - Ore that resists the action of chemical reagents in the normal treatment processes and which may require pressure leaching or other means to effect the full recovery of the valuable minerals.

Refuge Recreation Act (1962) - Allows the use of refuges for recreation when such uses are compatible with the refuge's primary purposes and when sufficient funds are available to manage the uses.

Refuge Revenue Sharing Act (1935) - as amended: Required revenue sharing provisions to all fee-title ownerships that are administered solely or primarily by the Secretary through the Service (USFWS).

Refuge Revenue Sharing With Counties - Part 34, Section 2 - Authority. "...counties must file an assurance with the Department, comply with the terms of the assurance, and comply with regulations contained in 43 CFR part 17 in order to continue to receive this Federal financial assistance."

Refuge Revenue Sharing with Counties - Part 34, Section 3 - Definitions. (a) The term "fee area" means any area that was acquired in fee by the United States, and is administered, either solely or primarily, by the Secretary through the Service. (b) The term "reserve area" means any area of land withdrawn from the public domain and administered, either solely or primarily, by the Secretary through the Service. (c) The term "county" means any county, parish, organized or unorganized borough, township or municipality, or other unit of local government that is the primary collector for general-purpose real property taxes where the areas and/or reserve areas are located. (d) The term "fund" means the revenues received by the Service from (1) the sale or disposition of animals, salmonoid carcasses and eggs, products of the soil (including, but not limited to, timber, hay, and grass), minerals, shells, sand, and gravel; (2) leases for public accommodations or facilities incidental to, but not in conflict with, the basic purpose of such areas; and (3) other privileges, including industrial leases...The fund shall also include any appropriations authorized by the Act to make up any difference between the total amount of receipts after payments of expenses and the total amount of payments due the counties. (f) The term "fair market value" means the amount in terms of money for which in all probability a property would be sold, if exposed for sale in the open market by a seller who is willing, but not obligated, to sell, allowing a reasonable time to find a buyer who is willing, but not obligated to buy, both parties having full knowledge of all the uses to which the property is adapted, and for which it is capable of being used.

Refugee Emergencies - Situations in which the victims' human rights are violated. (UN)

Refugees - People who flee their own country (or region) for political or economic reasons, or to avoid war and oppression. In 1995 the number of refugees around the world was estimated at 27.4 million. About 40% of these were in Africa and 35% in Asia. Over the past few decades refugees have also been fleeing environmental damage. In fact, the degradation of agricultural land is currently displacing more people than any other factor. A projected rise in sea level caused by global warming could produce many more refugees by the middle of the next century. (UNESCO)

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) - Fuel prepared from municipal solid waste. Noncombustible materials such as rocks, glass, and metals are removed, and the remaining combustible portion of the solid waste is choped or shreaded. RDF facilities process between 100 and 3000 tons of MSW per day. - Bioenergy Glossary

Regeneration with reserves - Similar to a regeneration harvest, except that a number of green trees are left standing to meet other resource needs such as wildlife habitat. The number of trees left is usually specified as a certain number of trees per acre. - Bioenergy Glossary

Regeneration - The renewal of a tree crop by either natural or artificial means. The term is also used to refer to the young crop itself (i.e. seedlings or saplings).

Regeneration Harvest - Used in reference to harvest methods that remove an existing stand to prepare the site for regeneration.

Regime - "Regime theory" is a theory of the forming of channels in material carried by the streams. As used in this sense, the word "regime" applies only to streams that make at least part of their boundaries from their transported load and part of their transported load from their boundaries, carrying out the process at different places and times in any one stream in a balanced or alternating manner that prevents unlimited growth or removal of boundaries. A stream, river, or canal of this type is called a "regime stream, river, or canal." A regime channel is said to be "in regime" when it has achieved average equilibrium; that is, the average values of the quantities that constitute regime do not show a definite trend over a considerable period--generally of the order of a decade. In unspecialized use "regime" and "regimen" are synonyms. (After Blench, 1957, p. 2.) - USGS

Region - An area encompassing land in more than one municipality that is bound together by shared characteristics.

Region - An unincorporated planning area and cities. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Regional Administrator - Any one of the Directors of the five NMFS regional offices, defined under Sec. 300.2, serving as the issuing office. - MFCMA

Regional Archaeological Settlement Pattern Analysis - A case study of the application of new technology to an ongoing long-term (15 years) regional analysis in the Arroux River valley, Burgundy, France. The time period covers the past two thousand years, from Celtic Iron Age to the modern period. Much of the work has focused on developing diachronic settlement models for the various cultural periods. Amassed archaeological data and digital environmental data (obtained from satellite images ) is being entered into a GIS (GRASS). While data input is not complete, some preliminary analysis has commenced e.g. viewshed analysis of Celtic road patterns and hillforts. It is argued that GRASS is particularly appropriate to archaeological site analysis and that this is one of the first applications of SPOT imagery to archaeological analysis.

Regional Center - An existing settlement or a location for development along or near a transportation corridor. It is the locus of high intensity, mixed-use development, with a density of more than 5,000 people per square mile and an emphasis on employment. It has a compact character and possesses sufficient density and adequate design to support pedestrian mobility and public transportation services. It possesses substantial market demand to enable it to function as a magnet to attract development from within the corridor and from surrounding areas, without competing with Urban Centers.

Regional Complementarity - Exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. (One area has a surplus of a commodity in demand by another region.)

Regional Ecosystem Office (REO) - The main function of this office is to provide staff work and support to the Regional Interagency Executive Committee so the standards and guidelines in the forest management plan can be successfully implemented. (BLM)

Regional Entity - A governmental or quasi-governmental agency which performs planning for land development or infrastructure for a Region.

Regional Evaluation Team (RET) - An interagency, interdisciplinary task team of the RECOVER Leadership Group, which designs and revises performance measures, conducts evaluations of Comprehensive Plan components and resolves technical issues. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Regional Forester - The official of the USDA Forest Service responsible for administering an entire region of the Forest Service.

Regional Interagency Executive Committee (RIEC) - This group serves as the senior regional entity to assure the prompt, coordinated and successful implementation of the forest management plan standards and guidelines at the regional level. (BLM)

Regional permit - Regional permits are a type of general permit. They may be issued by a division or district engineer after compliance with the other procedures of the section 404 permit regulations. If the public interest so requires, the issuing authority may condition the regional permit to require a case-by-case reporting and acknowledgement system. However, no separate applications or other authorization documents will be required. 33 CFR 325.2(e)(2) and 325.5(c)(1).

Regional standards - Standards established by a regional plant protection organization for the guidance of the members of that organization. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Regional Strategic Plan - A plan that identifies key issues affecting the future growth and viability of a Region, assesses the capabilities of the region's counties and municipalities to deal with those issues and then establishes a series of realistic strategies to address those issues. The plan should demonstrate a coordinated approach to community and economic development to ensure the most effective utilization of federal, State, county and municipal resources. The Regional Strategic Plan will evaluate and where necessary create links (physical, social, cultural, civic, and economic) between Centers, municipalities and the region. A Regional Strategic Plan should be consistent with the Goals, Strategies and Policy Objectives of the State Plan.

Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP) - A list of proposed transportation projects submitted by the regional transportation planning agency as a request for state funding. The individual projects are first proposed by local jurisdictions, then evaluated and prioritized by the RTPA for submission. The RTIP has a seven-year planning horizon, and is updated every two years. See Metropolitan Planning Organization - FHWA

Regional Water Table - The primary water table in a particular region or area.

Regionalization - The practice of building up world ICP comparisons on the basis of comparisons carried out in various country groupings like the EEC or ESCAP. (UN)

REGIS - Research Program in Environmental Planning and Geographic Information Systems (College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley)

Registration, Admission, Status (RAS) - Protocol used in the H.323 protocol suite for discovering and interacting with a Gatekeeper. (UN)

Registration and Publication - Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations provides that "every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it". Treaties or agreements that are not registered cannot be invoked before any organ of the United Nations. Registration promotes transparency and the availability of texts of treaties to the public. Article 102 of the Charter and its predecessor, Article 18 of the Pact of the League of Nations, have their origin in one of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points in which he outlined his idea of the League of Nations: "Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always openly and in the public view". [Art.80, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Regolith - The unconsolidated mantle of weathered rock and soil material on the earth's surface, the loose earth material above the solid rock. - USDA

Regulated article - Any plant, plant product, storage place, packaging, conveyance, container, soil and any other organism, object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, deemed to require phytosanitary measures, particularly where international transportation is involved. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Regulated non-quarantine pest - A non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Regulated pest - A quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Regulating Plan - A detailed map for the area of a municipality intended for development or redevelopment showing the cross-sections and alignment of the proposed streets, the rules for placing buildings along those streets, the types of buildings allowed, and the lots to be reserved for civic functions and public spaces. A regulating plan may be incorporated as part of the municipal Master Plan.

Regulation - The artificial manipulation of the flow of a stream. - USGS

Regulation - A process of implementing silvicultural techniques to establish equal areas of tree size classes, to sustain a given level of timber production over time. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf  2. Federal agencies establish specific criteria and procedures for how they will comply with laws. These regulations must be reviewed and approved through a formal process, then they are compiled in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The National Park Service must comply with all applicable federal regulations, including those promulgated by other agencies having legal jurisdiction over certain aspects of all federal activities, and it may be sued in court for failure to comply. (DOI/NPS)

Regulatory agency - An agency which has jurisdiction by law.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) - P.L. 96-354 (September 19,1964) requires federal agencies to consider the special needs and concerns of small business entities whenever they engage in rulemaking subject to notice and comment requirements of the Administrative Procedures Act or other laws. In most cases, when an agency publishes a proposed rule in the Federal Register, it must prepare and publish a regulatory flexibility analysis describing the impact on small businesses.

The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) - The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq, was signed into law on September 19, 1980. The RFA imposes both analytical and procedural requirements on EPA and on other federal agencies. The analytical requirements call for EPA to carefully consider the economic impacts rules will have on small entities. The procedural requirements are intended to ensure that small entities have a voice when EPA makes policy determinations in shaping its rules. The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA), Pub Law No. 104-121, was signed into law on March 29, 1996. SBREFA enacted a variety of provisions, including several amendments to the RFA. In short, SBREFA amended the RFA to require EPA to convene a small business advocacy review panel prior to proposing any rule that will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. It also added a provision that allows small entities adversely affected by a final rule to challenge the agency's compliance with the RFA's requirements in court. http://www.epa.gov/sbrefa/statute.htm 

Regulatory Taking - Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Commission (U.S. Supreme Court 1992, Justice Scalia): Regulations that deny the property owner all economically viable use of his land for the common good are one of the categories requiring compensation. "The many statutes on the books, both state and federal, that provide for the use of eminent domain to impose servitudes on private scenic lands preventing developmental uses, or to acquire such lands altogether, suggest the practical equivalence in this setting of negative regulation and appropriation." The police power cannot be used to justify diminution of value (without compensation) on the basis of preventing "noxious use" any more than for regulation that "confers benefits." The question of a government taking hinges on the "bundle of rights" citizens acquire when they take title to the property, the background of nuisance and property law in effect at that time. "Where 'permanent physical occupation' of land is concerned, we have refused to allow the government to decree it anew (without compensation), no matter how weighty the asserted 'public interests' involved... We believe similar treatment must be accorded confiscatory regulations, i.e., regulations that prohibit all economically beneficial use of land: Any limitation so severe cannot be newly legislated or decreed (without compensation), but must inhere in the title itself, in the restrictions that background principles of the State's law of property and nuisance already place upon land ownership." Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon (U.S. Supreme Court 1922 Justice Holmes): "while property may be regulated to a certain extent, if regulation goes too far it will be recognized as a taking." "Pennsylvania Coal has long been regarded as the single most important case in the takings literature," said Richard A. Epstein in 1988.(1) Penn Central Transportation v. City of New York (U.S. Supreme Court 1978) - The case has been widely cited because it allows the government to accomplish a regulatory taking without compensation as long as the property owner could achieve a "reasonable return" from his investment. But compare 1992 Lucas decision. See Easement. (1) Richard A. Epstein "Takings: Descent and Resurrection," University of Chicago 1988 p12 - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Rehabilitation - The recovery of specific ecosystem services in a degraded ecosystem or habitat. - UNDP/WRI 2. Altering a degraded habitat in order to improve ecological function. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 3. A short-term management goal used to return a landscape with existing visual impacts and deviations to a desired level of scenic quality formerly found in the characteristic landscape. - FS 2. The World Heritage Convention does not specifically define rehabilitation. The Convention makes reference to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation" of cultural and natural heritage. Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation" (UNESCO 1972). Rehabilitation is not defined in the Operational Guidelines. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Rehabilitation - To return environments into good health.

Rehabilitation - An effort that minimally alters the remaining physical fabric of a historic property, while sometimes adding features to allow efficient contemporary use; executed with an emphasis on the seven points of integrity -- location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association -- defined by the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Rehabilitation Act (1973) - Requires programmatic accessibility in addition to physical accessibility for all facilities and programs funded by the Federal government to ensure that anybody can participate in any program.

REHL - Relatively Expendable Human Lives

"The United States is entirely a creature of the Constitution. Its power and authority have no other source. It can only act in accordance with all the limitations imposed by the Constitution." - Reid v Covert 354 US l, 1957, Supreme Court decision http://www.constitution.org/ussc/354-001a.htm 

Reinjection - The feeding of unburned char and fly ash obtained from mechanical collectors into the furnace for further combustion. - Bioenergy Glossary

Reintroduction - An attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct. - IUCN

Reintroduction - Translocation of individuals from a captive or wild population to previously occupied but currently unoccupied habitat. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

REIT - Real Estate Investment Trust (what Plum Creek Timber became in 2001)

REL - Regional Education Laboratory

Related Categories - Are those categories that have some form of elementary relationship. Such related categories can be meaningfully aggregated to give a broad picture or disaggregated when finer details are required. Related categories often have commonality in their codes, due to their common starting point (e.g. an international standard), although relationships can be applied between classifications with different structures and coding systems provided the concepts embedded within the observations under consideration are consistent. (UN)

Related Classifications - Are classifications which encompass the same or similar observations within different structures and/or to different levels of detail. They often occur as part of a family of classifications, sometimes with a common starting point, such as an international standard classification. (UN)

Release - An intentional opening up of water control structures to allow stored water to flow out to lower water stage to acceptable levels or to make available water for ecological, agricultural or urban water supply demand. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Release - Freeing trees from competition for light, water and nutrients by removing or reducing the vegetation growth that is overtopping or closely surrounding them.

Release Cutting - Removal of competing vegetation to allow desired tree species to grow.

Release Zone - The zone representing water level differentiation determining the manner of release to be performed, such as pulse releases to simulate a storm or gates wide open. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Relevant Terms - Terminology must be uniform and definitions must be disseminated throughout the Organization. External factors should be better defined. (UN)

Relict - A remnant or fragment of the vegetation of an area that remains from a former period when the vegetation was more widely distributed. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Relict Plant Community - Areas of plants that have persisted despite the pronounced warming and drying of the interior west over the last few thousand years and/or have not been influenced by settlement and post-settlement activities. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Relief - The elevations or inequalities of a land surface, considered collectively. - USDA

Religion - A set of personal and social beliefs which have two main characteristics: a deep concern with the ultimate meaning of human existence; and an identification with a supernatural power beyond the limits of the human and natural worlds. (UNESCO)

REM - Rare Earth Materials

Remanufacturing - Manufacturing new products from recycled materials.

Remedial Action - The actual construction or implementation phase that follows the Remedial Design of the selected clean-up alternative at a National Priorities List site. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Remedial Design - The engineering phase that follows the Record of Decision. During Remedial Design, technical drawings and specifications are developed for the remedial action at a site. It is similar to a blueprint or workplan. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Remedial Investigation (RI) - A study which identifies the nature and extent of site contamination and determines the threat this contamination poses to human health and the environment. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Remediation - The process of correcting environmental degradation. Syn: amelioration - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Remote sensing - The science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation. - National Resources Inventory

Removal Action - An immediate, short-term cleanup action to address a release or threatened release of hazardous substances. This action is initiated to reduce or eliminate an immediate threat to public health and/or the environment. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Removal Cut - The removal of the last seed bearers or shelter trees after regeneration is established.

Removal of Government Officials by Court Order - In New York State, for example, citizens of a town may bring an action in the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, for removal of a local official for corruption. The citizen himself, or the attorney representing the citizen, then becomes the prosecutor before a judge assigned to hear the case. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Removals - The net volume of growing stock trees removed from the inventory by harvesting or cultural operations such as timber stand improvement (e.g., thinning), land clearing, or change in land use. - USDA/FS

REMS - Remote Environmental Monitoring System

REN - Resource Education Network

Renewable - Able to be replaced or replenished, either by the earth's natural processes or by human action. Air, water, and forests are often considered to be example of renewable resources. However, due to local geographic conditions and costs involved, strong arguments can be made that water may not be a completely renewable resource in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries or in areas with limited groundwater supplies. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of non-renewable resources. (UNESCO)

Renewable (Natural) Resources - Natural resources, such as soil and water, that replenish themselves within the limits of human time. Sometimes defined as flow resources. Alternatively, the surface resources from forests and rangelands, including timber, livestock forage, recreation, water, and wildlife and fish. Mineral and petroleum resources are nonrenewable, or stock resources. 2. Able to be replaced or replenished, either by the earth's natural processes or by human action. Air, water, and forests are often considered to be example of renewable resources. However, due to local geographic conditions and costs involved, strong arguments can be made that water may not be a completely renewable resource in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries or in areas with limited groundwater supplies. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of non-renewable resources. (WB-UN)

Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) - Passed by Congress in 1974 and updated in 1993, this law requires the Forest Service to conduct an assessment of the Nation's forests every 10 years (and to provide updates every 5 years). - USDA/FS

Renomination - Renomination is not referred to specifically in the Convention or the Operational Guidelines. Renomination refers to the process where a States Party submits a new nomination of a property already inscribed in the World Heritage List. Renominations may be useful for the purpose of boundary change or expansion and/or re-evaluation of the values and the criteria for which the property had been previously inscribed in the World Heritage List. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms Reporting See Monitoring, Reactive monitoring, Systematic monitoring and reporting - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

REO - Regional Ecosystem Office (DOI/BLM) http://www.reo.gov/ 

REP - Republicans for Environmental Protection

REP - Resource Evaluation Program

Repetition/replication - There are four plots in a repetition/replication, the early, mid and late seral treatment plots and a control plot. A repetition/replication is also called a "block." There should be at least three repetitions/ replications in a research study to obtain statistical reliability. - Bioenergy Glossary

REPI - Research, Education and Policy Infrastructure

Replacement Cost - The cost of replacing an item that is damaged or destroyed with an item that is comparable in quality and utility. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

Replacement Growth Media - Material below the C horizon of the soil that can be substituted for topsoil or subsoil when it is equal or superior in quality as a surface cover for growing plants on reconstructed mine surfaces. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Replacement Level - The fertility level at which couples have the number of children required to replace themselves, this is about two children. When the replacement level is reached, population growth will stabilize in time. (WB-UN)

Replacement Ore - Ore formed by a process during which certain minerals have passed into solution and have been carried away, while valuable minerals from the solution have been deposited in the place of those removed.

Representative - Refers to any public or private individual, agency, or organization that is performing actions related to the identification, evaluation, designation or monitoring of national natural landmarks on behalf of or in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS), either under a contractual agreement or as a volunteer. - NPS

Representativeness - A term used to describe how characteristic a particular item is of the types of goods and services included in a basic heading. (UN)

RER - Rare Earth Reserves

RER - Relax Environmental Restraints

RER - Renewable Energy Reserve

Re-regulating reservoirs - A reservoir for reducing diurnal fluctuations resulting from the operation of an upstream reservoir for power production. - USGS

RES - Renewable Energy Source

Research Natural Area - An area in as near a natural condition as possible, which exemplifies typical or unique vegetation and associated biotic, soil, geological, and aquatic features. The area is set aside to preserve a representative sample of an ecological community primarily for scientific and educational purposes; commercial and general public use is not allowed.

Research Natural Area (RNA) - A natural area established and maintained for research and education, which may include: typical or unusual plant or animal types, associations, or other biotic phenomena; characteristic or outstanding geologic, soil, or aquatic features or processes. The public may be excluded or restricted from such areas to protect studies. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Reservation - The exceptions that States Parties make to a treaty (e.g., provisions that they do not agree to follow). Reservations, however, may not undermine the fundamental meaning of the treaty. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Reservation - A reservation is a declaration made by a state by which it purports to exclude or alter the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty in their application to that state. A reservation enables a state to accept a multilateral treaty as a whole by giving it the possibility not to apply certain provisions with which it does not want to comply. Reservations can be made when the treaty is signed, ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to. Reservations must not be incompatible with the object and the purpose of the treaty. Furthermore, a treaty might prohibit reservations or only allow for certain reservations to be made. [Arts.2 (1) (d) and 19-23, Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Reserve - An area of forestland that, by law or policy, is not available for timber harvesting or production. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Reserve Base - The part of an identified resource that meets specified minimum physical and chemical criteria related to current mining and production practices. The reserve base includes resources that are currently economic and marginally economic and some that are currently subeconomic. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Reserve Pool - A quantity provision in a fruit or vegetable marketing order that requires that some marketable supplies be withheld from the fresh market to be used instead in a so-called secondary market such as for frozen or processed forms, for a nonfood use, or stored for sales in a future marketing year.

Reserved Federal Mineral Estate - Land on which the federal government has ownership of minerals but the surface estate is private or other nonfederal ownership. (BLM-DOI).

Reserved Timberland - (See: Productive-reserved forest land). - USDA/FS

Reservoir - A pond, lake, or basin, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation, and control of water. - USGS 2. A pond, lake, basin, or other space, created in whole or in part by the building of engineering structures, that is used for the storage, regulation, and control of water. - National Resources Inventory

Reservoir Storage Capacity - Reservoir capacity normally usable for storage and regulation of reservoir inflows to meet established reservoir operating requirements (compare with flood control storage capacity). - EvergladesPlan glossary

RESFO - Reynoldsburg (Ohio) Ecological Services Field Office (USFWS-DOI)

Resident fish - Fish species that complete their entire life cycle in freshwater; non-anadromous fish. An example is rainbow trout. - Bioenergy Glossary

Residual - Left over; eroded in place.

Residual cover - Living and dead vegetation that persists over-winter and provides protective and breeding cover during critical periods in the following spring before new growth takes over this function. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Residual-mass curve - A graph of the cumulative departures from a given reference such as the arithmetic average, generally as ordinate, plotted against time or date, as abscissa. (See Mass curve.) - USGS

Residual Material - Unconsolidated and partly weathered mineral materials derived from rock in place.

Residual Stand - The trees remaining standing after some activity or event such as selection cutting (individual tree selection).

Residual Supplier - A country that supplies the world market only after importers have met their initial needs from preferred suppliers. A residual supplier is not initially competitive because of high prices or lower quality. The United States used to be considered a residual supplier of grains and cotton because its commodity support programs kept its prices higher than those of competing exporters did.

Resilience - The ability of an ecosystem to maintain diversity, integrity, and ecological processes following a disturbance.

Resin well - A wound in a pine tree's cambium, created and maintained by red-cockaded woodpeckers, for the purpose of resin production. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Resinosis - A process through which injured sapwood in a pine tree becomes saturated with hardened resin, reducing and eventually preventing loss of resin. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Resistivity Survey - A geophysical technique used to measure the resistance of a rock formation to an electric current.

Resolution - A formal expression of opinion, will, or intent.

Resource - The calculated amount of material in a mineral deposit, based on limited drill information.

Resource - Any material, structure, process or condition considered to have value. It may be man-made or natural, such as water, land, air, climate, minerals, structures or facilities. - Cornell Preservation Glossary 2. Something of value (an asset). Park managers often speak in terms of the aesthetic, cultural, and natural resources of parks, meaning the parks' major features. [See also aesthetic resource, cultural resource, and natural resource.] The term is also used less frequently to describe the funding and manpower available to managers. (DOI/NPS)

Resource - Any component of the environment that can be utilized by an organism. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary and BLM

Resource Advisory Council (RAC) - A council established by the Secretary of the Interior to provide advice or recommendations to BLM management. In some states, Provincial Advisory Councils (PACs) are functional equivalents of RACs. - BLM

Resource Agencies - A group of federal and state agencies or commissions which review projects for their consistency and sensitivity to environmental laws and policies. Regulatory agencies are empowered to issue permits or recommend approval or denial of a permit.

Resource Analysis - The critical examination of resources and environment so as to support planning and decision-making. Resource analysis consists of gathering, examining and interpreting relevant information; organizing and integrating information to assist in developing scenarios; and, assessing the impacts of a proposed course of action (scenario).

Resource Conservation and Development Program (RC&D) - The RC&D program, initiated in 1962 under authority of Food and Agriculture Act of 1962 (P.L. 87-703), assists multi-county areas in enhancing conservation, water quality, wildlife habitat, recreation and rural development. Work in each area is coordinated by a council. At present, 269 areas have been approved; they cover 60% of the private land in the country.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act - 42 U.S.C. s/s 6901 et seq. (1976) RCRA (pronounced "rick-rah") gave EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous wastes. The 1986 amendments to RCRA enabled EPA to address environmental problems that could result from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances. RCRA focuses only on active and future facilities and does not address abandoned or historical sites (see CERCLA).

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 - Gave EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from "cradle-to-grave." This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous wastes. The 1986 amendments to RCRA enabled EPA to address environmental problems that could result from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances. RCRA focuses only on active and future facilities and does not address abandoned or historical sites.

Resource Management Plan (RMP) - A BLM planning document, prepared in accordance with Section 202 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, that presents systematic guidelines for making resource management decisions for an area or region. Based on an analysis of an area's resources and its existing management and capability for alternative uses, RMPs are issue oriented and developed by an interdisciplinary team with public participation. The plan contains guidelines for making resource management decisions for specific areas managed by BLM, known as resource areas.

Resource Management Zone - A division or zone of the planning area that is distinct from other zones with respect to biophysical characteristics, resource issues or resource management direction. May include settlement, agriculture, high intensity resource development, general resource development, low intensity resource development and protection, and may be drawn on a map to describe general management intent. The zones are usually further defined using descriptive objectives and strategies to explain future land use and resource management activities.

Resource management zone (RMZ) - Geographical areas defined in a park's general management plan that are managed according to distinct legislative and administrative requirements, resource values, and public preference. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Resource Planning and Management Map (RPMM) - The official map of the State Plan including planning areas, Centers, Community Development Boundaries, Critical Environmental/Historic Sites as well as other information.

Resource Use Level - The level of use allowed within an area. It is based on the desired outcomes and land use allocations in the land use plan. Targets or goals for resource use levels are established on an area-wide or broad watershed level in the land use plan. Site-specific resource use levels are normally determined at the implementation level, based on site-specific resource conditions and needs as determined through resource monitoring and assessments. - BLM

Resource values - A resource -- natural or social -- that is found in an area. Resource values may have varying levels of significance. - Bioenergy Glossary

Resources - The biological and physical characteristics for which Federal agencies have management and stewardship responsibility; for example, air, soil, water, fish, wildlife, vegetation, and minerals. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html 

Resources - The machines, workers, money, land, raw materials, and other things that a country can use to produce goods and services and to make its economy grow. Resources may be renewable or nonrenewable. Countries must use their resources wisely to ensure long term prosperity. (WB-UN)

Resources Seaward of Continental Shelf. The (Submerged Lands) Act does not affect the rights of the U.S. to the natural resources of the subsoil and seabed of the continental shelf lying seaward and outside of the lands beneath navigable waters. The Act states that these natural resources appertain to the U.S., and it confirms the U.S.'s jurisdiction and control. (See also the summary of the Outer Continental Shelf Act of 1953.) 1302. Relinquishment of U.S. Title. According to the Act, the U.S. releases and relinquishes to the states all rights, title and interest it may have, unless otherwise reserved, in lands, improvements, and natural resources beneath or within navigable waters within the boundaries of the respective states. The U.S. also releases and relinquishes any claims it may have for money or damages arising out of the operations of states or persons acting under state authority upon or within those lands and navigable waters. The Act addresses the effectiveness of leases covering lands and natural resources affected by the Act, as well as the allocation of lease payments among the U.S., the state and the lessee. Nothing in the Act is to affect the use, development, improvement, or control of lands and waters, by or under the constitutional authority of the U.S., navigation or flood control or the production of power. Nothing shall be construed as the release or relinquishment of rights of the U.S. arising under constitutional authority to regulate or improve navigation, or to provide for flood control or the production of power. Also, nothing in the Act is to affect the laws of states which lie westward of the 98th meridian relating to the ownership and control of ground and surface waters. The control, appropriation, use and distribution of these waters shall continue to be in accordance with state law. 1311.

RESP - Religion, Ethics, and Society Program

Respected Places - The term Eastern Shoshone informants use to identify places that are important to them. BLM-DOI

Response Coefficient - Effects on jobs, wages, or incomes per unit of production or output such as per million dollars of mineral extracted, million board feet harvested, or million recreation trips. - USDA/FS

Responsible agency - A CEQA term for a public agency which proposes to carry out or approve a project, for which a lead agency is preparing or has prepared an EIR or negative declaration. For the purposes of CEQA , the term responsible agency includes all public agencies other than the lead agency which have discretionary approval power over the project. California Resources Agency, Title 14, section 15381.

Responsible Official - The Forest Service employee who has been delegated the authority to carry out a specific planning action.

Responsiveness Summary - A summary of oral and written comments (and EPA responses to those comments) which EPA receives during the public comment period. The Responsiveness Summary is part of the Record of Decision. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Rest - Leaving an area ungrazed, thereby foregoing grazing of a forage crop. Normally, rest implies absence of grazing for a full growing season. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Rest Rotation - A grazing management scheme in which rest periods for individual pastures, paddocks or grazing units -- generally for the full growing season -- are incorporated into a grazing rotation. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

RESTORE - Restoration Coordination and Verification (Everglades Plan)

Restoration - In the context of this report's cohesive strategy, restoration means the return of an ecosystem or habitat toward its original structure, natural complement of species, and natural functions or ecological processes. - USDA Forest Service 2. An effort to retain, preserve, or restore the complete physical fabric of a historic property appropriate to a researched temporal period, with close attention to the seven points of integrity -- location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association -- defined by the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places.

Restoration - Altering an area in such a way as to reestablish an ecosystem's structure and function, usually bringing it back to its original (pre-disturbance) state or to a healthy state close to the original. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. The return of an ecosystem or habitat toward: its original structure, natural complement of species, and natural functions or ecological processes. - www.fireplan.gov glossary

Restoration (of ecosystems) - Actions taken to modify an ecosystem to achieve a desired, healthy, and functioning ecosystem. (Author's note: Natural?)

Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) - A program-level activity whose role is to organize and apply scientific and technical information in ways that are most effective in supporting the objectives of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Restricted land or restricted status - Land, the title to which is held by an individual Indian or a tribe and which can only be alienated or encumbered by the owner with the approval of the Secretary because of limitations contained in the conveyance instrument pursuant to federal law. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Restricted Road - A National Forest road or segment which is restricted from a certain type of use of all uses during certain seasons of the year or yearlong. The use being restricted and the time period must be specified. The closure is legal when the Forest Supervisor has issued and posted an order in accordance with 36 CRF 261.

Restrictions - Provision in a deed which limit the use of the land. - Cadastral Data glossary

Restrictive Covenant - The terms and conditions that accompany agreements where non-governmental parties assume ownership of NPS property (i.e., land exchange or sell-back). The restrictive covenant ensures the preservation of a property's significant historic or cultural features. Although the park does not retain the title to the property, it does hold restrictive covenant interest for perpetuity. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Restrictors - Metal plates used to prevent or repair enlargement of cavity entrances. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Restudy - The Central and South Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study -- authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1992 -- which examined the Central and Southern Project to determine the feasibility of modifying the project to restore the south Florida ecosystem and provide for other water-related needs of the region, and which resulted in The Final Integrated Feasibility Report and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, which was transmitted to Congress on July 1, 1999. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Resuing - A method of stoping in narrow-vein deposits whereby the wall rock on one side of the vein is blasted first and then the ore.

Resurvey - A retracement of a survey or surveys. - Cadastral Data glossary

Retail Commercial - A commercial category intended for lower-to-medium intensity, comprehensively planned, commercial developments that provide for neighborhood-type retail shopping facilities and general commercial supporting activities to neighborhoods in close proximity.

Retainage - A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion in order to ensure full performance of the contract terms. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Retarding reservoir - Ungated reservoir for temporary storage of flood water. Sometimes called detention reservoir. - USGS

Retention - The owners of improved property [that has been] acquired in fee by the park are entitled to retain the use and occupancy of the improvement along with a designated portion of land necessary to enjoy the improvement. The period of a retained interest is typically for a fixed term up to 25 years. Upon expiration of this term, the improved property is turned over to the park. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Retention level - The amount of a particular preservative remaining in a cubic foot of wood after being treated. For instance, a .25 retention level means that about 1/4 pound of preservative is in every cubic foot of wood fiber. Preservative retention levels vary, based on the type of lumber and its intended use. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Retracement Survey - One made for the purposes of verifying the direction and length of lines and to identify the monuments and other marks of an established prior survey. The retracement, as such, does not modify the former line or lines, excepting where renewing the marks or monuments. The field notes, however, do afford new evidence of the character and condition of the previous survey, including careful redetermination of the direction and length of all lines retraced, and whether the retracement is corroborative of the former record field notes and plat, or not so in any particular. - Cadastral Data glossary

Retrofit - The transformation of a site, its buildings and infrastructure from a limited-use, auto-dependent suburban area into a Mixed-Use, pedestrian environment. Retrofit may involve additions and partial demolition, but not wholesale redevelopment of a site.

Retrofitting - The application of conservation, efficiency, or renewable energy technologies to existing structures. - Bioenergy Glossary

Return Flow - The amount of water that reaches a surface or ground water source after it has been released from the point of use and thus becomes available for further reuse. Also called return water. Surface and subsurface water that leaves the field following application of irrigation water. While irrigation return flows are a 'point source,' they are expressly exempted from permit requirements under the Clean Water Act.

Return flow - That part of irrigation water that is not consumed by evapotranspiration and that returns to its source or another body of water. The term is also applied to the water that is discharged from industrial plants. Also called return water. - USGS

Return to production - To allow a Forest road or trail to return to a productive capacity (near to natural) either through decommissioning or through physical obliteration. Return to production through decommissioning occurs over very long periods as soil productivity and hydrologic function recover while return to production through obliteration restores hydrologic function and soil productivity immediately through mechanical means. By definition" total soil resource commitment", which is considered to be a loss in soil productivity below 40% of natural, is an effect that is sustained for a minimum of 50 years. Roads and trail that have been obliterated (soil productivity and hydrologic function returned to near natural levels) are not longer considered part of "total soil resource commitment" calculations. Roads and trails that are returned to production through decommissioning, however, are not (by definition) removed from the total soil resource commitment condition for a minimum of 50 years following closure. - FS

Re-vegetation - The re-establishment and development of a plant cover by either natural or artificial means, such as re-seeding.

Revenue Insurance - A program that provides coverage to producers against lost revenues (or incomes) caused by low prices, low yields, or a combination of low prices and low yields. An indemnity is paid to a producer when any combination of yield and price results in revenue that is less than a pre-specified revenue guarantee. The FAIR Act of 1996 mandates a USDA pilot program for crop years 1997-2000 under which producers of feed grains, wheat, soybeans, and other crops in specified areas may elect to receive insurance against loss of revenue. The two largest pilot programs to date are the Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC) program and the Income Protection (IP) program. The two programs are similar, except that the CRC allows farmers to insure their revenue at either planting-time prices or harvest prices, whichever is higher. The full cost of the premium associated with CRC and IP is paid by the participating farmer.

Revenue Refuge Sharing - The Refuge Sharing Act of 1935, as amended, provides for annual payments to counties or the lowest unit of government that collects and distributes taxes based on acreage and value of National Wildlife Refuge System lands within the county. Payments are calculated based on whichever of the followings formulas provides the largest return: 1) $.75 an acre; 2) 25 percent of the net receipts collected from refuge lands in the county; 3) three-quarters of 1 percent of the appraised fair market value.

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) - Revisions to the universal soil loss equation implemented in the mid 1990s to more accurately predict soil erosion caused by water. It includes the same factors as the earlier formula; climate, soils, topographic conditions, and the degree to which the use and management of the soil reduces erosion. But it takes advantage of new knowledge about these relationships and the capabilities of computer technology. The comparison between predicted erosion and T-value is important in making and carrying out conservation plans and achieving conservation compliance.

Revised Statute (R.S.) - Amended law.

Revision - Revision has basically the same meaning as amendment. However, some treaties provide for a revision additional to an amendment (i.e., Article 109 of the Charter of the United Nations). In that case, the term "revision" refers to an overriding adoption of the treaty to changed circumstances, whereas the term "amendment" refers only to a change of singular provisions. (UN)

Revision - The process of completely rewriting the land use plan due to changes in the planning area affecting major portions of the plan or the entire plan. - BLM

Revitalization - The holistic restoration of the physical and social components of a distressed community.

REZ - Rural Empowerment Zone (EZEC)

RF - Radio Frequency

RF - Rail Facilities

RF - Reason Foundation

RF - Recreational Facilities

RF - Red Flag

RF - Resource Freezes

RF - Restoration Forestry

RF - Rottenberg Foundation

RFA - Regulatory Flexibility Act http://www.epa.gov/sbrefa/statute.htm 

RFA - Request For Application

RFB - Riparian Forest Buffer

RFC - Reconstruction Finance Corporation

RFC - Recreational Fishing Coordinator (Dept. of Fish and Game)

RFC - Regional Forestry Commissions (UN)

RFCP - The Restricted Feeder Cattle Program (pertains to cross-border cattle feeding between the U.S. and Canada)

RFD - Recreation Fee Demonstration, also known as 'Fee Demo'

RFDP - Recreation Fee Demonstration Program

RFDP - The Recreation Fee Demonstration Program (also known as 'Fee Demo') (Forest Service) http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/feedemo/index.shtml 

RFGA - Request For Grant Application

RFIR - Redwood Forest Information Resources

RFMP - Radio Frequency Mission Planner (Navy warfare computer system)

RFP - Request for Proposal

RFP - Request for Proposals

RFSTE - Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology

RFTA - Recreation Fee Test Area

RFTP - Recreation Fee Test Project

RG - Regional Geology

RG - Retraining Grants

RGA - Regional Growth Area

RGB - Regional Growth Boundary

RGBI - Rio Grande Basin Initiative

RGC - Research Grants Council

RGF - Radical Green Faction

RGM - Rural Groundwater Management

RGP - Regional Growth Partnership

RG/RB - Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

RGTC - Real Goods Trading Company

RH - Red Herring

RH - Regeneration Harvest

RH - Relative Humidity

RH - Restore Habitat

RH - Riparian Habitat

RHA - Rivers and Harbors Act

RHC - Responsible human communities

RHCRB - Riparian Herbaceous Cover Rock Barrier

Rhizosphere - The aerobic environment surrounding root hairs of hydrophytes.

Rhizosphere - The soil that surrounds and is influenced by plant roots. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

RHL - Regional Habitat Linkages (Wildlands Project)

RHP - Rural Heritage Program

RHWR - Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness Resources (USDA/Forest Service)

Rhyolite - A fine-grained (extrusive) igneous rock with the same chemical composition as granite.

RI - Resource Inventory

RI - Roadless Initiative

RI - Roadless Island

RIAC - Range Improvement Advisory Committee

RIB - Resource Information Base

Rib Samples - Ore taken from rib pillars in a mine to determine metal content.

RICO - Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations

RICO - Racketeering and Corrupt Organization Act

RIDB - Resource Information Data Base

Ridge roughness (K factor - WEQ) - A measure of the effect of ridges made by tillage and planting implements. It is expressed as a decimal from 0.5 to 1.0. Ridges, especially those at right angles to the prevailing wind direction, absorb and deflect wind energy and trap moving soil particles. See Wind erosion equation (WEQ). - National Resources Inventory

Ridgeline - A line connecting the highest points along a ridge and separating drainage basins or small-scale drainage systems from one another.

RIEC - Regional Interagency Executive Committee

RIEE - Rogue Institute for Ecology and Economy http://www.sustainablenorthwest.org/founders/profile/riee.htm and http://www.sustainablenorthwest.org/founders/pdf/riee.pdf 

RIF - Reduction In Force

Riffle - A groove or ridge in the bottom of a stream channel; a slat or block of wood or metal placed across a sluice box or other placer unit.

Riffles - Riffles are relatively fast flowing water that has a substantial amount of turbulence. For a fisheries survey, three types of riffles were recorded including low gradient riffles, high gradient riffles and cascades.

Right-in, Right-out Driveway - A driveway or point of access which has been constructed with a central triangular curbed island which restricts both incoming and exiting vehicles to right turns only to facilitate traffic flow.

Right of Publicity (general intellectual property) - The inherent right of every human being to control the commercial use of his or her identity. (UN)

Right-of-Way (ROW) - A strip of land mapped for use by a street, crosswalk, railroad, road, electric transmission line, gas pipeline, water main, sanitary or storm sewer main, shade trees, or for another special use, whether or not that use is active. Land, property or interest therein acquired or devoted to transportation purposes, including construction, maintenance, operations and protection of a facility.

Right-of-way - A permit or easement that authorizes the use of lands for specified purposes, such as for a forest access road or a powerline. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Any tract of land that has been procured by a sale, lease or dedication for the passage of persons or vehicles other than the original owners, but may include them. Also, the right to use or cross over property of another. - Cadastral Data glossary

Right-of-way corridor - A parcel of land that has been identified by law, Secretarial order, through a land use plan or by other management decision as being the preferred location for existing and future right-of-way grants, and suitable to accompany one type of right-of-way or one or more rights-of-way that are similar, identical or compatible. - DOI/BLM

Right To Farm - A public policy decision to protect farmers against municipal regulations, private nuisance suits and unnecessary constraints on essential farming practices, if these practices are consistent with federal and State law and are not a threat to the public health and safety.

RIK - Royalty In Kind Pilot Program (DOI/MMS - Minerals Management Service)

Rill - A small, eroded ditch, usually only a few inches deep and hence no great obstacle to tillage operations.

Rill Erosion - An erosion process in which numerous small channels, typically a few inches deep, are formed. It occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils or on recent cuts and fills.

RKBA - The Right to Keep and Bear Arms

RIMS - Regional Input-Output Modeling System

Ring - Sequence of non-intersecting chains or strings and/or arcs, with closure. A ring represents a closed boundary, but not the interior area inside the closed boundary. - Cadastral Data glossary

RINO - Republican In Name Only

RIP - Rest In Peace

Riparian - Refers to the banks of a stream or river, usually characterized by hydrophilic (water-loving) vegetation. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Riparian - Pertaining to or situated on or along the bank of a stream or other body of water. Often referred to in the context of cattle grazing and protection of streams for fish and wildlife habitat, and water quality purposes. Pertaining to areas of land directly influenced by water. Riparian areas usually have visible vegetative or physical characteristics reflecting this water influence. Streamsides, lake borders, or marshes are typical riparian areas. Vegetation bordering watercourses, lakes or swamps; it requires a high water table. Having to do with the edge of a stream, river, shore or other body of water. Vegetation, habitats or ecosystems which are dependant upon the existence of groundwater, streams or lakes.

Riparian Area - The area along a watercourse or around a lake or pond.

Riparian Area - A form of wetland transition between permanently saturated wetlands and upland areas. Riparian areas exhibit vegetation or physical characteristics that reflect the influence of permanent surface or subsurface water. Typical riparian areas include lands along, adjacent to, or contiguous with perennially and intermittently flowing rivers and streams, glacial potholes, and the shores of lakes and reservoirs with stable water levels. Excluded are ephemeral streams or washes that lack vegetation and depend on free water in the soil. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Vegetated ecosystems along a waterbody through which energy, materials, and water pass. Riparian areas characteristically have a high water table and are subject to periodic flooding. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Riparian Buffer - A strip of vegetation planted along the bank of a body of water which slows the rate of flow of runoff from adjoining uplands, causing sediment and other materials to fall out onto the land before the runoff enters and pollutes the body of water.

Riparian Ecosystem - The ecosystems around or next to water areas that support unique vegetation and animal communities as a result of the influence of water. A transition between an aquatic ecosystem and an adjacent terrestrial ecosystem identified by soil characteristics or distinctive vegetation communities that require water. Riparian ecosystems often occupy distinctive landscapes, such as floodplains or alluvial beaches.

Riparian Habitat - Areas adjacent to rivers and other water bodies that have a high density and large variety of plants and animal species relative to nearby uplands (United Nations).

Riparian Habitat - Riparian habitat is defined as an area of land directly influenced by permanent (surface of subsurface) water. They have visible vegetation or physical characteristics reflective of permanent water influence. Lake shores and stream-banks are typical riparian areas. Excluded are such sites as ephemeral streams or washes that do not exhibit the presence of vegetation dependent upon free water in the soil. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Riparian Reserves - Designated riparian areas found outside Late-Successional Reserves. (BLM)

Riparian Rights - The system of water allocation used in the humid eastern portion of the United States. Water may be used only by riparian landowners and is recognized that all users will experience shortages periodically. In contrast with the prior appropriations system used in the arid West, water is not acquired by use, and access to it cannot be lost by lack of use. Riparian rights refers to the entitlement of a land owner to certain uses of water on or bordering the property, including the right to prevent diversion or misuse of upstream waters (generally a matter of state law). A concept of water law under which authorization to use water in a stream is based on ownership of the land adjacent to the stream.

Riparian state - A state through or along which a portion of a river flows or a lake lies. (FAO-UN)

Riparian Vegetation - Plants adapted to moist growing conditions along streams, waterways, ponds, etc. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Riparian water rights - Riparian water rights exist for lands that abut a waterway, or which overly an underground stream. Use of water through riparian rights must be on riparian land and within the watershed of the stream. Riparian rights may not be lost as a result of nonuse. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Riparian Zone - Those terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate conditions are products of the combined presence and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water, associated high water tables and soils which exhibit some wetness characteristics. Normally used to refer to the zone within which plants grow rooted in the water table of these rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, springs, marshes, seeps, bogs and wet meadows. (BLM)

Ripe or Ripeness - Because Federal Courts only have Constitutional authority to resolve actual disputes (see Case or Controversy) legal actions cannot be brought before the challenged law or government action has produced a direct threat to the party suing. Before then, the matter is said to be not yet "ripe" for judicial resolution. For Supreme Court decisions focusing on the "ripeness" issue, see, e.g., Reno v. Catholic Social Servs., 509 U.S. 43 (1993) and Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003 (1992). - Supreme Court glossary

Ripeness, Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies - Generally speaking, a person cannot appeal to the court to overturn a zoning agency until the permit has been denied and he has exhausted the normal appeal procedure. Zoning agencies have been known to take to 10 years to process an application. Two notable cases are: 1) Williamson County Region Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank (U.S. Supreme Court, 1985) - Factors applied in deciding a takings claim "simply cannot be evaluated until the administrative agency has arrived at a final, definite position regarding how it will apply the regulations at issue to the particular land in question." 2) MacDonald, Summer & Frates v. Yalo County (U.S. Supreme Court 1986): The court ruled that the case was not ripe for consideration of takings compensation because the owner had not applied for every possible use. The owner alleged that further applications could be futile. But the Supreme Court held that until the owner ascertains what the zoning agency will permit, the court cannot tell whether the permitted uses are so restrictive as to amount to a taking: "A court cannot determine whether a regulation has gone too far unless it knows how far the regulation goes." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Rippable - Bedrock or hardpan can be excavated using a single-tooth ripping attachment mounted on a tractor with a 200-300 draw bar horsepower rating. - USDA

Ripping - The process of breaking up or loosening compacted soil to assure better penetration of roots, lower soil density, and increased microbial and invertebrate activity. (BLM)

Rip-Rap - A placement of stone, rock, or similar material that is placed on an embankment slope in order to prevent or arrest erosion. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

RIROD - Right In, Right Out Driveway

RIS - Resource Information System

RISGCP - The Rhode Island Sea Grant College Program

Rising - Damp moisture rising in a wall due to hydrostatic pressure. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Risk - A combination of the likelihood that a threat will occur, the likelihood that a threat occurrence will result in an adverse impact, and the severity of the resulting adverse impact. The potential for exposure to loss. Risks, either man-made or natural, are constant throughout our daily lives. The potential is usually measured by its probability in years. Risk is the possibility of harm or loss to any software, information, hardware, administrative, physical, communications, or personnel resource within an automated information system or activity. - DOI

Risk Analysis - A technique to identify and assess factors that may jeopardize the success of a project or achievement of a goal. This technique also helps define preventive measures to reduce the probability of these factors from occurring and identify countermeasures to successfully deal with these constraints when they develop. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Risk Assessment - The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risks posed to health or the environment that arise from an activity, chemical use, or technology. The process includes describing potential adverse effects, evaluating the magnitude of each risk (e.g., the toxicity of a chemical), estimating potential exposure to the chemical or other hazard, estimating the range of likely effects given the likely exposures, and describing uncertainties.

Risk-Benefit Analysis - Comparison of the short- and long-term risks to the overall societal benefits of an activity, chemical use, or technology. When risks and benefits are expressed in monetary terms, this is effectively cost-benefit analysis. Both the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act direct EPA to base regulatory decisions on a risk-benefit or cost-benefit basis.

Risk-informed regulation - Incorporating an assessment of safety significance or relative risk in NRC regulatory actions. Making sure that the regulatory burden imposed by individual regulations or processes is commensurate with the importance of that regulation or process to protecting public health and safety and the environment. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Risk Management - The process of deciding whether and how to manage risks. Public risk management requires consideration of legal, economic, and behavioral factors, as well as environmental and human health effects of each management alternative. Management may involve regulatory and non-regulatory responses. For example, characterizing the risk to farm workers of entering a field after application of a particular pesticide is risk assessment; promulgating reentry standards is risk management. The federal government has played an active role over the years in helping farmers manage risk. The two major risks faced by agricultural producers are production risks and price risks, and the USDA has assisted with federal crop insurance and commodity programs. The Risk Management Agency is now helping farmers utilize other risk management tools.

Risk Management Agency - An independent office within USDA that is responsible for the supervision of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation; the administration and oversight of the federal crop insurance program and any pilot or other programs involving revenue insurance; the use of the futures contracts to manage farm risk and support income.

RISP - Rural Strategic Investment Program

RISS - Regional Information Sharing System

RITA - The Regional Income Tax Agency

RITE - Retention of Industry in Today's Environment

RITF - Range Improvement Task Force (NMSU)

River basin - A geographical area (catchment area) determined by the watershed limits of a water system, including surface and underground water, flowing into a common terminus. (FAO-UN)

River Corridor - (1) Land adjacent to a Wild and Scenic River, managed along with the river to maintain and/or enhance the Outstandingly Remarkable Values of the river; corridor boundaries are delineated by the geography and the ORV's encompassing not more than 320 acres per river mile. (2) Land adjacent to a study river; in this case, the corridor extends -mile from the average high water mark on both sides of the river. - FS

River Setting - The river and land which can be viewed as part of the river landscape. The area of influence as determined visually from the river.

River values - Identified during the Wild and Scenic River Study; values include historic, cultural resources, fisheries, geologic, recreational, scenic and wildlife. Also recognized is that communities rely heavily upon the river for drinking water supply and other municipal and industrial uses, and that agriculture depends heavily on flows. - FS

Riverine System - All wetland and deepwater habitats contained within a channel, with two exceptions (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens; and (2) habitats with water containing ocean derived salts. - National Resources Inventory

Riverwash - A subcategory of Barren land. Barren alluvial areas, usually coarse-textured, exposed along streams at low water and subject to shifting during normal high water. - National Resources Inventory

Rivers and Harbor Act (1899) (33 U.S.C.403): Section 10 of this Act requires the authorization by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers prior to any work in, on, over, or under a navigable water of the United States.

RIWU - Rhode Island Wise Use

RK - River Keeper

RKBA - Right to Keep and Bear Arms

RKC - Rural Knowledge Clusters

RL - Rural Legacy (UN)

RLAG - Recovery Land Acquisition grants (DOI) http://endangered.fws.gov/landowner/grants.pdf 

RLC - Russian Land Code

RLDP - Riparian Lease Development and Procurement (Bonneville Power Administration - BPA - Environment, Fish and Wildlife. Notice the .gov in BPA's website address: http://www.efw.bpa.gov/cgi-bin/efw/E/Welcome.cgi  Also, this is interesting reading at the bottom of the 'Welcome' Page: NOTICE: This server is owned and operated by the Bonneville Power Administration, United States Department of Energy. Use of this system is monitored by system and Security personnel. Anyone using this system consents to monitoring of this use by system and Security personnel.)

RLEAP - Rural Land and Environmental Action Plan

RLEP - Rural Land and Environmental Policy

RLFC - Research Logic Flow Chart (1971, USSVCP)

RLGS - Recreation Land Grading and Shaping

RLP - Regional Land Planning

RLR - Reasonable Legislative Resolution

RLR - Rural Landscape Resources (DOI/NPS)

RLS - Reproductive Loss Syndrome

RLWA - Riley Lake Wildlife Area (Wisconsin)

RM - Range Management

RM - Regional Market

RM - Risk Mitigation (DOI)

RM - River Mile (DOI/BLM)

RM - Resource Management

RMA - Resource Management Area. Urban and Suburban. Tenets of the Economic Development RMA: The success of the Development Corridors and Mixed-use Centers is essential for the success of the community. The RMA Overlay concept is based on the idea that a high level of site design standards can be achieved on private lands only by new investment in the designated Corridors and Centers through refill that exchanges a broader range of permitted uses and other incentives for a higher level of standards that improve the design and function of the public realm. Commercial, Office, Multi-family and Public Buildings comprise the mix of uses encouraged in the Development Corridors and Mixed-use Centers. The Neighborhood Organizations should participate in establishing the processes and standards to be used in encouraging growth in the designated Corridors and Centers. The community must benefit from the private development in the Corridors and Centers. Glatting Jackson offers project coordination, environmental planning, urban design, transportation planning, and Urban Strategies (design standards). The Economic Development Resource Management Area (RMA) was directed toward maximizing to attractiveness of mixed-use centers to businesses. The RMA includes Major Employment Centers, Regional Commercial Centers, Interchange Commercial Centers, and Multi-Family Housing. The concept relies upon the systematic and persistent concentration of public and private development into designated areas that, overtime, will become intense, urban places that have social interest, high land values and a sense of place within a suburban community. The Urban/Suburban Resource Management Areas (RMA) focused on comprehensive planning issues in the existing urban area, generally all lands west of Interstate 75. The recommendation addressed issues of neighborhoods, development corridors and mixed-use centers. A process for neighborhood planning was developed along with concepts for corridors and centers based on promoting mixed-use development with multi-modal transportation systems that emphasize pedestrianism and connectivity. Recommendations included land use, infrastructure and design guidelines for: Neighborhoods, Development corridors, and Mixed-use centers of activity. http://www.glatting.com/projectsheetshtml/PublicPlanningsheetsfromJune/css/sarasota_eco-develop_RMA.htm

RMA - Risk Management Agency http://www.rma.usda.gov/policies/ 

RMAP - Road Maintenance and Abandonment Plan (guidelines of the Forests & Fish Law of Washington State) http://www.komw.net/news/articles/2003_05_15_2659.html 

RMAPs - Road Maintenance and Abandonment Plans

RMC - Recreation Management Challenges

RMC - Regional Modeling Center

RMDH - Restoration and Management of Declining Habitats

RMEF - Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation

RMI - The Rocky Mountain Institute

RMIO -Risk Management Industry Organizations

RMIS - Refuge Management Information System

RMLANDS - The Rocky Mountain Landscape Simulator (RMLANDS is a grid-based, spatially explicit, stochastic landscape simulation model designed to simulate disturbance and succession processes that affect the structure and dynamics of Rocky Mountain landscapes. The model simulates two key processes: succession and disturbance. These processes are fully specified by the user (i.e., via model parameterization) and are implemented sequentially within 10-year time steps for a user-specified period of time.)

RMMLF - Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation

RMP - Resource Management Plans (DOI)

RMP - Resource Management Problem

RMP/ROD - Resource Management Plan and Record of Decision

RMP - Royalty Management Program (MMS)

RMRI - Rocky Mountain Recreation Initiative - "Based in Nederland, Colorado, RMRI promotes sustainable recreation policies and ecological trail planning for Colorado public lands. The report (on off-road vehicle use in Colorado) is endorsed by fourteen state and national conservation organizations and is intended to contribute to the ongoing dialogue among land managers, biologists and trail users about how to balance the competing needs of wildlife, wildlands and recreation. Report recommendations will be taken to the Forest Service and BLM in the coming months. (This is a non-governmental organization that promotes roadless areas, giving directives to 'elected officials.')

RMRS - Reconnaissance Mineral Resource Studies

RMS - Resource Management Systems

RMS - Runoff Management System

RMSE - Resource Management Systems Ecologist/Ecology

RN - River Navigation

RN - River Navigator

RN - River Network

RNA - Research Natural Areas

RNC - Rand Nature Center

RNLC - Regional Network for Livable Communities

RNR - Renewable Natural Resource

RO - Recreation Opportunities

RO - Reverse Osmosis

ROA - Rate Of Appreciation

Road - A vehicle route that has been improved and maintained by mechanical means to ensure relatively regular and continuous use. A route maintained solely by the passage of vehicles does not constitute a road. (BLM)

Road Decommissioning - Formerly "Transportation Facility Decommissioning." The terminology has been revised to clarify that the objective of decommissioning is to remove unneeded roads and begin restoration. - USDA Forest Service

Road decommissioning - Activities that result in the stabilization and restoration of unneeded roads to a more natural state. - USDA/FS

Road Improvement - The reference to investment has been removed. Improvement includes expanding the road's capacity or changing the original design function. - USDA Forest Service

Road Maintenance - The upkeep of the entire Forest Department Transportation Facility including surface and shoulders, parking and side areas, structures and such traffic control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient utilization.

Road Management Policy - See Forest Service Road Management Policy

Road Realignment - An activity that results in a new location of an existing road or portions of an existing road and treatment of the old roadway (36 CFR 212.1). - USDA Forest Service

Road Reconstruction: - Activity that results in improvement or realignment of an existing classified road as defined: 1. Road Improvement: Activity that results in an increase of an existing road's traffic service level, expands its capacity, or changes its original design function. 2. Road realignment: Activity that results in a new location of an existing road or portions of an existing road and treatment of the old roadway. - FS

Roadless Areas/Designated Roadless Areas (These 2 do NOT overlap) - A National Forest system area which is larger than 5,000 acres or, if smaller than 5,000 acres, is contiguous to a designated Wilderness or primitive area; contains no roads, and has been inventoried by the Forest Service for their suitability for possible inclusion into the wilderness preservation system.

Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) - The national inventory of roadless and undeveloped areas within the National Forests and Grasslands.

Roads Subject to the Highway Safety Act - National Forest System roads that are open to use by the public for standard passenger cars. This includes roads with access restricted on a seasonal basis and roads closed during extreme weather conditions or for emergencies, but which are otherwise open for general public use. - FS

ROAR - Realists Opposed to Alleged Restoration (Florida Everglades)

Roast - To heat an ore to drive off volatile substances or oxidize the ore.

Roasting - Heating sulfide-bearing ores to release sulfur dioxide. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Rock - Any natural combination of minerals; part of the Earth's crust.

Rock Art (Petroglyph or Pictograph) - An Archaic to Modern cultural site type consisting of incised or painted figures such as people, animals, plants or abstracts on a rock surface. - BLM

Rock-bolting - The act of supporting openings in rock with steel bolts anchored in holes drilled especially for this purpose.

Rockburst - A violent release of energy resulting in the sudden failure of walls or pillars in a mine, caused by the weight or pressure of the surrounding rocks.

Rock Factor - The number of cubic meters of a particular rock type required to make up one ton of the material. One ton of a highly siliceous ore may occupy 0.40 cu m while a ton of dense sulphide ore may occupy only 0.25 cu m.

Rock Mechanics - The study of the mechanical properties of rocks, which includes stress conditions around mine openings and the ability of rocks and underground structures to withstand these stresses.

Rock Shelter - An archaeological or cultural resource site type consisting of an area protected by an overhanging cliff. Rock shelters were used by aboriginal Native Americans from the earliest known presence in the region until the early 1920s. The sites are often associated with the same materials as a campsite or rock art. - BLM

ROD - Rate Of Depreciation

ROD - Record Of Decision

Rod (or Pole) - Is a surveyor's lineral measure of 16 1/2 feet of 1/4 of a chain. - Cadastral Data glossary

Rod Mill - A rotating steel cylinder that uses steel rods as a means of grinding ore.

ROG - Role Of Government

ROI - Return On Investment

ROL - Rule Of Law

Role-Play - A learning exercise where students take part in a small drama of a hypothetical situation (e.g. a conflict between factory owners and local residents who have observed pollution in the local waterway). (UNESCO)

ROMA - Regional Offsite Management Area

ROMA - Regional offsite mitigation area (DOI and Army Corps of Engineers)

Rome Centre - See (ICCROM) International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

The Rome Declaration on World Food Security (RDWFS) - Adopted in November 1996, it invited the High Commissioner for Human Rights (HCHR), in consultation and/or collaboration with other UN and intergovernmental entities, to define better the rights related to food in article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and to propose ways to implement and realize these rights. In December 1997, the first Consultation on the Right to Adequate Food (CRAF) was convened; a follow-up meeting to this consultation was held in November 1998. At its 1999 session, the Commission adopted by a vote of 1999/24 in which it reaffirmed that hunger constitutes an outrage and a violation of human dignity and requires the adoption of urgent measures at the national, regional and international level for its elimination. The Commission requested the High Commissioner to transmit the resolution to governments and others and invited them to present comments and suggestions for the elaboration of the content and means of implementation of the rights related to food. (UN)

Rookery - A breeding place or colony of gregarious birds. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Room-and-pillar Mining - A method of mining flat-lying ore deposits in which the mined- out area, or rooms, are separated by pillars of approximately the same size.

Root Cause Analysis - A technique used to identify the conditions that initiate the occurrence of an undesired activity or state. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Root zone - The part of the soil that can be penetrated by plant roots. - USDA

Rooting depth (in tables) - Shallow root zone. The soil is shallow over a layer that greatly restricts roots. - USDA

ROP - Real Or Perceived

ROPE - Reservoir Operating Plan Evaluation "The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate alternative plans and to recommend a new operating plan for the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoirs system with consideration given to tribal trust, flood control, environmental concerns, water quality, water supply, recreation, navigation, hydropower and more. The plan should provide the optimum benefit to the many interests affected by the operation of these headwaters dams for the greater public good. Some possible outcomes could be lake level changes, winter draw-down changes, restoration of some sections of river systems, a more natural flow release for downstream river reach and, in some lake areas, changes in flood control concerns for differing sections of the total system and possibly even the purchase of some land for maximizing efficient operation. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Ottertail Power and Minnesota Power are collaborating headwaters dam operators included in this planning effort and will be helping evaluate and recommend a systemwide operational plan for the headwaters reservoirs." http://www.mvp.usace.army.mil/navigation/default.asp?pageid=143 

ROPD - Real Or Perceived Danger

ROS - Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

ROS - Reintroduction Of Species

ROS - Restoration Of Species

ROSC - Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (BIS)

ROSD - Regional Open Space District

Rosendale cement - A Portland-type cement found in New York state; naturally occurring. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Roster - A list of persons qualified to provide services as neutrals that is maintained by the agency. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

ROT - Rates of Transition (landscape)

Rotary Drill - A machine that drills holes by rotating a rigid, tubular string of drill rods to which is attached a bit. Commonly used for drilling large-diameter blast holes in open pit mines.

Rotation - The planned number of years required to establish and grow timber crops to a specified condition of maturity for regeneration harvest, including the regeneration period. Selected management prescriptions provide the basis for the rotation age.

Rotation - The number of years allotted to establish and grow a forest stand to maturity. - Bioenergy Glossary

Rotten Trees - Live trees of commercial species that do not contain at least one 12-foot saw log, or two noncontiguous saw logs, each 8 feet or longer, now or prospectively, primarily because of rot or missing sections, and with less than one-third of the gross board-foot tree volume in sound material. - USDA/FS

Rough Proportionality - The rough proportionality standard derives from the Nollan and Dolan cases. It applies only in situations where a public agency requires a single property owner to dedicate a portion of property as a condition of a permit approval. The agency must show that (1) there is an "essential nexus" between the purpose of the condition and a legitimate state interest and (2) the dedication is "roughly proportional" to the public burden caused by the project. If it fails in demonstrating either element, the public agency must pay compensation if it insists on the dedication. Lion's Lair Enterprises, however, attempts to expand the rough proportionality standard to an area of the law where both the U.S. and California Supreme Courts have clearly stated it does not belong. What many misunderstand is that the scope of Nollan/Dolan scrutiny is actually very narrow. The United States Supreme Court has specifically stated that this standard only applies to individual, or ad hoc, "land use decisions conditioning approval of development of the dedication of property to public use." As noted by Chief Justice Rehnquist, the nexus and rough proportionality standard is irrelevant when a regulation applies to broad class of property owners located within a geographical area. Dolan, 512 U.S. at 385. The reason for this distinction is straightforward. Courts have determined that there is greater risk of an agency leveraging its authority unfairly when it adopts measures specific to a single property owner rather than when it acts legislatively. This point is echoed by the California Supreme Court in Ehrlich v. City of Culver City. There, the court distinguished a mitigation fee imposed specifically as part of a single development permit from a fee imposed as part of a citywide "art in public places" ordinance. The court specifically noted that the Nollan/Dolan standard was limited to "indicators [of leveraging] in land use 'bargains' between property owners and regulatory bodies." Ehrlich, 12 Cal. 4th at 869. Lion's Lair would just be another example of a developer pushing the envelope if the trial court had not invalidated the secondary access condition. The case became even more notable when the court of appeal actually invoked Dolan to find that the county failed to make an "individualized determination that the required dedication is related in both nature and extent to the impact of the proposed development." The California Supreme Court granted review and then ordered the court of appeal vacate its decision and order the superior court (Lion's Lair Enterprises) to show cause why the county's position should not be upheld. The court of appeal now has the opportunity to square its result with other well-founded precedents. Finding for the county in this case would not upset the application of the nexus-rough proportionality standard. While many have trumpeted Nollan and Dolan as a revolution in land use law, these cases are better read as an endorsement of the principle that the courts will only second-guess local land use decisions in very specific, limited circumstances. The land use approval process encourages the developer and the public agency to work together because each has an important stake in the outcome. While both will benefit from the project, the public agency must also assure that the long long-term health and safety concerns of the community are adequately addressed. Conditions on development are used by public agencies to offset the impacts that uncontrolled development would impose on a community long after developers like Lion's Lair Enterprises have realized their returns and moved on. All of the distinctions among legal doctrines aside, the fundamental issue presented in the Lion's Lair case is the safety of the families that will ultimately reside in the proposed subdivision. These families are counting on the county to protect them in the event of a fire. Lion's Lair Enterprises is taking the position that somehow the Takings Clause means that a public agency must show an accounting for legislative actions that require the most basic of safety measures. This is an extraordinary expansion of a constitutional doctrine originally intended to assure that property owners receive fair compensation when public agencies acquire their property for public purposes. The court of appeal has an opportunity to reach a result that will protect the future residents of the subdivision and preserves the court's usual deference to the legislative actions of public agencies. Further expanding the Nollan/Dolan nexus-rough proportionality standard serves neither the public interest nor the original intent of the Takings Clause.

Rough Trees - Live trees of commercial species that do not contain at least one 12-foot saw log, or two noncontiguous saw logs, each 8 feet or longer, now or prospectively, primarily because of roughness, poor form, splits, and cracks, and with less than one-third of the gross board-foot tree volume in sound material; and live trees of noncommercial species. - USDA/FS

Roundwood - Timber and fuelwood prepared in the round state, such as house logs and telephone poles.

Route - A path, way, trail, road, or other established travel corridor. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Route Densities - Habitat effectiveness is a function of how densely fragmented an area is by roads, trails and ORV routes combined. In discussions of habitat effectiveness, the word route refers to all three types of travelways, road, trails and ORV routes -- as in the phrase "route densities." - USDA/FS

Routes - A travelway used by ORVs. An ORV route is partly a trail and partly a road. ORV routes must be maintained to a higher standard than foot and horse trails to protect the environment from the impact of wheeled, motorized vehicles. This means that ORV "trails" sometimes have the look and feel of small roads. The word "route" describes ORV travelways more accurately than the word "trail." - USDA/FS

ROW - Right-of-way

ROWC - Right-Of-Way Corridor - DOI/NPS/BLM

Row crops - A subset of the Land cover/use category Cropland (subcategory, Cultivated) comprising land in row crops, such as corn, soybeans, peanuts, potatoes, sorghum, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, vegetables, and cotton. - National Resources Inventory

Royalty - An amount of money paid at regular intervals by the lessee or operator of an exploration or mining property to the owner of the ground. Generally based on a certain amount per ton or a percentage of the total production or profits. Also, the fee paid for the right to use a patented process.

RP - Range Planting

RP - Recovery Plan

RP - Regional Park

RP - Regional Planning

RP - Roadway Patterns

RP - Rough Proportionality

RPA - Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act

RPA - Real Property Appraisal

RPA - Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (FWS)

RPA - Recreational park activity

RPA - Regional Planning Agency. Towns, cities, and boroughs within one of the state's designated planning regions can form three types of regional planning organizations: an RCEO, an RPA, or a regional council of government (RCOG). An RPA and an RCEO may coexist in the same region, but not with an RCOG. The region must terminate the RPA and the RCEO if it wants to establish an RCOG, which then assumes their duties. http://www.cga.state.ct.us/ps98/fc/7.htm 

RPA - Regional Planning Authority

RPC - Regional Planning Commission

RPC - The rural philanthropic community

RPD - Regional Park District

RPF - Righteous Persons Foundation

RPF - Rival Political Factions

RPGB - Regional Planning Governing Board

RPH - Ralph's Peak Hikers

RPL - Reemployment Priority List

RPL - River Protection Legislation

RPM - Radical Preservationist Movement

RPMA - River Protection Management Area

RPMIS - Real Property Management Information System

RPO - Regional Planning Workshops (yes, this is the correct acronym) http://www.itre.ncsu.edu/ITREmain/links.html and http://www.itre.ncsu.edu/transit/rpo/ 

RPO - Rural Planning Organizations http://www.itre.ncsu.edu/transit/rpo/ 

RPOT - Real Or Perceived Threat

RPP - Regional Planning Program

RPP - River Protection Plan

RPPI - The Reason Public Policy Institute

RPPO - Regional Plant Protection Organization (FAO)

RPUD - Residential Planned Unit Developments

RO - Reverse Osmosis

ROT - Record Of Taking

ROW - Right Of Way

ROW - Rights Of Way

RP - Rainfall Pattern

RR - Reading Recovery

RP - Regional Park

RP - Resource Potential

RPA - Reasonable and Prudent Alternative

RPA - Regional Planning Agency

RPA - Regional Planning Authority

RPC - Regional Planning Commission

RPC - Regional Planning Committee

RPD - Ravine Protection District

RPT - Real or Perceived Threat

RR - Rangeland Reform

RR - Range Reform

RR - Rapid Response

RR - Reasonable Request

RR - Recreation Roundtable

RR - Refugee Resettlement

RR - Regulating Reservoir

RR - Renewable Resource(s)

RR - Restricted Reserves

RR - Restricted Resources

RR - Riparian Reserve

RR - Roadside Recreation

RR - Roberti-Roos

RR - Run Roughshod

RR - Rural Recovery

RR - The Russian Revolution

RRA - Recognized Rights of Access

RRA - Resource Rich Areas

RRB - Riparian Reserve boundaries

RRC - Rough and Ready Creek (in the Siskiyou area of Oregon)

RRGF - Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund

RRGP - River Raisin Greenways Project

RRI - Rental Rate Incentive

RRI - Resource Renewal Institute

RRM - Riparian Reserve module

RRM - Roof Runoff Management

RRNWR - Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge (North Carolina)

RRO - Roberts Rules of Order

RRP - Refugee Resettlement Programs

RRS - Rangeland Reform Standards (BLM)

RRS - Revenue Refuge Sharing (with counties)

RRSA - Revenue Refuge Sharing Act of 1935

RRSP - Revenue Refuge Sharing Payments (with counties)

RRST - Rapid response strike teams (invasive species: http://www.refugenet.org )

RS - Rail Spur

RS - Railroad Spur

RS - Reconnaissance Studies

RS - Recurrent System

RS - Redwood Summer

RS - Regional Studies

RS - Relocation Specialists (FHWA)

RS - Remnant Slough

RS - Retail Sector

RS - Revised Statute

RS - Revised Statute(s)

RS - River System

RS - Riverine System

RS - Runoff Standards

RSD - Rural Smart Development

RSEOD - Remotely Sensed Earth Observation Data

RSF - Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)

RSIC - Reno Sparks Indian Colony

RSIS - The Role of Science in the Information Society (United Nations) http://www.icsu.org/events/WSIS/ 

RSP - Rock Sills Project (DOI/BOR/USFWS, Wyoming)

RSP - Rural Support Program (IUCN)

RSPA - Research and Special Programs Administration

RSPB - The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (UN)

RST - Rigorous Statistical Treatment

RSUSG - Regional Sustainable Use Specialty Groups. The IUCN SSC Sustainable Use Specialist Group (SUSG) comprises 17 decentralised networks of Regional SUSGs who analyse and compare local use systems through case studies, regional reviews, workshops, and symposiums. The regional groups function under the auspices of IUCN's Species Survival Commission (SSC). Each volunteer group decides its own membership, leadership, activities, and priorities within a global framework adopted by the SUSG Steering Committee. (UN) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/aboutove.html 

RSW - Roper Starch Worldwide (an Internet Marketing Research firm)

RT - Regional Tectonics

RT - Regulatory Taking (as of land or water use/rights)

RT - Research Team

RT - Response Time

RT - Revocable Trust

RT - Round Tables

RTA - Regional Transit Authority

RTC - Rails to Trails Conservancy

RTCA - Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (NPS)

RTCA - Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program. The Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program, also known as the Rivers & Trails Program or RTCA, is a community resource of the National Park Service. Rivers & Trails staff work with community groups and local and State governments to conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways. "The 'community resource' of the NPS [National Park Service] that works with local citizen groups to 'preserve open space, conserve rivers, and develop trail and greenway networks. http://www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/  and http://www.americantrails.org/nationalrecreationtrails  and http://www.greenway.org/  and http://www.americanhiking.org/ 

RTCP - Rivers and Trails Conservation Program (NPS)

RTD - Round Table Discussion

RTEEISFSUA - U.S. Department of State through the Research and Training for Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the former Soviet Union Act of 1983 (Title VIII)

RTIP - Regional Transportation Improvement Program

RTP - Recreational Trails Program

RTP - Rivers and Trails Program (DOI/NPS)

RTPO - Regional Transportation Planning Organization

RTR - Request To Rezone

RTR - Routine Target Request

RTRM - Ridge Till Residue Management

RTS - Reclaim The Seeds

RTT - Rails To Trails

RTT - Rally The Troops

RTT - The Right To Travel

RTTG - Rough Terrain Technologies Group, Inc.

RTW - Recreation Trail and Walkway

RU - Resource User

Rubbish Dump - Land set aside for the disposal of household and other waste. (UNESCO)

Rubblization - A decommissioning technique involving demolition and burial of formerly operating nuclear facilities. All equipment from buildings is removed and the surfaces are decontaminated. Above-grade structures are demolished into rubble and buried in the structure's foundation below ground. The site surface is then covered, regraded and landscaped for unrestricted use. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Ruby Valley Treaty of 1863 - The Treaty of Ruby Valley is still in full force and effect, and residents living within the property described in that document are subject to its terms and are successors in interest. The designation of public lands (unappropriated lands that are not claimed, settled, or used) does not appear in the treaty. When federal or state land management agency rules impinge on the rights of individuals to use the land, those rules are contrary to the terms of the treaty that protects "the pursuit of happiness" of the people, and agencies are effectively disturbing the peace and not ensuring domestic tranquility. The Western Shoshone Tribe existed prior to the formation of the United States. The Treaty of Ruby Valley is unique, in that it did not cede any land to the U.S. Government. It did, however, assert its ownership over more than 24 million acres as depicted on the map in Exhibit Q, including most of what is now Nevada. The treaty provided safe passage for miners and settlers moving through the area. Article VII, paragraph 2, of the United States Constitution provides, "This Constitution and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority the United States shall be the supreme law of the land and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the laws constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." In 1984 and, again, in 1986, the United States federal courts verified that the 1863 treaty is still in full force and effect. The BLM first filed suite against the Western Shoshone sisters in 1973, alleging that the Dann's were grazing their cattle on BLM's Buckhorn allotment without a federal permit. This allotment is within the Western Shoshone Nation's lands, a territory recognized by the United States as Western Shoshone Country in the Ruby Valley Treaty of 1863. Because the 128 year old treaty is still in effect and has been consistently honored by the Western Shoshones, the Danns maintain that only the Western Shoshone National Council may regulate Western Shoshone ranchers within the treaty recognized Shoshone lands.

RUC - Rural/Urban Conflict

RUCA - Rural-Urban Commuting Areas (USDA)

RUF - Revolutionary United Front

RUG - Resource Utilization Groupings

Rugose - Wrinkled. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Rules - Are statements, decisions, judgments, or precedents which provide operational guidelines on the implementation, use, updating and revision of classifications. (UN)

Rules of Procedure - In complying with Article 10 (1) of the Convention the World Heritage Committee adopted Rules of Procedure at its first session and amended them at its second and third sessions (UNESCO n.d.). The Rules of Procedure include reference to the conduct of World Heritage Bureau and Committee meetings. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Ruling Year - The year that the IRS granted an organization 501(c)(3) status.

Ruminant - An animal with a stomach that has four compartments, and a more complex digestive system than other mammals. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, bison, elk, and camels. Swine, dogs, and humans are examples of non-ruminants.

Run-In - Surface water that moves directly to ground water through vertical channels in the soil and/or rock layer.

Run-of-mine - A loose term used to describe ore of average grade.

Run-off - The portion of precipitation that flows over the land surface or in open channels as surface flow and enters streams or other surface receiving waters. Runoff occurs when the precipitation rate exceeds the infiltration rate. The portion of the precipitation of a drainage area that flows from the area.

Runoff -That part of the precipitation that appears in surface streams. It is the same as streamflow unaffected by artificial diversions, storage, or other works of man in or on the stream channels. Runoff may be classified as follows: Classification as to speed of appearance after rainfall or snow melting: Direct runoff Base runoff Classification as to source: Surface runoff (see Overland flow) Storm seepage Ground-water runoff (see Stream, gaining) Runout. See Water yield. - USGS

Run With The Land - A phrase used to describe an interest in land where the interest is owned by someone other than the owner of the land and the interest continues to be owned by that person even if the owner of the land sells or otherwise transfers ownership of the land.

RUP - Rural and Urban Planners

RUP - Rural and Urban Publics (DOI)

RUPP - Rural Urban Partnership Programme

Rupture Zone - The area of the Earth through which faulting occurred during an earthquake. For very small earthquakes, this zone could be the size of a pinhead, but in the case of a great earthquake, the rupture zone may extend several hundred kilometers in length and tens of kilometers in width. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Rural - A way of life characterized by living in a non-urban or agricultural environment at low densities without typical urban services. Equestrian and agrarian activities are often appropriate in such areas. Urban services and facilities not normally found in rural areas include curbs, gutters and sidewalks; street lighting, landscaping and traffic signalization; mass public transit; and commercial facilities dependent on large consumer volumes such as regional shopping centers. 2. Used to describe areas lying outside the U. S. Census urban area boundary, less than 2,500 population (less than 5,000 population for Federal-Aid highway purposes). - FHWA

Rural - The Bureau of the Census defines the rural population (in contrast to urban) as all persons living in the open country, plus those in places of less than 2,500 inhabitants that are beyond the densely settled (1,000 or more persons per square mile) suburban fringes of metropolitan cities. However, the Rural Development Act of 1972 defines rural as any area not included in any city or town with a population in excess of 10,000 inhabitants.

Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) - One of three USDA agencies charged with implementing rural development policies and programs. The RBS provides loans, guarantees, technical assistance, and grants to rural businesses and cooperatives.

Rural Community Advancement Program (RCAP) - A program established by the rural development Title of the FAIR Act of 1996 under which USDA is authorized to provide state rural development block grants, direct and guaranteed loans, and other assistance to meet rural development needs across the country. Program funding will be allocated to three areas: (1) rural community facilities, (2) rural utilities, and (3) rural business and cooperative development.

Rural Development Trust Fund - Authorized under the FAIR Act of 1996 the trust fund is used to distribute Rural Community Assistance Program funds. Funds are allocated among states based on such factors as rural population, income, and unemployment.

Rural Electric Cooperatives - There are 874 electric distribution cooperatives and 60 generation and transmission cooperatives in the United States, which provide electric service to some 30 million people in 46 States. Reflecting their rural location, these cooperatives account for 7.4% of the kilowatt-hours sold, but they maintain nearly half of the nation's electric distribution lines. Rural electric cooperatives have access to insured and guaranteed loans from USDA's Rural Utility Service. Insured loans primarily finance the construction of facilities for the distribution of electric power in rural areas. Guaranteed loans primarily finance generation and bulk transmission facilities for power supply borrowers.

Rural Interface Areas - Areas where BLM-administered lands are adjacent to or intermingled with privately owned lands zoned for 1 to 20-acre lots or that already have residential development. (BLM)

Rural Landscape - Those areas that have broad acre blocks with low residential density and some form of agricultural practice.

Rural Landscape - A cultural landscape [that is] characterized by lands and structures [that have been] modified by humans for farming or agricultural use. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Rural Legacy - This is a United Nations Heritage project. The idea is to curb critical infrastructure services to rural areas and force those living in those areas to move. Additionally, by eliminating telephone and electrical service to those areas, you greatly reduce the value of the land for homestead purposes. Then you stop paving the roads, and even close existing roads to make it impossible to traverse those areas.

Rural residence - The USDA defines rural residences or hobby farms as farmsteads that gross less than $10,000 a year. Approximately 50 percent of the farms in the United States are classified as rural residence farms. - USDA

Rural transportation land - A Land cover/use category which consists of all highways, roads, railroads and associated right-of-ways outside urban and built-up areas; also includes private roads to farmsteads or ranch headquarters, logging roads, and other private roads (field lanes are not included). - National Resources Inventory

RUS - Rural-Urban Settings

RUT - Rural Utility Service (USDA)

Rutile - A titanium mineral [TiO2] widespread as an accessory in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is also common in beach sands. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

RV - Range Vegetation

RV - Riverbank Vegetation

RVC - Regionalism Versus Catchment

RVD - Recreational Visitor Day

RVETS - Remembering Veterans who Earned Their Stripes

RVIA - Recreation Vehicle Industry Association

RVMP - Regional Vegetation Management Plan

R/W - Right-of-Way

RW - Recreated Wetlands

RW - Responsible Wealth

RWA - Requested Withdrawal Area (DOI & USDA Forest Service)

RWAG - Right-Wing Activist Groups

RWC - Right Wing Conspiracy

RWMD - River Water Management District

RWMS - The Regional Waterway Management System

RWN - Regional Wildlands Network

RWQCB - Regional Water Quality Control Board

RWR - Reserve Water Rights

RWSPP - Regional Water Supply Planning Process

RWTL - Run With The Land

RWUE - Rural Water Use Efficiency - NRM/Australia

RZ - Riparian Zone

RZC - Resident Zone Community / Communities (DOI/NPS)

RZH - The Roberti-Z'berg-Harris grant program (California)

RZSPR - Riparian Zone of Selected Public land and Regions

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