NA - The National Archives

NA - National Autonomy

NA - Notification Area

NAA - No-Action Alternative (USFWS)

NAA - Nonattainment Area

NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

NAAEE - North American Association for Environmental Education (Troy, OH) - no updates found since 1998, but website is still active:


NAAMP - The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program 

NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NAASP - National Association of Secondary School Principals

NABS - Network for Analytical and Bioassay Services

NAC - National Advisory Council

NAC - National Agroforestry Center

NAC - National Association of Counties

NACAA - National Association of County Agricultural Agents

NACC - U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change

NACD - National Association of Conservation Districts

NACD - Native American Consultation Database

NACDS - National Association of Chain Drug Stores

NACEC - North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

(CEC seems to be the most common acronym for this UN-USAID 'strategic alliance' of 'multinational partnering')

NACO - National Association of Counties 

NACRC - National Association County Recorders, Election Officials, and Clerks

NACS - National Association of County Surveyors

NAD - National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado

NAD - North American Datum

NADB - North American Development Bank

NADB - The U.S.-Mexico North American Development Bank

NADC - National Animal Disease Center (ARS)

NADO - National Association of Development Organizations

NAE - No Acceptable Explanation

NAE - No Adequate Explanation

NAEP - National Assessment of Educational Progress (federally mandated educational test - the 'No Child Left Behind' statutes)

NAEP - National Association of Environmental Professionals

NAEYC - National Association for Education of Young Children

NAF - Northwest Area Foundation

NAFSA - National Association of Foreign Student Advisers

NAFSR - The National Association of Forest Service Retirees

NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFW - North American Flyways 

NAGB - North American Great Basin

NAGPRA - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990

NAGPRA - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act - DOI/NPS/BLM

NAHB - National Association of Home Builders

NAHEMS - The National Animal Health Emergency Management System

NAHF - National Animal Health Facility

NAI - The National Association for Interpretation 

NAIA - National Animal Interest Alliance

NAICC - National Alliance of Independent Crop Consultants

NAICU - National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities

NAIFA - National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers

NAILS - National Automated Immigration Lookout System

NAIOP - National Association of Industrial and Office Properties

NAIRA - North American Industrial Representatives Association

NAL - National Agricultural Library

NALM - National Association of Lady Mayors

NALMS - North American Lake Management Society 

NAM - The North American Mosaic

NAMA - National Agri-Marketing Association 

NAMBLA - North American Man-Boy Love Association

NAMD - National Association of Mining Districts

Name (of items) - Refers to the descriptions of classification categories, subcategories or their elements e.g. primary activities. (UN)

NAMRC - North American Motorized Recreation Council

NAMS - North American Manufacturing Sector

NAMSA - NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (executive arm, indistinguishable from NATO)

NAMSO - NATO Maintenance and Supply Organization

NAMVET - No Acceptable Methodology for Vital Human Environment Takeover

NAMVET - Vietnam Veteran

NAN - North American Native

NANFA - North American Native Fishes Association

NANRAP - National Association of Natural Resource and Agricultural Producers

NANSR - Non-attainment New Source Review

NAP - National Academy Press

NAPA - The National Academy of Public Administration. The National Academy of Public Administration is the preeminent organization dedicated to improving the performance of governance systems -- the network of public institutions, nonprofit organizations, and private companies that share in the implementation of public policy. As an independent, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress, the Academy responds to specific requests from public agencies and non-government organizations. The Academy also promotes discourse on emerging trends in governance through its Standing Panels and with external funding. 

NAPIL - The National Association of Public Interest Law 

NAPM - National Association of Purchasing Management

NAPR - Natural Products Research Network

NAR - Natural Aggregate Resources

NAR - National Association of Realtors

NAR - North American Research

NARA - National Archives and Records Administration

Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention - See Authenticity - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Nara Document on Authenticity - See Authenticity - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

NARAL - National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League

NARC - National Association of Regional Councils 

NARC&DC - National Association of Resource Conservation and Development Councils

NARFC - North Atlantic Responsible Fishing Council

NARPO - National Association of Reversionary Property Owners

Narrow-base terrace - A terrace no more than 4 to 8 feet wide at the base. A narrow-base terrace is similar to a broad-base terrace, except for the width of the ridge and channel. - USDA

NARSC - National Applied Resource Science Center 

NARSC - North American Regional Science Council 

NARTS - National Association of Resale and Thrift Shops

NAS - National Academy of Sciences

NAS - National Audubon Society

NASBE - The National Association of School Boards of Education

NASBITE - National Association of Small Business Int'l Trade Educators

NASCA - National Association of State Conservation Agencies

NASD - National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc.

NASDA - The National Association of State Departments of Agriculture 

NASDAQ - National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation

NASF - National Association of State Foresters

NASPD - National Association of State Park Directors

NASPD - The National Association of State Park Directors 

NASU - Native American Student Union

NASULGC - National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges

NATA - national emission trading agencies (UNCTAD)

Natal dispersal - Movement of individuals from their place of birth to their first breeding location. - DOI/USFWS 

NATAT - National Association of Towns and Townships 

NATG - Native American Tribal Governments

NATHPO - National Association of Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

Nation - A group of tightly knit people who speak a single language, have a common history, share the same cultural background, and who may united by common political institutions.

Nation-State - A country whose population posses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. A State wherein the territory coincides with the area settled by a cultural group or a Nation. A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular nation. If the state and the nation occupy the same area on the earth's surface, it is a nation-state.

National Academy of Sciences (NAS) - An institution created by Congress in 1863 to provide science-based advice to the government. The sister organizations associated with the Academy are the National Academy of Engineers, Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. The Academies and the Institute are honorary societies that elect new members to their ranks each year. The bulk of the institution's science policy and technical work is conducted by the National Research Council (NRC), created expressly for that purpose. The NRC's Board on Agriculture addresses issues confronting agriculture, food, and related environmental topics.

National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies (NAC) - Responsible for coordinating U.S. participation in the international financial institutions and the policies and practices of agencies of the U.S. government that make, or participate in making, foreign loans or that engage in foreign financial, exchange, or monetary transactions. With regard to international financial institutions, the Council seeks to ensure that their operations are conducted in a manner consistent with U.S. policies and objectives and with lending and other foreign financial activities of U.S. government agencies. The Council formulates and reviews policies and programs for use by the U.S. representatives to these institutions and advises the Secretary of the Treasury on: Policies and selected proposed transactions of the institutions; Proposed actions by these institutions requiring U.S. approval on such subjects as the flotation of securities, increases in quotas and subscriptions, and changes in their articles of agreement; and Problems relating to the administration and management of the international financial institutions. NAC membership includes: the Departments of the Treasury (as chair), State, and Commerce, the U.S. Trade Representative, the Federal Reserve System, the Export-Import Bank, and the International Development Cooperation Agency.

National Agricultural Library (NAL) - A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural Research Service's research center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL's administration was merged with ARS in 1994. One of three national libraries, has a collection consisting of more than two million volumes, both print and non-print form. The library coordinates a national network of State land grant and Department of Agriculture field libraries; in its international role, the NAL serves the U.S. center for the international agriculture information system. The Library has eleven Information Centers, including: (a) Agricultural Trade and Marketing, (b) Alternative Farming Systems, (c) Animal Welfare, (d) Aquaculture, (e) Biotechnology, (f) Food and Nutrition, (g) Plant Genome Data, (h) Rural Information Center, (i) Technology Transfer Information Center, (j) Water Quality, and (k) Youth Development. In its international role, the NAL cooperates in database production, compilation of world lists of journals, publication exchange, cooperative indexing, and intern training. The NAL serves as the U.S. center for the international agricultural information system. The NAL's AGRICOLA database covers all aspects of agriculture via bibliographic records to documents, including international agricultural trade topics such as policy, research, flows of commodities, environmental, taxation, and sociological impacts. AGRICOLA is produced solely by the NAL. The NAL's Agricultural Trade and Marketing Information Center (ATMIC) disseminates information on agribusiness, countertrade (barter), exports, and trade development. The NAL was created in 1862; central offices are maintained in Beltsville, Maryland.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - Standards designed to protect public health and welfare, allowing an adequate margin of safety. For particulate matter less than ten microns in size PM10), 50 micrograms per cubic meter annual average and l50 micrograms per cubic meter, 24-hour average, not to be exceeded more than once per year. (DOI-BLM)

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - The allowable concentrations of air pollutants in the ambient (public outdoor) air specified in 40 CFR 50. National ambient air quality standards are based on the air quality criteria and divided into primary standards (allowing an adequate margin of safety to protect the public health) and secondary standards (allowing an adequate margin of safety to protect the public welfare). Welfare is defined as including (but not limited to) effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, human-made materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, climate, and hazards to transportation, as well as effects on economic values and on personal comfort and well-being. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

The National Animal Health Emergency Management System (NAHEMS) - A comprehensive system that includes federal, state and community governments, voluntary organizations, academic institutions, and industry groups.

National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (NASDA) - A nonprofit, nonpartisan organization of the 50 state departments of agriculture and those from the trust territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. Headquarters are in Washington, D.C.

National Association of State Development Agencies (NASDA) - Formed in 1946 to provide a forum for directors of state economic development agencies to exchange information, compare programs, and deal with issues of mutual interest. NASDA's organization includes International Trade and Foreign Investment components. Trade activities include maintenance of a State Export Program Database.

National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act - Title XIV of Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 made USDA the leading federal agency for agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs. It also consolidated the funding for these programs.

National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board - A 30-member board established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to replace three previous advisory committees. The Board advises USDA on national priorities and policies related to agricultural research, extension, and education.

National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) - A USDA agency that collects and publishes statistics on the U.S. food and fiber system, with offices located in each state's department of agriculture.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - National standards set by EPA under authority of the Clean Air Act; NAAQS define the maximum allowable concentrations of specified air pollutants in outdoor (ambient) air. NAAQS have been set for carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and ozone. 'Primary' NAAQS protect human health, with a margin of safety; 'secondary' NAAQS protect human welfare, which includes effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, materials, etc.

National Aquaculture Act of 1980 - P.L. 96-362 (September 26, 1980), as amended, is intended to promote and support the development of private aquaculture and to ensure coordination among the various federal agencies that have aquaculture programs and policies. It provided for a national aquaculture policy, including a formal National Aquaculture Development Plan; established a Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture on which officials of USDA, Commerce, Interior, and nine other federal agencies sit; designated USDA as the lead agency for coordination; and authorized the National Aquaculture Information Center within USDA's National Agricultural Library.

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) - Develops information services for biotechnology. The Center creates automated systems for knowledge about molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics, and pursues research in biological information handling, including human molecular biology. NCBI, a part of the National Library of Medicine, was established in 1988. In 1992, the Center assumed responsibility for the National Institute of Health's GenBank. GenBank is an international database that collects all known DNA sequences and is a critical research tool in the analysis and discovery of gene function.

The National (Eads) Commission on Supplies and Shortages - The Eads Commission, as the NCSS was known, published its findings in 1976. The Eads Commission concluded that resource scarcity was not likely to become a reality for the foreseeable future; short-term shortages, while always a possibility, could be managed through international agreements and trade facilitation; and materials data collection should be facilitated in all agencies with mandates to collect such data. The Commission also supported economic stockpiling, recycling, and materials research and development (National Commission on Supplies and Shortages, The, 1976).

National Conservation Area - A congressionally designated public land area that contains important resources and whose management objectives are (1) to conserve and protect these resources, (2) to maintain environmental quality, and (3) to provide for present and future users within a framework of multiple use and sustained yield. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAPS) - Federal standards that control pollutants considered toxic to humans. - Bioenergy Glossary

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and various state environmental quality laws - These laws allow citizens (and local officials) to have broader standing in court to challenge government laws and regulations on the basis that facets of the required environmental impact analysis are being omitted or are grossly inadequate. Environmentalists use NEPA and state environmental review law to promote more government rules but the mandated environmental review, which by law requires community social and economic impact analysis, can be used to challenge zoning rules on social and economic terms. Catron County Board of Commissioners, New Mexico, v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, et al (Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, Denver Colorado 1996) In the Catron County case, the Court of Appeals held that local governments have standing to bring NEPA challenges before the court and that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must comply with NEPA and do an environmental impact study before implementing habitat designations (federal zoning). - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - The [1969] law which requires detailed and documented environmental analysis of proposed federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. - DOI/NPS 

National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 - P.L. 91-190 (January 1, 1970) National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Process - Congress passed NEPA as an amendment to the Forest and Rangelend Renewable Resources Planning Act, requiring preparation of Regional Guides and Forest Plans, and the preparation of regulations to guide that development, to encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between people and their environment. One of the major tenets of NEPA is its emphasis on public disclosure of possible environmental effects of any major action on public lands. Section 102 of NEPA requires a statement of possible environmental effects to be released to the public and other agencies for review and comment. The law requires a Federal agency to 1) consider every significant aspect of the environmental impact of a proposed action; 2) involve the public in its decision-making process when considering environmental concerns; 3) use a systematic, interdisciplinary approach to decision-making; and 4) consider a reasonable range of alternatives in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Requires the disclosure of the environmental impacts of any major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.

National Estate - Components of the cultural and natural environment that are of great national value and need to be preserved for the benefit of the community. Some components possess aesthetic, historical, scientific, social, cultural, ecological or other special values and include parks and reserves, beaches, coastlines, certain forests, rare species, buildings and gardens of special merit, sites of archaeological interest, museums and so forth. (See also natural patrimony) (UN)

National Estuary Program - A program established under the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987 to develop and implement conservation and management plans for protecting estuaries and restoring and maintaining their chemical, physical, and biological integrity, as well as controlling point source and non-point source pollution sources.

National Forest - Originally, forest reserves, established by presidential proclamation mostly between 1891 and 1909. Today, the boundaries of the 155 national forests cannot be modified without congressional authorization, although many (especially eastern) national forests are combined for easier administration. The 120 administrative units, commonly referred to as national forests, are managed by the Forest Service for multiple use and sustained yield of renewable resources, as determined in forest plans. Public lands set aside to provide for multiple benefits and for multiple uses. Mining, grazing, and timer harvesting are allowed. Administered by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

National Forest land - Federal land that has been legally designated as national forests or purchase units, and other land under the administration of the Forest Service, including experimental areas and Bankhead-Jones Title III land. - USDA/FS

National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan (NFLRMP) - Also called the Forest Plan or just the Plan, this document guides the management of a particular National Forest and establishes management standards and guidelines for all lands of that National Forest.

National Forest Management Act of 1976 (NFMA) - P.L. 94-588 (October 22, 1976) It was within the context of the Monongahela Decision that Congress crafted the National Forest Management Act (NFMA), designed to resolve the controversy over the management of our public lands. Largely amended the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, which required a national, strategic planning process for renewable resources for the Forest Service, and comprehensive, interdisciplinary land and resource management plans for units of the National Forest System. The law was seen as necessary, because a lawsuit (commonly known as the Monongahela decision) had invalidated most timber practices in the national forests. NFMA substantially enacted detailed guidance for forest planning, particularly in regulating when, where, and how much timber could be harvested and in requiring public involvement in preparing and revising the plans. NFMA also established the Salvage Sale Fund and expanded other Forest Service trust funds and special accounts. This law requires the preparation of Regional Guides and Forest Plans.

National Forest Recreation Sites - Inventoried sites.

National Forest System (NFS) - A system in the U.S. of federally managed forest, rangelands, and related lands consisting of the national forests, the national grasslands; land utilization projects administered under Title III of the U.S. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act; and other lands, waters, or interests therein that are administered by the U.S. Forest Service or designated for administration through the Forest Service as part of the system. The 192 million acres administered by the Forest Service for multiple use; comprised of 155 national forests (in 120 units) with 187 million acres, 20 national grasslands with 4 million acres, and 112 other units (e.g., purchase units, land utilization projects, research and experimental areas) with about 500,000 acres. While the NFS lands are concentrated in the West, the 25 million acres east of the 100th Meridian (the Great Plains) make the Forest Service the largest land manager in the East.

National Forest System Road - Formerly known as "Forest Road" or "Forest Service Road." The new term reflects that National Forest System roads serve National Forest System lands. A road may be redesignated as a trail if it is no longer needed as a road. - USDA Forest Service

National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse - A distributed network of geospatial data producers, managers, and users linked electronically. Building on initiatives such as the national information infrastructure, the clearinghouse uses a distributed, electronically connected network, such as the Internet. Each data provider will describe available data in an electronic form, and provide these descriptions (or "metadata") using means that can be accessed over a communications network. Thus, the data for the clearinghouse are located at the sites of data producers (or, where more efficient, at the sites of the intermediaries) throughout the country. Using the network, users will search these descriptions to locate data that are suitable for their applications. - Cadastral Data glossary

National Grasslands - A type of unit designated by USDA and under Title II of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, permanently held by USDA as part of the National Forest System.

National Heritage Area - The National Park Service's definition of a National Heritage Area is a place designated by Congress where natural, cultural, historic, and scenic resources combine to form a cohesive, nationally distinctive landscape arising from patterns of human activity shaped by geography. These patterns make National Heritage Areas representative of the national experience through the physical features that remain and the traditions that have evolved in them. Continued use of the National Heritage Area by people whose traditions helped to shape the landscape enhances their significance. NPS - DOI

National Heritage Corridor - A national designation intended to help local entities protect and use historic, cultural and recreational resources for community benefits, while raising regional and national awareness of their unique importance. - DOI/NPS 

National Highway System (NHS) - A network of primary highways and ferry routes designated by the FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation, considered most important to interstate travel, national defense, connection with other modes of transportation, and are essential to international commerce. The focus of the NHS is the long-range movement of people, goods, and services. For example, in Alaska currently there are 2,100 miles of highway and 1,900 miles of ferry routes, including designated terminals and all eight vessels of the Alaska Marine Highway System that are eligible to receive NHS funding.

National Historic Landmark - Nationally significant properties in American history and archeology; recognition established through the Historic Sites Act of 1935; official list maintained by the National Park Service on behalf of the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) - A federal statute that established federal program to further the efforts of private agencies and individuals in preserving the Nation's historic and cultural foundations. NHPA authorized the establishing of the National Register of Historic Places, established the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and a National Trust Fund to administer grants for historic preservation, and authorized the development of regulations to require federal agencies to consider the effects of federally assisted activities on properties included on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

National Historic Preservation Act (1966) - as amended: Establishes as policy that the Federal Government is to provide leadership in the preservation of the nation's prehistoric and historic resources.

National Historic Site - Nationally significant sites in American history and archeology; program established through the Historic Sites Act of 1935; National Historic Sites are formally a part of the U.S. National Park system and are managed as physical property by the National Park Service. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

National Income Accounts - System of record by which the vigor of a nation's economy is measured. - UNDP/WRI

The National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) - NIST is responsible for interpreting laws and regulations and developing guidance to federal agencies for activities such as IT security.

The National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) - NLCS was apparently created in June 2000. The BLM's National Landscape Conservation System consists of National Monuments, congressionally designated National Conservation Areas, and other areas designated for important scientific and ecological characteristics. In total this amounts to 828 BLM units encompassing more than 42 million acres - an area larger than the state of Florida, which amounts to about 15 percent of BLM's land base. An 'initiative' Bruce Babbitt launched to 'inventory and protect' components of the Bureau of Land Management.,,,  Map of NLCS: 

National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) - A system of congressional, Presidential, or other designated areas managed by the BLM, the components of which include National Monuments, National Conservation Areas, Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study Areas, Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Historic Trails, National Scenic Trails, the California Desert Conservation Area, and the Headwaters Forest Reserve. - DOI/BLM

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) - An agency within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at the Department of Commerce that conducts voluntary seafood inspection on a fee-for-service basis, mainly as a marketing and quality program rather than as a food safety program.

The National Minerals Policy Act of 1970 - This Act was to enhance environmental quality and conserve materials by developing national materials policy to utilize present resources and technology more efficiently, anticipate future materials requirements of the Nation and the world, and to make recommendations on the supply, use, recovery, and disposal of materials. To that end, the Act established the National (Boyd) Commission on Materials Policy (National Commission on Minerals Policy, The, 1973, p. 9).

National Monument - An area designated by the President, under the authority of the Antiquities Act of 1906, to protect objects of scientific and historical interest that are located on Federal lands. 

National Natural Landmark - An area designated by the Secretary of the Interior as being of national significance to the United States because it is an outstanding example(s) of major biological and geological features found within the boundaries of the United States or its Territories or on the Outer Continental Shelf. - NPS

National Natural Resources Conservation Foundation (NNRCF) - A nonprofit private organization established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to promote and fund innovative solutions to conservation problems through effective partnerships. The Foundation can accept gifts and raise money. The NNRCF will conduct research, undertake educational activities, support demonstration projects, and make grants to state and local governments and nonprofit organizations. Appropriations are authorized at $1 million per year for 1997-99, but no appropriations have been provided and the Foundation is not yet operational. Similar foundations have been created for several other natural resource areas.

National of the United States or U.S. national - Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, including, but not limited to, a citizen or resident of the United States, or a person employed on a vessel of the United States. In the case of a corporation, partnership or other non- natural person, this includes, but is not limited to, any entity that is the owner of a vessel of the United States. - MFCMA

National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) - The federal regulation that guides the Superfund program. The NCP was revised in 1990. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

National Organic Standards Board - A board established by Title 21 of the FACT Act of 1990 to develop national standards for practices and substances to be used in organic production. Producers meeting these standards can sell their products as 'USDA Certified Organic'.

National Park - These are generally large natural places having a wide variety of attributes, at times including significant historic assets. Hunting, mining and consumptive activities are not authorized. - NPS

National Park Service - The agency of the United States Department of the Interior responsible for the administration of National Parks, Monuments, and Historic Sites. It is distinct from the USDA Forest Service both administratively and by mission.

The National Park Service Act of 1916 - This Act represented a clear success for non-development values. The legislation limits most development, including most access to minerals, within national parks. On December 31, 1999, there were 33.8 million hectares of land inside the boundaries of national parks (U.S. National Park Service, 2001a).

National Park System Management Policies Directing Park Planning - Chapter 2 of the "Management Policies To Guide the Management of the National Park System" contains the policies governing general management planning, strategic planning, and implementation planning. These policies recently were revised to coordinate and integrate all the various types of park planning into a single decision-making framework that extends from broad visions shared with the public to individual employees' annual work assignments and evaluations. Policies describing more specific requirements for certain kinds of implementation plans are included in the policy chapters addressing land protection, natural and cultural resource management, wilderness management, interpretation and education, use of the parks, and park facilities. Implementation plans required by these policies include land-protection plans, resource-management plans, wilderness-management plans, comprehensive interpretive plans, planning for carrying capacities, river management, backcountry use, and site planning and design. Numerous other kinds of implementation plans are optional. 

National Parks - Large natural areas not materially altered by human activity where extractive resource uses are not allowed and whose purpose is to protect nature and scenic areas of national and international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use. (UN) Public lands set aside to provide biological, scenic, and recreational opportunities. No mining, grazing or timber harvesting is allowed. Administered by the United States Department of Interior Park Service.

National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 - Prior to the passage of this act, much of National Park Service planning focused on the placement and design of visitor facilities in parks. This act recognized the need for more comprehensive planning and provided for a discrete program in the Park Service budget to fund general management plans (GMPs). Congress directed that GMPs should address the preservation of park resources, the types and general intensities of development, visitor carrying capacities, and potential boundary modifications. All parks are required by law to maintain current general management plans. 

National Parkway - The title parkway refers to a roadway and the parkland paralleling the roadway. All were intended for scenic motoring along a protected corridor and often connect cultural sites. - NPS

National Partnership Office (NPO) - The NPO is responsible for implementing National Rural Development Partnership policies and activities. The NPO provides budgetary and financial technical assistance to State Rural Development Councils.

National Pollutant Disposal Elimination Standards (NPDES) - A process for controlling the amount of pollution discharged into waters by requiring polluters to obtain NPDES permits from the states involved and to comply with discharge standards. The NPDES is mandated by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

National Preserve - National preserves are areas having characteristics associated with national parks, but in which Congress has permitted continued public hunting, trapping, oil/gas exploration and extraction. Many existing National Preserves without sport hunting, would qualify for National Park "designation." - NPS

National Primary Drinking Water Standards (NPDWS) - Developed by the Environmental Protection Agency to keep drinking water clean and protect the public from waterborne disease, these standards define either a maximum contaminant level or a treatment technique requirement to control the presence of contaminants in drinking water. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

National Priorities List (NPL) - EPA's list of the nation's most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites identified for possible long-term cleanup using Superfund money. EPA updates the NPL at least once a year. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

National Protection - The Convention refers to national "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage" situated on its territory as national protection. National protection is distinct from international protection (UNESCO 1972: Articles 4-6). National protection of cultural and natural heritage is an essential component in the conservation of World Heritage properties. - See International protection - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

National Recreation Area - Twelve NRAs in the system are centered on large reservoirs and emphasize water-based recreation. Five other NRAs are located near major population centers. Such urban parks combine scarce open spaces with the preservation of significant historic resources and important natural areas in location that can provide outdoor recreation for large numbers of people. - NPS

National Recreational Trails Fund (NRTTF) - Federal funding program for non-motorized and motorized trails, using gasoline taxes collected from vehicles used off roads.

National Register of Historic Places - The official list of historically significant national, state, and local districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects maintained by the National Park Service on behalf of the U.S. Secretary of the Interior; established through the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

National Registry of Natural Landmarks - The official listing of all designated national natural landmarks. - NPS

National Religious Partnership for the Environment (NRPE) - The Partnership operates out of an Anglican church in New York City called St. John the Divine. The Cathedral is also the home of The Gaia Institute and the Temple of Understanding. The Temple is an official UN "Non-government Organization (NGO), making it a direct partner in the United Nation's global agenda. Among the directors of the Temple is the Reverend Thomas Berry, In his book, "Dream of the Earth" (published by Sierra Club Books), Berry never uses the word "God" but speaks of a supernatural force in the universe. He says that "we should place less emphasis on Christ as a person and a redeemer. He tells Christians that they should put the Bible away for twenty years while "we radically rethink our religious ideas." Also part of the Temple of Understanding is Maurice Strong, Secretary General of the 1993 UN Earth Summit and now number two man at the United Nations. Strong has said, "Isn't the only hope for the planet that the industrialized civilizations collapse? Isn't it our responsibility to bring that about?" Strong has owned a ranch in Colorado where he built a Babylonian sun god temple. The ranch became a hotbed of a variety of New-Age religious activities. Those who worship at the Temple of Understanding follow the teaching of Peter Singer, the father of animal rights. He wrote, "Christianity is our foe. If animal rights are to succeed, we must destroy the Judeo-Christian religious tradition." Helen Caldicott, of the Union of Concerned Scientists, a former Soviet KGB front group and a driving force in the Temple, says, "Capitalism is destroying the earth." These same people have launched a massive campaign to form an environmental partnership with Christians. The Partnership is highly organized. Its Education and Action kits are prepared for each faith, and each denomination. Sermons and Sunday school materials are written to fit into the individual church and denomination and orthodoxy. The partnership seeks to "broaden exponentially the base of mainstream commitment, integrate issues of social justice and environment, and urge behavioral change in the lives of congregants." Religious leaders from churches across the country are brought into training seminars. Summit meetings for black and Orthodox Christians are organized. Environmental curriculum for Jewish seminaries is prepared. No stone has been left unturned in the Partnership's drive to implement its ideology into all aspects of Christian thought and action.

National Register of Historic Places - A formal list established by the National Historic Preservation Act of l966 of cultural resources worthy of preservation. The Register is maintained by the National Park Service; and lists archaeological, historic, and architectural properties. (BLM)

National Resources Inventory (NRI) - A periodic survey of status and changing conditions of the soil, water, and related resources on private land conducted by USDA's Natural Resource Conservation Service. The survey is conducted every 5 years; the most recent survey was in 1992.

National Resources Inventory - The NRI is a series of inventories conducted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. It provides updated information on the status, condition and trends of land, soil, water and related resources on the nation's non-federal land (74 percent of the nation's land area). The 1992 NRI is unique in that it provides a nationally consistent database constructed specifically to estimate five- and 10-year trends for natural resources from 1982 to 1992. The 1992 NRI covers the 48 conterminous states, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands but excludes Alaska. Data was collected for more than 800,000 locations by NRCS field personnel and resource inventory specialists. NRI data are statistically reliable for national, regional, state and substate analysis. The NRI was scientifically designed and conducted and is based on recognized statistical sampling methods. Data from other sources can be integrated with the NRI through spatial linkages in a Geographic Information System. [USDA-SCS 1992 NRI]

National River - There are several variations to this category: national river and recreation area, national scenic river, wild river, etc. The first was authorized in 1964 and others were established following passage of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. - NPS

National Rural Development Partnership - A collaborative effort comprised of representatives of the federal, state, local, and tribal governments, the private sector, and the nonprofit sector to promote rural development across the nation. The principle component of the Partnership is the State Rural Development Councils.

National Rural Development Council (NRDC) - This is the federal component of the National Rural Development Partnership. The NRDC comprises representatives from various federal departments and national organizations whose activities or policies may affect rural areas. The NRDC provides guidance for the Partnership and works on behalf of State Rural Development Councils at the national level.

National Rural Economic Development Institute (NREDI) - Helps develop the capacity of the National Rural Development Partnership and its constituent organizations (State Rural Development Councils and the National Rural Development Council) by providing economic development- related training and consulting services.

National Scenic Byway - A scenic highway which is designated by the federal government as satisfying the criteria for a National Scenic Byway pursuant to Section 1047(f) of Title 23 USC and any federal regulation and/or guidelines. These roadways offer drivers and passengers views of cultural, historical, archeological, recreational, natural or scenic resources and provide a relaxed recreational and educational experience. See also Scenic Byway

National Sea Grant College Program - Congress established this program in 1966 to apply the expertise and resources of the nation's universities to the wise stewardship of its coastal regions and the Great Lakes. Sea Grant supports seven programs of Great Lakes research, education and outreach: the Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program (University of Illinois and Purdue University); the Michigan Sea Grant College Program (University of Michigan and Michigan State University); the Minnesota Sea Grant Program (University of Minnesota-Duluth); the New York Sea Grant Institute (State University of New York-Stony Brook and Cornell University); the Ohio Sea Grant College Program (The Ohio State University); the Pennsylvania Sea Grant Project (Penn State University-Erie/Behrend College), and the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute (University of Wisconsin-Madison). National Sea Grant Office 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, 301-713-2448 - Great Lakes glossary

National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) - A program under which the federal Food and Drug Administration works cooperatively with the states, the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference, and industry to assure the safety of molluscan shellfish (clams, oysters, mussels). Among other things, all such products entering interstate commerce must be handled by state-certified dealers, properly tagged, tracked by appropriate records, and be processed in plants that meet sanitation requirements. FDA continually reviews state shellfish control programs for effectiveness.

National significance - An area that is one of the best examples of a biological community or geological feature within a natural region of the United States, including terrestrial communities, landforms, geological features and processes, habitats of native plant and animal species, or fossil evidence of the development of life. - NPS

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB) - Contains international economic and export promotion information supplied by 19 U.S. agencies. Data are updated monthly and are presented in one of three standard formats: text, time series, or matrix. The NTDB contains data from the Departments of Agriculture (Foreign Agricultural Service), Commerce (Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, and National Institute for Standards and Technology), Energy, Labor (Bureau of Labor Statistics), the Central Intelligence Agency, Eximbank, Federal Reserve System, U.S. International Trade Commission, Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Small Business Administration, the U.S. Trade Representative, and the University of Massachusetts (MISER data on state origins of exports).

National Trails System Act - Assigns responsibility to the Secretary of Interior and thus the Service to protect the historic and recreational values of congressionally designated National Historic Trail sites.

National Treatment - Affords individuals and firms of foreign countries the same competitive opportunities, including market access, as are available to domestic parties.

National Water Commission Act - U.S. Code as of: 01/05/99. Section 1962. Congressional statement of policy: In order to meet rapidly expanding demands for water throughout the Nation, it is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to encourage the conservation, development, & utilization of water & related land resources of the United States on a comprehensive & coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, & private enterprise with the cooperation of all affected Federal agencies, States, local governments, individuals, corporations, business enterprises, & others concerned. 

National Wild and Scenic Rivers System - A system of nationally designated rivers in the U.S. and their immediate environments that have outstanding scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, and other similar values and are preserved in a free-flowing condition. The System consists of three types of rivers: (1) Recreation--rivers or sections of rivers readily accessible by road or railroad that may have some development along their shorelines and may have undergone some impoundment or diversion in the past, (2) Scenic--rivers or sections of rivers free of impoundments with shorelines or watershed still largely undeveloped but accessible in places by roads, and (3) Wild--rivers or sections of rivers free of impoundments and generally inaccessible except by trails with watersheds or shorelines essentially primitive and waters unpolluted.

National Wild and Scenic Rivers Systems - Established by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1958 to protect rivers and their immediate environments that have outstanding scenic, recreation, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, and other similar values and are preserved in free-flowing conditions. The system provides for the designation of three types of rivers:

National Wilderness Preservation System - All areas within the national forests classified as wilderness, wild, or canoe before the Wilderness Act was adopted were automatically considered wilderness areas and included in the System. All areas within the national forests classified as primitive were to be reviewed by the Secretary of Agriculture for suitability or nonsuitability as wilderness. By September 1974, the Secretary was to report to the President, who would recommend wilderness designations to Congress. The Act also required that land under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior be reviewed. All roadless areas of 5,000 contiguous acres or more in the national parks, monuments and other units of the national park system, and every roadless island within the national wildlife refuges and game ranges were to be reviewed by September 1974. The President was expected to make recommendations to Congress after considering the Secretary's report on the suitability of the different areas as wilderness. An area designated by Congress as wilderness would continue to be managed by the department or agency having jurisdiction over it just prior to its inclusion in the System. 1131 and 1132.

National Wildlife Administration Act - The National Wildlife Refuge Administration Act of 1966, as amended in 1976 (Public Law 94-233), designated the Service as the agency required to administer units of the Refuge system, including lands covered by the Kuchel Act. A Department of Interior solicitor's opinion of May 26, 1976, stated that the continued presence of Reclamation on Kuchel Act land was consistent with the Act because of a cooperative agreement (in 1977) between the two agencies, recognizing the Service's ultimate administrative control. The solicitor's opinion made the Service the final decision maker as to whether agricultural leases were consistent with proper waterfowl management under the Kuchel Act. 

National Wildlife Refuge System - All lands, waters, and interests therein administered by the USFWS as wildlife refuges, wildlife ranges, wildlife management areas, waterfowl production areas, and other areas for the protection and conservation of fish, wildlife and plant resources.

The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (NWRSAA) (16 U.S.C. 668dd, 6683ee) - Not until 1966 did Congress establish the National Wildlife Refuge System, which consolidated administration of all the public lands administered by the Department of the Interior for the conservation of fish and wildlife. The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd, 6683ee) and the Refuge Recreation Act of 1962 (16 U.S.C. 460k) govern the administration and use of the National Wildlife Refuges. The 1966 law established the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System: to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and, where appropriate, restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. The 1997 National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act (P.L. 105-57) amended the NWRSAA. It requires that each refuge be managed to fulfill the mission of the System as well as the specific purpose for which that refuge was established. It also authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to develop regulations that permit the use of any area within the System for any purpose, including but not limited to hunting, fishing, public recreation and accommodation, and access, whenever such uses are compatible with the major purposes for which such areas were established.

National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (NWRSAA) (1966) - as amended by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act (1977) 16 U.S.C.668dd668ee. (Refuge Administration Act): Defines the National Wildlife Refuge System and authorizes the Secretary to permit any use of a refuge provided such use is compatible with the major purposes for which the refuge was established. the Refuge Improvement Act clearly defines a unifying mission for the Refuge System; establishes the legitimacy and appropriateness of the six priority public uses (hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, or environmental education and interpretation); establishes a formal process for determining compatibility; established the responsibilities of the Secretary of Interior for managing and protecting the System; and requires a Comprehensive Conservation Plan for each refuge by the year 2012. This Act amended portions of the Refuge Recreation Act and National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966.

National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act (1997) - Considered the "Organic Act of the National Wildlife Refuge System." Defines the mission of the System, designates priority wildlife-dependent public uses, and calls for comprehensive refuge planning.

The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 (NWRSIA) - Not until 1966 did Congress establish the National Wildlife Refuge System, which consolidated administration of all the public lands administered by the Department of the Interior for the conservation of fish and wildlife. The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd, 6683ee) and the Refuge Recreation Act of 1962 (16 U.S.C. 460k) govern the administration and use of the National Wildlife Refuges. The 1966 law established the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System: to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and, where appropriate, restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. The 1997 National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act (P.L. 105-57) amended the NWRSAA. It requires that each refuge be managed to fulfill the mission of the System as well as the specific purpose for which that refuge was established. It also authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to develop regulations that permit the use of any area within the System for any purpose, including but not limited to hunting, fishing, public recreation and accommodation, and access, whenever such uses are compatible with the major purposes for which such areas were established.

National Wildlife Refuge System Volunteer and Community Partnership Enhancement Act (1998) - Amends the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 to promote volunteer programs and community partnerships for the benefit of national wildlife refuges, and for other purposes.

Nationwide permit - Nationwide permits are a type of general permit and represent DA (Dept. of the Army) authorizations that have been issued by the regulation (33 CFR Part 330) for certain specified activities nationwide. If certain conditions are met, the specified activities can take place without the need for an individual or regional permit. 33 CFR 325.5(c)(2).

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990) - Requires Federal agencies and museums to inventory, determine ownership of, and repatriate cultural items under their control or possession.

Native American Respected Place (NARP) - A physical location about which Native American tribal representatives have expressed concern. The location could be a traditional cultural property, a sacred site, or a site important to tribal history. Management strategies at these sites may be different from those commonly used at typical archeological sites. For instance, viewsheds are usually important, and other issues, including audible intrusions, may need to be considered. Data recovery mitigation is usually not an appropriate mitigation at a respected place. BLM-DOI

Native Species (Fish) - Any fish species that naturally occurred within a given body of water.

Native Species - Species that are part of the original fauna or flora of an area. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Native species (indigenous) - A species, subspecies, or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans.) - IUCN 2. Plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms that occur naturally in a given area or region. - UNDP/WRI

Native vegetation - Vegetation indigenous to a geographic area. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Native Vegetation - Plant species that are indigenous to an area or biome, not exotic (e.g. species that have been introduced to an area by humans). (UNESCO)

NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NATODDSA - NATO Doctrine in Defense of the Second Amendment

NATT - National Association of Towns and Townships

Natric Horizon - An argillic horizon with >15% exchangeable sodium.

Natura 2000 - The European Union's Natura 2000 protected areas network.

Natural - See Natural area - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural Area - Land managed for (1) retention of its typical or unusual plant or animal types, associations or other biotic phenomena; or (2) its outstanding scenic, geologic, soil or aquatic features or processes. - BLM 2. The "Report of the Expert Meeting on Evaluation of general principles and criteria for nominations of natural World Heritage sites" held at the Parc national de la Vanoise, France on 22 to 24 March 1996 (UNESCO 15 April 1996) includes the following definition of natural area: A natural area is one where bio-physical processes and landform features are still relatively intact and where a primary management goal of the area is to ensure that natural values are protected. The term "natural" is a relative one. It is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state. Human activities in natural areas often occur and when sustainable may complement the natural values of the area (UNESCO 15 April 1996: 3). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural Assets - Assets of the natural environment. These consist of biological assets (produced or wild), land and water areas with their ecosystems, subsoil assets and air. (UN)

Natural Barrier - A natural feature, such as a dense stand of trees or downfall, that will restrict animal travel.

Natural Boundary - Any existing boundary that can be readily identified and located, e.g., the boundary line of an adjacent parcel of land, a river boundary, ditch, wall, bluff, etc. Courses and distances, as a general rule, give way to a call for a natural boundary, because a natural boundary, if fixed, is unchangeable, and more likely to be the true call than courses and distances. - Cadastral Data glossary

Natural Capital - Natural assets in their role of providing natural resource inputs and environmental services for economic production. (UN)

Natural capital - A stock of natural resources -- such as land, water, and minerals -- used for production. Can be either renewable or nonrenewable. - WB

Natural Disaster - Sudden calamitous event as in the case of earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruptions, cyclones and landslides, or ongoing misfortune as in conditions or processes such as drought and desertification. (UN)

Natural disturbance type - An area that is characterized by a natural disturbance regime. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Natural ecosystem - An ecosystem not perceptibly altered by humans. - IUCN

Natural features - Natural features are referred to as part of the definition of natural heritage in Article 2 of the Convention (UNESCO 1972). See Natural heritage - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural food products - Food which includes no artificial additives. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Natural heritage - Natural heritage is defined in Article 2 of the Convention as shown: Article 2 For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "natural heritage"; natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view; geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation; natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty (UNESCO 1972). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural heritage criteria - A natural property may be inscribed in the World Heritage List if it meets one or more of the natural heritage criteria and the conditions of integrity presented in Paragraph 44 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 12-15). See Conditions of integrity, Criteria, Cultural heritage criteria - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural Landscape Character - Areas which appear to be relatively natural, with the dominant vegetation being endemic to the site and the landform being relatively unaltered.

Natural Language Processors - Technology which understands the natural language of the user, whether typed as text, in electronic form, or spoken. It includes such technologies as machine-translation systems, database interfaces, and voice-input devices.

Natural monopoly - A situation that occurs when one firm in an industry can serve the entire market at a lower cost than would be possible if the industry were composed of many smaller firms. Gas and water utilities are two classic examples of natural monopolies. These monopolies must not be left to operate freely; if they are, they can increase prices and profits by restricting their output. Governments prevent such a scenario by regulating utility monopolies or providing utility services themselves. - WB

Natural Monuments - Objects permanent in character, which are found on land as they were place by nature, e.g., lakes, streams, bluffs, etc.; in contradistinction to artificial monuments which are landmarks or signs erected by the hand of man. - Cadastral Data glossary

Natural Open Land - Land that is mostly free of trees due to the ecological conditions of the site. - USDA/FS

Natural Patrimony - From the French 'patrimoine naturel', totality of natural assets, including those of a historical or cultural value. (UN)

Natural Patrimony Accounting - French accounting system that attempts to included all components of nature that can be quantitatively or qualitatively changed by human activity (Theys, 1989). It includes the description of non-renewable resources, environmental media and living organisms of ecosystems, agents that may affect natural assets and systems, and impacts of human beings on nature, both in monetary and in physical terms. (UN)

Natural Pollutant - Pollutant created by substances of natural origin such as volcanic dust, sea salt particles, photochemically formed ozone, and products of forest fibers, among others. (UN)

Natural population increase - The difference between the birth rate and the death rate over a period of time. See also population growth rate. - WB

Natural production - As defined by Section 3403(h) of the CVPIA, natural production is defined as "fish produced to adulthood without direct human intervention in the spawning, rearing, or migration progress." - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Natural property - Properties inscribed in the World Heritage List after having met at least one of the natural heritage criteria and the conditions of integrity are referred to as natural properties. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural Regeneration - Reforestation of a site by natural seeding from the surrounding trees. Natural regeneration may or may not be preceded by site preparation.

Natural region - A distinct physiographic province having similar geologic history, structures, and landforms. The basic physiographic characteristics of a natural region influence its vegetation, climate, soils, and animal life. Examples include the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Great Basin, and Brooks Range natural regions. - NPS

Natural Resource - A feature of the natural environment that is of value in serving human needs.

Natural Resource Accounting - Accounting system that deals with stocks and stock changes of natural assets, comprising biota (produced or wild), subsoil assets (proved reserves), water and land with their aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It is frequently used in the sense of physical accounting as distinguished from monetary (environmental) accounting. The process of adjusting national accounts such as GNP to reflect the environmental costs of economic production. Although methods are still being developed, natural resource accounting strives to determine the costs of depleting natural resources and damaging the environment. (UNESCO) (UN)

Natural Resource Agenda - The Natural Resource Agenda of the Forest Service articulates the need to better manage the Forest Service road system within environmental, social and fiscal limitations. This policy provides direction that will implement that vision. - USDA/FS

Natural Resource Based Products (NBRP) - This GATT Negotiating Group was formed as a direct result of pressure from resource-rich less developed countries (LDCs) to have an additional forum to deal with their special concerns, including the removal of barriers to trade in natural resource-based products. There are different interpretations among participants as to whether this group includes only three traditional product areas examined during the early 1980s GATT Work Program on NRBPs: non-ferrous metals and minerals; fish and fish products; and wood and wood products, or whether the Group may also discuss barriers in non-traditional product areas such as energy-based products.

Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) - A USDA agency responsible for developing and carrying out national soil and water programs in cooperation with landowners, operators, and others. It was created in 1994 reorganization legislation by merging the Soil Conservation Service and many of the conservation cost- sharing programs of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. The NRCS is responsible for developing and carrying out national soil and water conservation programs in cooperation with landowners, farm operators, and others. More than 70% of the approximately 12,000 employees work at the field level.

Natural Resource Protection - Including, but not limited to, Floodplains, Ridgeline Protection, Soil Erosion, Steep Slopes, Tree Harvesting, Tree Preservation, Water Resource Protection, and Wetlands.

Natural resources - All "gifts of nature"- air, land, water, forests, wildlife, topsoil, minerals- used by people for production or for direct consumption. Can be either renewable or nonrenewable. Natural resources include natural capital plus those gifts of nature that cannot be stocked (such as sunlight) or cannot be used in production (such as picturesque landscapes). - WB

Natural Resources - Natural assets (raw materials) occurring in nature and are essential or useful to humans, such as water, air, land, forests, fish and wildlife, topsoil, and minerals, and that can be used for economic production or consumption.(UN) (UNESCO)

Natural resources - The ecological features of a park, such as geologic forms and processes, communities of native plants and animals and the processes that sustain them (natural succession, natural fire, natural flood/drought cycles, etc.), air quality and air quality related values such as visibility, water bodies and hydrologic processes, and paleontological remains. (DOI/NPS)

Natural Resources Commission - The policymaking body of the Department of Natural Resources.

Natural Rights - Rights that belong to people simply because they are human beings. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Natural Selection - Natural process by which organisms that adapt to their environment survive while those that do not adapt become eliminated progressively. (UN)

Natural sites - Natural sites are referred to as part of the definition of natural heritage in Article 2 of the Convention (UNESCO 1972). See Natural heritage - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Natural Systems - Regularly interacting and interdependent components of air, water, land and biological resources.

Natural uranium - Uranium as found in nature. It contains 0.7 percent uranium-235, 99.3 percent uranium-238, and a trace of uranium-234. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Naturalized - A previously exotic or foreign species, which has established in and conformed to an ecosystem. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Naturalness - An area which "generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable." (Section 2c, Wilderness Act). - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

NAV - Net Annual Value

Navigable waters of the U.S. - Navigable waters of the United States are those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce. A determination of navigability, once made, applies laterally over the entire surface of the waterbody, and is not extinguished by later actions or events, which impede or destroy navigable capacity. 33 CFR 329.4.

NAWB - National Association of Workforce Boards

NAWCA - North American Wetlands Conservation Act

NAWCA - The North American Wetlands Conservation Act  and 

NAWCC - The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Canada). The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Canada) and EnviroKit Solutions Inc. announce that WetKit -- "Tools for Working with Wetlands" -- is now on-line at With WetKit up and running, Canadians can go to one place to access: maps and inventories to alert industry to wetland location and attributes; stewardship tools for agriculture, forestry and mining; tools to guide wetland consideration in environmental assessment; and much more  and 

NAWCRA - The North American Wetlands Conservation Reauthorization Act

NAWG - National Association of Wheat Growers

NAWGA-IFDA - North American Wholesale Grocers Association - International Food Distributors Association

NAWLA - North American Wholesale Lumber Association

NAWMA - The North American Weed Management Association 

NAWMP - North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. and Canada, 1986)

NAWMP - North American Waterfowl Management Plan 

NB - Natural Barriers

NB - Natural Buffers

NBC - National Broiler Council

NBCCP - Native Biological Control of Crop Pests

NBD - Normal By Definition

NBI - Nominee Background Information

NBII - National Biological Information Infrastructure

NBII - The National Biological Information Infrastructure. The National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) Development Team has unveiled BioBot at, the first intelligent biological search engine on the Internet. BioBot will aid in the discovery, access, and delivery of information by providing a centralized location to search for much of the biological information currently found on the Internet. BioBot allows users to define specific topics of interest delivered to a personal Web page on a daily, weekly, biweekly, or monthly basis. BioBot Search not only accesses all the biological information being indexed by commercial vendors such as Yahoo and Alta Vista, but also accesses the NBII-generated search of the Internet. Users will have a single place to go for finding biological information without wading through endless files of non-related information. Also: 

NBR - Northern Border Region

NBRA - National Board on Rural America

NBS - National Biological Service (USFWS - became the USGS)

NBS - National Biological Survey

NBSAPs - National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (UN)

NBT - Nature Based Tourism

NC - National Corridors

NC - Nature Centers

NC - Nesting Cover

NC - Non-Compliance

NC - Non-Controversial

NCA - National Conservation Area (DOI/BLM)

NCA - National Conservation Areas

NCAL - National Center for Agricultural Law

NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCARATD - National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Technology Division

NCARG - Northern California Association of River Guides

NCAS - National Core Area Service (now known as the National Park Service)

NCASI - National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., an environmental resource/research for the forest products industry since 1943. Our mission is to address, through a highly focused research program, the environmental information needs of the forest products industry. 

NCBA - National Cattle and Beef Association

NCBA - National Cattleman's Beef Association

NCBC - National Conservation Buffer Council

NCBI - National Conservation Buffer Initiative

NCBT - National Conservation Buffer Team (USDA)

NCC - National Cotton Council

NCC - National Council of Churches

NCC - Nature Connected Counseling

NCC - Nevada Concerned Citizens

NCCCWIS - Northern and Central California Coastal Wetland Information System

NCCP - Natural Community Conservation Plans (Wildlands Project)

NCCPG - The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens, based at the Royal Horticultural Society's (RHS) gardens at Wisley in Surrey, England - The World's Leading Cultivated Plant Conservation Charity. "Prince Charles, talks about the importance of the work of the NCCPG with regard to his duty to the countryside, especially through the work of Highgrove. He talks about how the imperatives of marketing and fashion, the desire for 'new' varieties and the practicalities of bulk cultivation led to the loss of many plants unique to British gardens. But diversity is important, not only as a genetic resource for the future but also because of the cultural links that plants have with our past. Prince Charles says that if it wasn't for the crucial role played by the remarkable organisation NCCPG, which is dedicated to conserving the unique collection of garden plants in the British Isles, the situation would be far worse. As a result of our work, there are now 630 collections, half in private ownership, each representing a specific genus, and in excess of 50,000 gardens plants are thus held secure for the future. It is in this same way that Prince Charles is himself been trying to restore and re-create what has been lost at Highgrove."  and  Other 'Useful Links': 

NCDC - National Climatic Data Center

NCEDR - National Center for Environmental Decision-making Research 

NCEE - The National Center on Education and the Economy (funded by the Carnegie Foundation)

NCEE - National Center for Education and the Economy

NCEER - National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

NCDS - National Centre for Development Studies (UN)

NCER - U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental Research

NCFA - North Carolina Fisheries Association, Inc.

NCFC - National Council of Farmer Cooperatives

NCFS - Nevada Committee for Full Statehood

NCGA - National Corn Growers Association

NCGS - The North Carolina Geodetic Survey

NCH - Natural and Cultural Heritage

NCI - National Cancer Institute

NCIC - National Cartographic Information Center

NCIC - National Crime Information Center

NCIDME - No Compromise In Defense of Mother Earth (Earth First's slogan)

NCIL - National Council on Independent Living

NCLRF - National Civil Liberties Research Foundation

NCMHI - National Children's Mental Health Initiative

NCNB - National Center for Non-Profit Boards

NCO - Nonprofit Conservation Organizations

NCP - The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, more commonly called the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the federal government's blueprint for responding to both oil spills and hazardous substance releases. This national response capability plan promotes the overall coordination among a hierarchy of responders and contingency plans.

NCP - Nature Connected Psychology: Creating Moments that Let Earth Teach (Institute of Global Education, Friday Harbor, WA)

NCP - Novartis Crop Protection

NCPA - National Center for Policy Analysis

NCPA - The Northern California Power Agency 

NCPLNR - National Coalition for Public Lands and Natural Resources

NCPPR - National Center for Public Policy Research

NCRC - National Center for Recreation and Conservation (DOI/NPS)

NCRC - National Council for a Republican Congress

NCREL - North Central Regional Education Laboratory

NCS - National Conservation Strategy (IUCN)

NCSA - National Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture

NCSC - National Center for Small Communities

NCSC - National Center for Small Communities 

NCSDs - The National Councils for Sustainable Development (now operational in about 80 countries and becoming an increasingly important movement) - UN

NCSE - National Council for Science and the Environment

NCSHPO - National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers

NCSL - The National Conference of State Legislatures

NCSS - National Council for the Social Studies

NCT - Navajo Code Talkers

NCTC - National Conservation Training Center (DOI/USFWS), 698 Conservation Way; also Shepherd Grade Road, Rt. 1, Box 166, Shepherdstown, WV 25443. 1-800-344-WILD (9453) or 304-876-7200  You must check out 'Tuition, Lodging and Fees:' " ... state fish and wildlife agencies are turning to NCTC for the training they need to provide quality resource management assistance to their citizens. Non-profit groups use NCTC for cost-effective coursework they might not be able to afford elsewhere. ... NCTC-based "Management Assistance Team" -- a partnership with the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies -- delivers management training directly to clients on their own terms, customized to their own needs.  "$5,250,000 [was] added by the Senate for an extra dormitory at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Conservation Training Center (NCTC) in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). Not content with the budget request, Sen. Byrd earmarked more money for the fourth dormitory at this facility, which is more like a resort, complete with a state-of-the-art workout facility, day care services, and lodges with fireplaces and living rooms. The only people 'roughing it' at NCTC are the taxpayers." from Citizens Against Government Waste 

NCTM - The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

NCZMA - National Coastal Zone Management Act

ND - National Debt

ND - Navigation District

NDA - Natural Desert Association

NDAA - National Defense Authorization Act

NDDB - The California Natural Diversity Data Base

NDF - The Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund

NDI - Natural Diversity Inventory

NDS - Nesting Duck Species

NDT - National Discovery Trail

NDTA - National Discovery Trails Act (2001)

NDU - National Defense University

NE - Net Effect

NE - Non-dual Ecology

NEA - National Endowment for the Arts

NEA - National Education Association

NEA - National Environmental Area

NEA - Northwest Ecosystem Alliance

NEAP - National Environmental Action Plan (IUCN)

Nearshore Waters - Nearshore waters begin at the shoreline or the lakeward edge of the coastal wetlands and extend offshore to the deepest lake-bed depth contour where the thermocline typically intersects with the lake bed in late summer or early fall. In Lake Superior, the boundary between the nearshore and offshore waters typically occurs at about the 10-m depth contour (Bennett 1978). In the other four Great Lakes, which are farther south and display a wider range of temperatures seasonally, the boundary between the nearshore and offshore waters may occur as deep as the 30-m depth contour (Schertzer et al. 1987). The temperature of the nearshore waters at the lake bed in summer in all five lakes exceeds 15 degrees C and may reach 25 degrees C in portions of Lake Erie. In winter the nearshore waters are typically covered with ice and the water temperature approaches 0 degrees C from surface to bottom. - EPA

NEASG - Northeast Ag Support Group

NEC - NALMS - The New England Chapter of the North American Lake Management Society

NEC - Natural Ecosystem Capacity

NEC - Niagara Escarpment Commission (Ontario, Canada) (UN World Biosphere Reserve)

NEC - The Northcoast Environmental Center

NECO Plan - Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Coordinated Management Plan (DOI/BLM)

Nectarivore - An animal that eats nectar. - UNDP/WRI

NEDA - National Economic Development Authority

NEDC - Northwest Environmental Defense Center

NEEFT - National Environmental and Educational Training Foundation 

NEET - National Electricity and Environmental Technology Act

NEF - National Endowments Funds (IUCN)

NEF - The New Economics Forum

NEFF - New England Forestry Foundation

NEG - National Education Goals

Negligible Impact - Impact that is small in magnitude and importance and is difficult or impossible to quantify relative to those occurring naturally or due to other actions. - DOI/BLM

Negotiating rulemaking - Rulemaking accomplished through the use of a negotiated rulemaking committee. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Negotiated Pricing - Discovering the price for a trade by the exchange of bid(s) and offer(s). Sometimes called "private treaty" or haggling on an individual basis between buyer and seller.

Negotiated rulemaking committee - An advisory committee established by an agency in accordance with the Negotiated Rulemaking Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act to consider and discuss issues for the purpose of reaching a consensus in the development of a proposed rule. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Negotiation - Involves a bargaining relationship between two or more parties who have either perceived or actual conflicts of interest. The participants join voluntarily in a temporary relationship to educate each other about their needs and interest and exchange specific resources or promises that will resolve one or more issues. Almost all of the ADR procedures, in which the parties maintain control over the outcome of the conflict, are variations upon or elaborations of the negotiation process. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

NEGP - National Education Goals Panel

NEH - National Endowment for the Humanities

NEHRP - National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

Neighborhood - A small local area, usually two or three streets, that a person identifies with and knows the best, of all parts of a city. (UN)

NEJAC - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council

*Ngiraingas v. Sanchez, *495 U.S. 182 (1990) - At common law, a "corporation" was an "artificial perso[n] endowed with the legal capacity of perpetual succession" consisting either of a single individual (termed a "corporation sole") or of a collection of several individuals (a "corporation aggregate"). 3 H. Stephen, Commentaries on the Laws of England 166, 168 (1st Am. ed. 1845). The sovereign was considered a corporation. See id., at 170; see also 1 W. Blackstone, Commentaries *467. Under the definitions supplied by contemporary law dictionaries, Territories would have been classified as "corporations" (and hence as "persons") at the time that 1983 was enacted and the Dictionary Act recodified. See W. Anderson, A Dictionary of Law 261 (1893) ("All corporations were originally modeled upon a state or nation"); 1 J. Bouvier, A Law Dictionary Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America 318-319 (11th ed. 1866) ("In this extensive sense the United States may be termed a corporation"); Van Brocklin v. Tennessee, 117 U.S. 151, 154 (1886) ("`The United States is a ... great corporation ... ordained and established by the American people'") (quoting United [495 U.S. 182, 202] States v. Maurice, 26 F. Cas. 1211, 1216 (No. 15,747) (CC Va. 1823) (Marshall, C. J.)); Cotton v. United States, 11 How. 229, 231 (1851) (United States is "a corporation"). See generally Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheat. 518, 561-562 (1819) (explaining history of term "corporation"). 

NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NEMA - National Emergency Management Agency

NEMAP - National Environment Management Action Plan

NEMI - National Environmental Methods Index - October 18, 2002: USGS Introduces A Web-Searchable Database of Environmental Methods. On the 30th Anniversary of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) today announced a new standardized web-searchable database of environmental methods that will allow scientists and managers monitoring water quality to compare data collection methods at a glance and find the method that best meets their needs. The tool also allows monitoring data to be shared among different agencies and organizations that use different methods at different times. This database was developed in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and other partners in the federal, state, and private sectors. Called NEMI -- the National Environmental Methods Index -- the tool is a free, web-based online clearinghouse of environmental monitoring methods. The NEMI database contains chemical, micro-biological and radiochemical method summaries of lab and field protocols for regulatory and non-regulatory water quality analyses. It is searchable over the World Wide Web, providing up-to-date methods information through a standard Internet connection and browser. By visiting users can directly access current methods information. In the future, NEMI will be expanded to meet the needs of the monitoring community. For example, biological methods will be added to NEMI, along with additional field and laboratory methods of importance to the monitoring community. NEMI is a powerful tool, providing a summary of the procedures and performance data needed to assess methods. Critical data on sensitivity, accuracy, precision, instrumentation, source and relative cost are produced as tabular reports, and full methods are linked to the summaries. Often, formats for gathering information on various methods involve a time consuming search through lengthy methods to distill bits of necessary information (e.g., What is the holding time? Is the precision and accuracy of the selected method adequate?). A few minutes with NEMI will provide answers to these questions, and more. "NEMI represents a successful interagency effort that helps everyone (citizen groups, academics, industry, and government agencies) share information on the methods they use to do environmental monitoring, said Dr. Robert Hirsch, USGS Associate Director for Water. "This will save a lot of time and effort for everyone, offering a single place on the Internet where people can search for information about suitable, well-documented methods of monitoring. This will help to ensure that future monitoring efforts use appropriate methods and it will add to everyone's ability to share the results of their monitoring programs." NEMI is a project of the Methods and Data Comparability Board (Methods Board), a partnership of water-quality experts from Federal agencies, States, Tribes, municipalities, industry, and private organizations who all share a commitment to developing water-quality monitoring approaches that facilitate collaboration and comparability among all data-gathering organizations. Both the Methods Board, and its parent organization, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council are co-chaired by USGS and USEPA. The Council and Board are workgroups under the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI), chartered in 1997 to develop a voluntary, integrated, and nationwide water quality monitoring strategy. ACWI member organizations see NEMI as an important element of this strategy. A second tool developed by the Methods Board is a common set of data elements for documenting the content and quality of monitoring data, adopted by ACWI in May 2000. These Water Quality Data Elements, also available on the Web, were also recently adopted by the Environmental Data Standards Council, a USEPA, state, and tribal partnership, and the Environmental Commissioners of the States. "The State regulators who manage the nation's water quality programs are pleased to see the development of this database because we expect it to assist environmental professionals in selecting appropriate analytical methods for water quality investigations," said Robbi Savage, Executive Director of the Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators. "Searching NEMI produces a list of approved analytical methods with specific information that can save time and provide a higher level of accuracy in tracking regarding method number, source, detection limits, and relative cost." As the Nation's science agency for natural resources, hazards and the environment, the USGS is committed to meeting the health, safety and knowledge needs of the changing world around us.

NEMO - Navy Earth Map Observer

NEMO - Non-point Source Pollution for Municipal Elected Officials

NEMP - National Environment Management Plan (IUCN)

NENFG - Northeast Nebraska Farmers Group

Neo-traditional Development - A traditional neighborhood, where a mix of different types of residential and commercial developments form a tightly knit unit. Residents can walk or bike to more of the places they need to go and municipal services costs are lower due to the close proximity of residences. A more compact development also reduces the amount of rural land that must be converted to serve urban needs. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Neocolonialism - The term used by developing countries to underscore that the entrenched colonial system of international exchange and capital flow has changed in the postcolonial era thereby perpetuating the huge economic advantages of the developed world.

Neotropical Migratory Birds - Birds that breed in the United States and Canada and later migrate south to Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands. These birds include almost half of the bird species that exist in the United States and Canada.

NEON - The National Ecological Observatory Network; a major new initiative of the National Science Foundation, will allow scientists to tackle, at local to continental scales, important ecological questions confronting our society. The objectives of NEON are: To provide a state-of-the-art national facility for scientists and engineers to conduct cutting edge research spanning all levels of biological organization from molecular genetics to whole ecosystem studies, and across scales ranging from seconds to geological time and from microns to kilometers; To interconnect the geographically distributed parts of the research facilities into one virtual installation via communication networks so that members of the biological research community can access information remotely; and To facilitate predictive modeling of biological systems via data sharing and synthesis efforts by users of the research facilities. 

NEP - National Energy Policy

NEP - National Environment Program (IUCN)

NEP - Non-Essential Population

NEP - Nonessential Experimental Population (FWS-DOI)

NEPA - The National Electric Power Authority (Nigeria)

NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act (1969)

NEPA - Never Expect Power Always

NEPA - The National Environment & Planning Agency 

NEPAP - National Environment Policy and Action Plan (IUCN)

NEPAPLC - Never Expect Power Always, Please Light Candles (The National Electric Power Authority -- Nigeria)

Nephelometric turbidity unit - A measurement unit of the clarity of water, dependent on the amount of suspended matter. - Bioenergy Glossary

NEPI - National Environmental Policy Institute

NEPP - National Environment Policy Plan (IUCN)

NERC - National Ecology Research Center

NERC - North American Electric Reliability Council

NERI - New River Gorge National River

NeRWA - Northeast Rural Water Association 

NES - National Environmental Strategy

NESARC - National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition

NESDS - National Ecologically Sustainable Development Strategies (IUCN)

Nest Survey - A way to estimate the size of a bird population by counting the number of nests in a given area.

Nesting habitat - See Spotted owl habitat. - Bioenergy Glossary

NET - National Empowerment Television

NET - National Environmental Trust (Pew-created organization)

NET - Neighborhood Eco-Teams

Net Aboveground Productivity (NAP) - Accumulation of biomass in aboveground parts of plants (trunks, branches, leaves, flowers, fruits) over a specified period. (UN)

Net Abstraction of Water - Difference between water abstracted and water returned. (UN)

Net Annual Growth - The net annual change in merchantable volume for a specific year in the absence of cutting (gross growth minus mortality for that specified year). - USDA/FS

Net Area - The portion of a site that can actually be built upon. The following generally are not included in the net acreage of a site: public or private road rights-of-way, public open space, and flood ways.

Net billing - The arrangement by which the Bonneville Power Administration financed the cost of nuclear power plants. Utilities that owned shares in the projects, and paid a share of the costs, assigned to BPA all or part of the generating capability of the power plants. BPA, in turn, credited the wholesale power bills of those utilities to cover the costs of their shares in the projects. BPA then sold the power output of the plants by averaging their higher cost with lower cost hydropower. - Bioenergy Glossary

Net Duty of Water - Quantity of water needed for producing a given crop. (UN)

Net official assistance - The sum of grants and concessional loans from donor country governments to recipient countries, minus any repayment of loan principal during the period of the loans. - WB

Net Pen Culture - A type of aquaculture where fish remain captive throughout their lives in marine pens built from nets, used by the salmon industry.

Net present value - The sum of the costs and benefits of a project or activity. Future benefits and costs are discounted to account for interest costs. - Bioenergy Glossary

Net Price - Valuation used in environmental accounting to estimate the economic value of a natural resource and its depletion. It is defined as the actual market price of a natural resource output minus all marginal exploitation costs including a normal return to capital. (UN)

Net private flows - Privately financed capital flows that enter a country on market terms, minus such flows that leave the country. An example of a net private flow is net portfolio investment- the value of stocks and bonds bought by foreign investors minus the value of stocks and bonds sold by them. See also portfolio investment. - WB

Net Volume - Gross volume of wood less deductions for rot, sweep, or other defect affecting use for timber products. - USDA/FS

Network - Applies to a chain of interconnected persons, things, operations etc. In classifications, networking could result in reference, derived or related classifications. Exchange of information and knowledge across classifications would be facilitated and implemented if national classifications could be presented as part of the web sites of statistical offices and an international cyber platform on the Internet is used for all the major international classification debates. (UN)

Neutral - An individual, who with respect to an issue in controversy, functions specifically to aid the parties in resolving the controversy. The individual may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee of the Federal Government, or any other individual who is acceptable to the parties to a dispute resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with respect to the dispute, unless such interest is fully disclosed in writing to all parties and all parties agree that the neutral may serve. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Neutralization - Decreasing of the acidity or the alkalinity of a substance through the addition of an alkaline or acidic material respectively. (UN)

Neutral Soil - Soil whose surface is neither acidic nor alkaline in reaction. For strict neutrality, the pH value should be 7.0. (UN)

Neutral soil - A soil having a pH value between 6.6 and 7.3. (See Reaction, soil.) - USDA

New and Renewable Energy Sources - Energy sources including solar energy, geothermal energy, wind power, hydropower, ocean energy (thermal gradient, wave power and tidal power), biomass, draught (draft) animal power, fuelwood, peat, oil shale and tar sands. (UN)

New Economic Zones - Population resettlement scheme undertaken in southern Vietnam after 1975 to increase food production and alleviate population pressure in congested urban areas, especially Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). The sites selected for resettlement previously had been undeveloped or had been abandoned in the turbulence of war. - WB

New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail - The vehicular tour route along existing public roads in the State to promote "public appreciation, education, understanding and enjoyment, through a coordinated interpretive program of certain nationally significant natural and cultural sites associated with the coastal area." The Coastal Heritage Trail is managed jointly by the National Park Service and the State of New Jersey.

New Leasing Regulations - Newly revised long-term leasing authority that combines previously separate historic and non-historic leasing regulations. - DOI/NPS 

New Road Construction - Classified and temporary roads are included in this category. - USDA Forest Service

New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) - Federal standards for very large new sources of air pollution. - Bioenergy Glossary

New Source Review (NSR) - First established under the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (NSR/PSD) is a pre-construction permitting program for large industrial facilities. NSR was designed to hold the line against future emission increases by preventing significant emission increases that could result from major expansions or modifications of the facility. - EPA

New Urbanism - A term used to describe development which focuses on the restoration of urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Newe (or "Shoshone") - Of the people.

Newly Industrializing Countries - The term, originated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), describes nations of the Third World that have enjoyed rapid economic growth and can be described as "middle-income" countries (such as Singapore and the Republic of Korea).

NEXCO - National Association of Exporting Companies

Next Wave - The next business cycle for a COI (Community Of Interest). It is expected that delivery of Next Wave COI Resources will occur during the next COI Cycle, either because of the level of effort and resources required or the timing of the opportunity. - GWOB

Nexus (essential nexus, or the doctrine of "unconstitutional conditions") 1) Nollan v. California Coastal Commission (U.S. Supreme Court 1987) The "government may not require a person to give up a constitutional right -- here the right to receive just compensation when property is taken for a public use -- in exchange for a discretionary benefit conferred by the government where the property sought has little or no relationship to the benefit." (as quoted in Dolan v. Tigard) 2) Penn Central Transportation v. City of New York (U.S. Supreme Court 1978): The Supreme Court upheld regulations of property rights because "the restrictions imposed are substantially related to the promotion of general welfare..." 3) Keystone Bituminous Coal Assn. v. De Benedictus (Justice Stevens U.S. Supreme Court 1986), a low-point of property rights rulings in the U.S. Supreme Court, validated regulatory taking within certain wide parameters to protect a statute that was passed "in order to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the public." This case undid much of the results of Pennsylvania Coal (see Regulatory Taking). Keystone focused on "the economic impact of the regulation, its interference with investment-backed expectations, and the character of the government action." Commenting on the decision Richard A. Epstein wrote, "The effect this reformulation of the problem is, of course, to distance the analysis of the takings question from the original constitutional text that it is to explicate..." "The general principle of eminent domain law has always been, and logically must be, this: What has the state taken, and not what the owner retained," Epstein commented. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

90% Marginal Confidence Interval - Each parameter estimated (time, latitude, longitude and depth) includes an error value (eg. a +/- b). The marginal confidence interval is from a-b to a+b and has been derived so that the true value will fall into this interval 90 percent of the time REGARDLESS OF THE VALUES of other parameters estimated at the same time. - USGS Earthquake glossary

NF - Nature's Fabric

NF - The Needmor Fund

NF - New Frontier

NF - Northeast Farmers (Nebraska)

NFA - National Futures Association

NFAH - National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities

NFAP - National Forestry Action Plan (IUCN)

NFC - National Farm Census

NFC - National Farm Crisis

NFC - Native Fish Conservancy

NFC - Native Forest Council

NFC - Network For Change

NFCPC - National Federation of Coffee Producers of Colombia

NFDRS - National Fire Danger Rating System

NFF - The National Forest Foundation

NFFAO - National FFA Organization

NFH - National Fish Hatchery (USFWS)

N4HC - National 4-H Council

NFHE - Neighbors For Historic Eaton (NY)

NFI - National Flood Insurance (FEMA)

NFI - Natural Features Inventory

NFIB - National Federation of Independent Business, "The voice of small business," 600,000 members

NFIB - National Foundation for Independent Business

NFIP - National Flood Insurance Program (FEMA)

NFLC - National Federal Lands Conference

NFM - Non-Fuel Minerals

NFMA - National Forest Management Act (1976)

NFMP - Nearshore Fishery Management Plan 

NFP - National Fire Plan

NFP - National Forest Plan

NFP - Northwest Forest Plan 

NFPA - National Forest Protection Alliance (The National Forest Protection Alliance is nothing more than a collection of a large number of loosely associated groups that are organized around specific local concerns. There are a hundred or more of these groups -- outfits such as CU Sinapu -- a group dedicated to introducing the gray wolf in Colorado.)

NFPCA - National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (now FEMA)

NFPP - The National Fish Passage Program (DOI/USFWS) 

NFRAP - The archive No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) database contains information on sites that have been removed from the inventory of Superfund sites. Archive status indicates that to the best of the EPA's knowledge, Superfund has completed its assessment of a site and has determined that no further steps will be taken to list that site on the National Priorities List (NPL).

NFS - New Food System

NFU - National Farmers Union

NFW - National Federation of Wildlife

NFWF - National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

NG - National Grasslands

NG - National Guidelines

NG - Next Generation

NGA - National Governors Association

NGC - National Grazing Committee (Sierra Club)

NGCP - No Grain Crop Present (wildlife habitat consideration; i.e., grain is good for wildlife habitat)

NGES - National Governors' Education Summit

NGF - Nebraska Groundwater Foundation

NGFA - National Grain and Feed Association

NGL - Next Generation Leadership

NGLS - Non-Governmental Liaison Service (UN)

NGMB - The None-Game Migratory Bird cost-sharing program (DOI/USFWS)

NGMDB - National Geologic Map Data Base 

NGO - Non-Governmental Organization

NGOWG - Non-Governmental Organizations Working Group (UN)

NGPA - National Grassroots Plan of Action

NGV - Natural Gas Vehicle

NGW - Neutralization of Global Warming

NGWNM - Nongame wildlife in need of management

NH - Natural Habitat

NHA - National Homebuilders Association

NHA - Natural Heritage Assets (DOI)

NHC - National Heritage Corridor (UN)

NHC - Natural Heritage Central

NHCD - Natural Heritage Central Databases

NHD - Natural Heritage Division

NHES - New Hope Environmental Services at the University of Virginia

NHCP - National Handbook of Conservation Practices

NHL - National Historic Landmarks

NHL - Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

NHLA - New Hampshire Lakes Association

NHLA - New Hampshire Landowners Alliance

NHMA - National Houseware Manufacturers Association

NHN - Natural Heritage Network

NHN - Neighbors Helping Neighbors (The United Nations Volunteers program, or UNV)

NHNHI - New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory (A program of the New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands that finds, tracks, and facilitates the protection of the state's rare plants and exemplary natural communities. We -- The Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests -- rely on the program heavily in our land protection and research departments.)

NHP - Natural Heritage Program (TNC)

NHP - Natural Heritage Programs

NHPA - National Historic Preservation Act (1966)

NHPA - National Historic Preservation Act - DOI/NPS/BLM

NHPA - New Hampshire Preservation Alliance (A non-profit dedicated to preserving the state's historic landscapes, the Preservation Alliance is a key partner in the Citizens for NH Land & Community Heritage program.)

NHPRC - National Historical Publications and Records Commission

NHS - National Highway System

NHSHPCS - National Highway System High Priority Corridor System

NHT - National Historic Trail - DOI/NPS/BLM

NHT - Natural Heritage Trust (Australia)

NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NHTSA - National Historic Trails System Act, Public Law 90-543, 16 USC 1241-51 - DOI/NPS/BLM

NHU - No Human Use

NI - National Initiatives

NI - National Information Management Resources Center (government organizational code)

NI - Natural Islands (The Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas)

NIA - National Inholders' Association (now ALRA)

NIC - National Identity Card

NIC - National Institute of Corrections

NIC - Newly Industrializing Country

NIC - Non-Impairment Criteria (BLM-DOI)

NICET - National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies

Niche - Appropriate combination of conditions for the survival of a given species.

Nickel Carbonyl - Highly poisonous volatile liquid formed by the reaction of hot carbon monoxide and nickel. It is found in the emissions of automobiles. The vapor can cause lung cancer. (UN)

NIE - Newspaper In Education

NIEHS - The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) reduces the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes through multidisciplinary biomedical research programs; prevention and intervention efforts; and communication strategies that encompass training, education, technology transfer, and community outreach.

NIEO - New International Economic Order (binding international agreements for development - UN)

Night soil - Contents of cesspools and so forth removed at night, especially for use as manure. (UN)

NIH - National Institute of Health

NIHC - National Invasive Species Council

NII - National Information Infrastructure

NILS - The National Integrated Land System (DOI/BLM and USDA/Forest Service)

NILS - National Integrated Land System. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the USDA Forest Service (FS) have announced the deployment of the GeoCommunicator Web site, an interactive Web-based land information portal that provides a state-of-the-art solution for locating, accessing, and sharing the most current, up-to-date geographic information. The first module of the NILS (National Integrated Land System) project, the GeoCommunicator is located at

NIM - Neighborhood Improvement Manager

NIMBY - Not in My Back Yard

NIO - New International Order

NIS - New Independent States

NIST - The National Institutes of Standards and Technology

NITC - National Information Technology Center 

Nitrate - Nitrogen-containing compound that can exist in the atmosphere or as a dissolved gas in water. It may produce harmful effects on humans and animals. (UN) A nitrogen compound. Nitrate pollution of drinking water, shallow wells being particularly vulnerable, is of concern because infants are particularly sensitive. A nitrate drinking water standard has been set under the Safe Drinking Water Act. An EPA national survey of drinking water wells conducted from 1988 to 1990 indicated that 2.4% of rural domestic wells contained nitrate at or above the 10 mg/L standard. Higher rates of contamination have been found in areas of high vulnerability; for example, surveys along the upper Des Moines River indicate that 20 to 30% of wells exceed the standard.

Nitric Oxide (NO) - Gas formed by combustion under high pressure and high temperature in an internal combustion engine. It changes into nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air and contributes to photochemical smog. (UN)

Nitrification - Biological process involving the conversion of nitrogen-containing organic compounds into nitrates and nitrites. It is part of the nitrogen cycle and considered to be beneficial since it converts organic nitrogen compounds into nitrates that can be absorbed by green plants. (UN)

Nitrites - Nitrous oxide salts used in food preservation. (UN)

Nitrogen - An element found in the air and in all plant and animal tissues. For many crops, nitrogen fertilizer is essential for economic yields. However, nitrogen can also be a pollutant when nitrogen compounds are mobilized in the environment (e.g., leach from fertilized or manured fields), are discharged from septic tanks or feedlots, volatilize to the air, or are emitted from combustion engines. As pollutants, nitrogen compounds can have adverse health effects (see nitrate and air pollution) and contribute to degradation of waters (see eutrophication).

Nitrogen Fixation - A process whereby nitrogen fixing bacteria living in mutualistic associations with plants convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compounds that plants can utilize directly. - UNDP/WRI 2. The transformation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that can be used by growing plants. - Bioenergy Glossary

Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand (NOD) - Quantitative measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen required for the biological oxidation of nitrogenous material, for example, nitrogen in ammonia, and organic nitrogen in waste water. (UN)

Nitrogen Oxide - Product of combustion from transportation and stationary sources. It is a major contributor to acid depositions and the formation of ground-level ozone in the troposphere. (UN)

Nitrous Oxide - Relatively inert oxide of nitrogen produced as a result of microbial action in the soil, use of fertilizers containing nitrogen, burning of timer, and so forth. This nitrogen compound may contribute to greenhouse and ozone-depleting effects. (UN)

NITU - Notice of Interim Trail Use or abandonment

NIWAW - National Invasive Weeds Awareness Week

NJ - Name Jurisdiction

NJC - Neighborhood Justice Center

NJO - National Jewish Organizations

NKEC - Northeast Kingdom Enterprise Collaborative (EZEC)

NLC - National League of Cities 

NLC - Network for Livable Communities

NLCD - National Land Cover Dataset. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have teamed up to compile the first seamless National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) using satellite imagery for the conterminous United States. At 30-meter resolution, the NLCD is the most detailed land cover information ever compiled at a national level. The new CD-ROMs include data for the states east of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Data for the remaining states will be available within the next six months. The first eight CD's of a planned 31-volume disc set contains 21 categories of land cover information across the lower 48 states. These data are used in a variety of national and regional applications, including watershed management, environmental inventories, transportation modeling and land management. For complete details visit 

NLCS - National Landscape Conservation System - DOI/NPS/BLM

NLCS - The National Landscape Conservation System. An 'initiative' Bruce Babbitt launched to 'inventory and protect' components of the Bureau of Land Management.  Map of NLCS: 

NLE - National Library for the Environment

NLIHC - National Low Income Housing Coalition

NLM - National League of Municipalities

NLMC - Nuclear Lake Management Committee

NLMW - Non-Lethal Military Warfare

NLN - The Natural Lands Network

NLP - National Landcare Program

NLPC - National Legal & Policy Center

NLRB - National Labor Relations Board

NLS - No Legal Standing

NLUPC - Nonmetallic Low Unit Price Commodities

NM - National Monument

NM - Notice to Mariners

NM - Nutrient Management

NM - Nutrition Management

NMA - National Mining Association

NMA - Nevada Mining Association

NMA - Northwest Mining Association

NMAO - Non-Motorized Access Only

NMAS - National Map Accuracy Standard

NMBA - National Mitigation Banking Association "Promoting an entrepreneurial approach for restoring America's natural resources." Also: "The National Mitigation Banking Association promotes and encourages the concept of wetland mitigation banking on both a federal and state regulatory level. The general purpose of the Association is to work toward the overall acceptance, use and operation of mitigation banks to satisfy wetland mitigation requirements within the Clean Water Act, state wetland laws and/or local wetland ordinances." Based in Ft. Lauderdale, FL -- although holding the cursor over the NMBA logo on the left side of their links page gives this address: P.O. Box 2867, Alexandria, VA 22301 1-703-549-3311 (Important Note from the NMBA home page: "The April 2003 Newsletter from the NMBA is now available online! Check out the latest missive from NMBA President Rich Mogenson as well as a member spotlight on Craig Denisoff, VP, Wildlands, Inc.")This should offer a clue as to the members that the NMBA is most proud of: Wildlands, Inc., a "primary NMBA contact")  Newsletters, including archives:  The membership list/roster is most interesting 

NMC - Northwest Mining Coalition

NMCGA - New Mexico Cattle Growers Association

NMCLF - New Mexico Coalition for a Livable Future

NMCWL - New Mexico Center for Wildlife Law

NMD - National Missile Defense

NMELC - New Mexico Environmental Law Center

NMFS - National Marine Fisheries Service (now known as NOAA Fisheries) DOI

NMFWA - National Military Fish and Wildlife Association 

NMH - Nations for Mental Health (UN)

NMHS - National Mental Health Services (KEN)

NMM - Non Metallic Mineral

NMMA - National Marine Manufacturers Association

NMMMR - Non-Metallic Mines and Mineral Resources

NMP - National Military Park

NMPAC - The National Marine Protected Areas Center. "The National Marine Protected Areas Center (NMPAC)  and the Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea (COMPASS) --  are working together to provide "one-stop-shopping" for comprehensive information on all ongoing federal and state MPA planning processes on the west coast."

NMPF - National Milk Producers Federation

NMPICRG - New Mexico Public Interest Research Group

NMREP - New Mexico Republicans for Environmental Protection

NMS - National Management Strategy

NN - Nature Nazis

NNHPD - The Navajo National Historic Preservation Department

NNL - National Natural Landmark

NNRF - National Natural Resources Conservation Foundation (The NNRF is a private, nonprofit corporation created under the Farm Bill for the purpose of furthering conservation efforts.)

NO - National Origin

NO - Noise Overlay

No Action Alternative - Required by regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (40 CFR 1502.14). This provides a baseline for estimating the effect of other alternatives. When a project activity is being evaluated, the No Action Alternative is defined as one where current management direction would continue unchanged.

No Jeopardy Opinion - The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service finding that an action is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat. - Everglades Plan glossary

No net cost - A requirement that a price support program be operated at no cost to the Federal Government. The No-Net-Cost Act of 1982 required participants in the 1982 and subsequent tobacco programs to pay an assessment to cover potential losses in operating the tobacco price support program. A no-net-cost provision for sugar, not in effect under the 1996 Act, was initiated under the Food Security Act of 1985. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

No Net Loss Wetlands Policy - An overall policy goal for wetland protection first adopted by the Bush Administration, and more recently by the Clinton Administration. The goal is to halt the decline in the overall number of wetland acres in the country. It refers only to acres and does not compare the functions and values of wetlands gained and lost. Also, this goal does not address the question of whether it is acceptable to destroy some wetlands if at least the same number of acres are created or restored at another site. Currently there are about 100 million wetland acres, compared to about 200 million when the country was first settled.

No Surface Occupancy (NSO) - The term "no surface occupancy" is used in two ways. It is used in one way to define a no surface occupancy area where no surface disturbing activities, of any nature or for any purpose, would be allowed. For example, construction or the permanent or long-term placement of structures or other facilities for any purpose would be prohibited in an NSO area. The other way the "no surface occupancy" term is used is as a stipulation or mitigation requirement for controlling or prohibiting selected land uses or activities that would conflict with other activities, uses, or values in a given area. When used in this way, the NSO stipulation or mitigation requirement is applied to prohibit one or more specific types of land and resource development activities or surface uses in an area, while other - perhaps even similar - types of activities or uses (for other purposes) would be allowed. For example: Protecting important rock art relics from destruction may require closing the area to the staking of mining claims and surface mining, off-road vehicle travel, construction or long-term placement of structures or pipelines, power lines, general purpose roads, and livestock grazing. Conversely, the construction of fences to protect the rock art from vandalism or from trampling or breakage by livestock, an access road or trail, and other visitor facilities to provide interpretation and opportunity for public enjoyment of the rock art would be allowed. Further, if there were interest in development of leasable minerals in the area, leases for oil and gas, coal, and so forth, could be issued with a "no surface occupancy" stipulation or mitigation requirement for the rock art site, which would still allow access to the leasable minerals from adjacent lands and underground. BLM-DOI 2. No structures may be built or placed within an area classified as NSO. The RMP for a particular area should delineate the oil and gas categories throughout the area ranging from Category I-IV, where: I - open, II - restricted, III - NSO, and IV - no leasing. - Bioenergy Glossary

No Surprises Policy - See Habitat Conservation Plan Assurances

No-till Cultivation - A cultivation practice where the soil is left largely undisturbed from harvest to planting. Often, the soil is tilled initially for planting, but then other no-till planting methods are implemented in succeeding years with minimal soil disturbance. Examples of no-till cultivation methods include frost-crack seeding, chisel plowing, drilling, or light disking. - DOI/NPS 

No-till Farming - A method of planting crops that involves no seed bed preparation other than opening the soil to place individual seeds in holes or small slits; usually no cultivation during crop production; chemical weed control is normally used. May also be referred to as slot tillage or zero cultivation.

NOA - Nebraska Organic Alliance

NOA - Notice Of Availability (DOI/BLM)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOAAF - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, formerly known as the National Marine Fisheries Service (DOI)

NOAA Fisheries - Formerly known as the National Marine Fisheries Service (DOI)

NOAH - National Operations & Analysis Hub (US intelligence fusion system)

NOD - Noise Overlay Districts

Node - A concentration of facilities and activities.

NOFA - Notice of Funding Availability

NOHSPCP - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan

NOHVCC - National Off Highway Vehicle Conservation Council

NOI - Notice Of Intent (to formally announce in the Federal Register the intent to prepare and consider an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed project)

Noise - Audible sound at excessive levels that may be detrimental to human health. (UN)

Noise Abatement - Activity to reduce the emission of noise or vibrations from a given source, or to protect persons and built-up structures from exposure to noise and vibrations. (UN)

Noise Pollution - Sound at excessive levels that may be detrimental to human health. (UN)

Noise-Sensitive Lands and Uses - Those areas -- such as mountain parklands, wildlife corridors or nature centers -- or land uses -- such as low density residential -- where noise above a certain level would have adverse effects on humans, as well as on wildlife that may be sensitive to human noises. Such noises may be continuous -- such as freeways or airports -- or intermittent -- such as firearm shooting ranges or temporary construction noise.

Noise Zoning - Classification of areas according to the intensity of the noise levels that are acceptable for particular activities. (UN)

Nomadic livestock - Animals kept by households with no permanent place of residence who are forced by natural circumstances, such as scarcity of water and pastures, or because of climatic conditions to move from place to place. The enumeration of such holdings presents special problems. -FAO UN Glossary

Nomadism - A lifestyle associated with the North Africa/Southwest Asia Realm. They can be found in western Iran, neighboring Pakistan, and Afghanistan, and are people who move with their camels, goats, and other livestock along routes that are almost as old as the human history of this realm. Usually they follow a seasonal and annual cycle, visiting the same pastures year after year, pitching their tents near the same stream.

Nomenclature - Systematic naming of things or a system of names or terms for things. In classifications, nomenclature involves a systematic naming of categories or items. The terms "nomenclature" and "classification" are often used interchangeably, despite the definition of a "classification" being broader than that of a "nomenclature". A nomenclature is essentially a convention for describing observations, whereas a classification structures and codifies the observations as well. (UN)

Nominal Expenditures - Expenditures in national currencies converted to a common currency at exchange rates. (UN)

Nominal indicator - An indicator measured using the prices prevailing at the time of measurement. A change in a nominal indicator sometimes reflects changing market prices more than any other changes (changes in the real indicator). For example, during periods of inflation, nominal wages can increase while their real value decreases. In making cross-country comparisons, this term also applies to the conversion of indicators calculated in local currency units into some common currency, most often US dollars. Nominal indicators are those converted into US dollars using current exchange rates, while real indicators are calculated based on purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors. - WB

Nomination - The process whereby a States Party, or States Parties, to the Convention Seeks to have a property included in the World Heritage List is called nomination. A nomination of a property for inclusion in the World Heritage List must be made by the national government of a country that is a signatory to the World Heritage Convention. The property nominated, must be located on the territory of that State Party. Substantial guidance concerning the preparation of a nomination is provided in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 3- 6, Paragraphs 7-22) and in the nomination form (UNESCO 1995). See Nomination form - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Nomination form - The application form to be used by States Parties when nominating properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List is referred to as the nomination form (UNESCO 1995). Blank copies of the nomination form (UNESCO 1995) are available from the World Heritage Centre. The nomination form is also available electronically via the INTERNET. When nominating properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List, States Parties are requested to submit three copies of the completed nomination form to their UNESCO National Commission and/or Permanent Delegation who should then forward it to the UNESCO World Heritage Centre (UNESCO 1995). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Non-agricultural Development - Development in an agricultural area that is not directly related to agriculture.

Non-Agricultural Sectors - General term, which refers to a combination of home/garden and industrial/commercial/governmental, sectors. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Nonaligned Movement (NAM) - Formed as the result of a series of increasingly structured nonaligned conferences, the first of which met at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in September 1961, the NAM's purpose is to insure the sovereignty and territorial integrity of nonaligned nations. In the 1980s, there were 127 member nations. - WB

Non-attainment - Failure of a geographical area to attain or maintain compliance with ambient air quality standards. (DOI-BLM)

Nonattainment area (NAA) - A geographic area in which air quality is worse than that allowed by federal air pollution standards. - Bioenergy Glossary

Nonbinding - A document, like a Declaration, that carries no formal legal obligations. It may, however, carry moral obligations or attain the force of law as Customary International Law. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Non-chargeable Volume - Timber harvest not included in the allowable sale quantity calculations. (BLM)

Noncommercial Forest Land - Land incapable of yielding at least 20 cubic feet of wood per acre per year of commercial species; or land which is capable of producing only noncommercial tree species. (BLM)

Noncommercial species - Tree species that do not normally develop into suitable trees for conventional forest products because of small size, poor form, or inferior quality. - Bioenergy Glossary

Noncommercial Species - Tree species of typically small size, poor form, or inferior quality that normally do not develop into trees suitable for industrial wood products. - USDA/FS

Noncommercial Tree Species - Minor conifer and hardwood species whose yields are not reflected in the commercial conifer forest land ASQ. Some species may be managed and sold under a suitable woodland ASQ and, therefore, may be commercial as a woodland species. (BLM)

Non-Commercial Vegetative Treatment - The removal of trees for reasons other than timber production.

Noncompetitive Imports - A term used by the Economic Research Service in its reporting of agricultural trade statistics to refer to imports of commodities not produced in the United States. Commodities such as tea, bananas, or coffee are considered noncompetitive imports. In contrast, imported commodities that are also produced in the United States are referred to as competitive imports.

Non compos mentis - A person who has been legally determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind or incapable of transacting or conducting business and managing one's own affairs. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Non-Conforming Element - An element which detracts from or is unsympathetic with the surrounding landscape character.

Non-Conforming Use - See Grandfathering. Village of Valatie v. Lynette Smith N.Y. State Court of Appeals, Justice Simons, March 30, 1994: "The policy of allowing nonconforming uses to continue originated in concerns that the application of land use regulations to uses existing prior to the regulation's enactment might be construed as confiscatory and unconstitutional... While it was initially assumed that nonconforming uses would disappear with time, just the opposite proved to be true in many instances, with the nonconforming uses thriving in the absence of any new lawful competition... In the light of the problems presented by continuing nonconforming uses, this court has characterized the law's allowance of such uses as 'grudging tolerance,' and we have recognized the right of municipalities to take reasonable measures to eliminate them..." (citations omitted) See "Amortization Period" - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Non-Conforming Uses of Land, Structures, Uses of Structures - Buildings, structures, or used of land lawfully occupied at the time of the effective date of an ordinance or amendments thereto, and which do not conform to the use of regulations of the district in which they are situated. These uses may continue and can be sold to a new owner, but can never be expanded, increased, etc., without coming into compliance with the district regulations. Falling under this category, but not limited to it, is Continuation, Enlargement or Alteration, Change in Use, Restoration of Damaged Buildings, Discontinuance and Abandonment, Amortization, Special Provisions and Limitations for Certain Uses, Appeals, and Repairs and Maintenance.

Non-Consumptive Use - The use of a resource that does not reduce the supply. For instance, bird watching is a non-consumptive use of wildlife. Boating, photography, picnicking, and fishing are non-consumptive uses of water.

Non-consumptive Water Use - Water uses that do not substantially deplete water supplies, including, for example, swimming, boating, water skiing, fishing, maintenance of stream-related fish and wildlife habitat, hydropower generation and other uses. - Everglades Plan glossary

Non-conventional Finance - The United Nations has defined non-conventional finance as any financing approach which, by modifying loan terms, guarantees, collateral and/or eligibility requirements, permits low-income households to qualify for and afford housing loans for which they would otherwise be ineligible owing to their limited financial and socio-economic circumstances. In this context, the term "non-conventional" refers to financial mechanisms and not necessarily to institutions. Established institutions, such as building societies, savings and loan associations and housing banks, are likely to have conventional terms for loans. Institutions which are normally or primarily associated with housing finance also have conventional loan terms although many do have various non-conventional techniques. It must also be noted that what is seen as conventional in one country can be non-conventional in another.

Noncultivated cropland. See Cropland. - National Resources Inventory

Nondiscretionary Closures - Areas closed to fluid material development by law, regulation, Executive Order, and Secretarial decision. BLM-DOI

Non-Federal land - Includes all land and water areas where the ownership is by private, municipal, county or parish, state, Indian tribal, individual trust, the Tennessee Valley Authority, or areas under temporary control of a Federal, state, county or municipal agency or government for foreclosure or nonpayment of taxes. - NRI Glossary

Nonfirm energy - Energy produced by the hydropower system that is available when water conditions exceed worst historic conditions and after reservoir refill is assured. - Bioenergy Glossary

Non-forest Land - Land developed for non-timber uses or land incapable of being ten percent stocked with forest trees. (BLM)

Nonforest Land - Land that has never supported forests and land formerly forested where timber production is precluded by development or other uses. - USDA/FS

Nonfunctional Riparian-Wetland Areas - Areas that clearly are not providing adequate vegetation, landform, or large woody debris to dissipate the stream energy of high flows and thus are not reducing erosion, improving water quality, and performing the other functions of an area in properly functioning condition. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Non-Functioning - Riparian-wetland areas that clearly are not providing adequate vegetation, landform, or large woody debris to dissipate stream energy associated with high flows. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Non-game - Wildlife species that are not hunted for sport.

Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) - Organizations formed by people outside of government. NGOs monitor the proceedings of human rights bodies such as the Commission on Human Rights and are the "watchdogs" of the human rights that fall within their mandate. Some are large and international (e.g., the Red Cross, Amnesty International, the Girl Scouts); others may be small and local (e.g., an organization to advocate for people with disabilities in a particular city; a coalition to promote women's rights in one refugee camp). NGOs play a major role in influencing UN policy, and many of them have official consultative status at the UN. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary 2. A non-profit group or association organized outside of institutionalized political structures to realize particular social objectives (such as environmental protection) or serve particular constituencies (such as indigenous peoples). NGO activities range from research, information distribution, training, local organization, and community service to legal advocacy, lobbying for legislative change, and civil disobedience. NGOs range in size from small groups within a particular community to huge membership groups with a national or international scope. - UNDP/WRI

Non-historic Lease - A type of long-term leasing agreement where non-historic properties may be offered through a bidding process whereby the low bidder is awarded the lease. - DOI/NPS 

Nonindustrial Private Forest (NIPF) Land - Privately owned land excluding forest industry land or forest industry-leased land. - USDA/FS

Non-industrial private forestlands (NIPF) under approved Stewardship Management Plans (acres) - The Forest Stewardship Program assists non-industrial private forest landowners on a voluntary, non-regulatory basis to develop long-term Forest Stewardship Plans for the management of their forests and related resources. The indicator is reported as total acreage under Stewardship Plans. - FS

Nonmetropolitan County - A county lying outside a defined metropolitan area (see metropolitan area). - USDA/FS

Non-motile - Not able to move at will. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Non-motorized Vehicle (or Non-motorized Mechanical Transport) - Any contrivance for moving people or material in or over land, water, snow, or air, that has moving parts, and that is powered by a living or non-motorized power source. This includes, but is not limited to, sailboats, hang gliders, parachutes, bicycles, game carriers, carts, and wagons. The term does not include wheelchairs when used as necessary medical appliances, nor does it include skis, snowshoes, non-motorized river craft, sleds, travois, or similar primitive devices without moving parts. BLM-DOI

Non-National Highway System - This includes the remainder of roadways. MATS designates the priorities for improvements to these roads based upon a project priority process used in the development of the MATS Needs List.

Non-Point Source (of) Pollution - Pollution sources that are diffused and without a single point of origin or not introduced into a receiving stream from a specific outlet. The pollutants are generally carried off the land by storm water run-off. The commonly used categories for non-point sources are agriculture, forestry, urban areas, mining, construction, dams and channels, land disposal and saltwater intrusion. (UN) Pollution whose source is not specific in location. The sources of the discharge are dispersed, not well defined, or constant. Rain storms and snowmelt often make this type of pollution worse. Examples include sediments from logging activities and runoff from agricultural chemicals. Water pollution whose sources cannot be pinpointed to a specific outfall or pipe but that can be best controlled by proper soil, water, and land management practices. Oil washed off street during rainstorms is an example of non-point-source pollution. The term "non-point source" refers to water pollution that results from a variety of human land use practices. As a result, non-point source (NPS) pollution is controllable by implementing land management practices that protect water quality as well as economic, social and political interests. These practices often are referred to as best management practices (BMPs). Pollutants that are not discharged or emitted from a specific 'point' source, such as a pipe or smokestack. Non-point water pollutants are often carried from dispersed, diverse sources into water channels by rain-induced runoff. Runoff from streets, open pit and strip mines, and agricultural fields are prominent examples (see agricultural pollution). Non-point source air pollutants (often called fugitive emissions) include small dispersed sources, e.g., fireplace smoke, and uncontained emissions like dust blown from fields and unpaved roads.

Non-recourse loan program - Provides commodity-secured loans to producers for a specified period of time (typically 9 months), after which the producer may either repay the loan and accrued interest or transfer ownership of the commodity pledged as collateral to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) as full settlement of the loan, without penalty. These loans are available on a crop year basis for wheat, feed grains, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, rice, and oilseeds. Sugar processors are also eligible for non-recourse loans. Participants in commodity loan programs agree to store and maintain a certain quantity of a commodity as loan collateral, for which they receive loan funds from the CCC based on the announced commodity-specific, per-unit loan rate. The loans are called non-recourse because, at the producer's option, the CCC has no recourse but to accept the commodity as full settlement of the loan. For those commodities eligible for marketing loan benefits, producers may repay the loan at the world price (rice and upland cotton) or posted county price (wheat, feed grains, and oilseeds). Some commodity loans are recourse loans meaning producers must pay back the loans in cash (mohair, honey, dairy after 2001, and sometimes sugar). - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Non-Renewable Resource - Exhaustible natural resources such as mineral resources that cannot be regenerated after exploitation. (UN) A resource whose total quantity does not increase measurably over time, so that each use of the resource diminishes the supply. Resources that do not naturally replenish themselves within the limits of human time, such as minerals, in contrast to renewable resources such as soil and water. An example of nonrenewable resource, also called a stock resource, important to agriculture is petroleum.

Non-Resident - People living more than 30 miles from refuges.

Non-Road Emissions - Pollutants emitted by non-road engines and non-road vehicles, e.g., farm and construction equipment, gasoline-powered lawn and garden equipment, and powerboats and outboard motors. The Clean Air Act, Section 213, provides that EPA can issue regulations to limit emissions from these sources.

Nonsuitable Commercial Forest Land - Sites that would take longer than 15 years to meet or exceed minimum stocking levels of commercial species. Further classified as suitable woodland Nonsuitable Woodland - All fragile nonsuitable forestland. (BLM)

Nonsuitable Woodland - All fragile nonsuitable forest land and sites that are not biologically and/or environmentally capable of supporting a sustained yield of forest products. (BLM)

Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) - Market access barriers that result from prohibitions, restrictions, conditions or specific requirements and make exporting products difficult and/or costly. The term covers any restriction or quota, charge, or policy, other than traditional customs duties, domestic support programs, discriminatory labeling and health standards, and exclusive business practices which limit the access of imported goods. NTBs may result from government or private sector actions.

Non-Tariff Measures - While there is no specific definition of an NTM, some of the most commonly-used NTMs include import quotas or other quantitative restrictions, non-automatic import licensing, customs surcharges or other fees and charges, customs procedures, export subsidies, unreasonable standards or standards-setting procedures, government procurement restrictions, inadequate intellectual property protection, and investment restrictions. Participants in the Tokyo Round attempted to address these barriers through the negotiations of a number of GATT codes, open for signature to all GATT members. Seven codes were negotiated during the Tokyo Round, covering customs valuations, import licensing, subsidies and countervailing duties, antidumping duties, standards, government procurement, and trade in civil aircraft. Although the Tokyo Round codes had alleviated some of the problems caused by non-tariff measures, overall use of NTMs has increased since conclusion of the Tokyo Round.

Non-timber Forest Product (NTFP) - Nuts, berries, medicines, rattan, bamboo, etc.

Nonuse - Current authorized grazing use (in AUMs) that is not used during a given time period. Nonuse is applied for and authorized on an annual basis. - BLM

Nonvascular Plant - Plants that do not have specialized tissues for conducting water and synthesizing foods, as any moss or liverwort. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

NORA - National Organization of Rural Americans

NORAD - North American Aerospace Defense Command

NORAD - Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation

Nordic Council - Established in 1952, is directed toward supporting cooperation among Nordic countries in communications, cultural, economics, environmental, fiscal, legal, and social areas. Members include: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Council headquarters are in Stockholm, Sweden.

Nordic Ski - Cross-country ski.

NORFED - National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve Act and the Internal Revenue Code

Normal flex acreage - A term given to the 15 percent of a farmer's acreage base that was not eligible for deficiency payments during 1991-95, as mandated by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-508). Under planting flexibility provisions of the 1990 farm act, however, producers were allowed to plant any crop on this normal flex acreage, except fruits, vegetables, and some other prohibited crops. Normal flex acreage no longer exists under the 1996 Act. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Normal Yield - The average historic yield established for a particular farm or area. Can also describe average yields. Normal production would be the normal crop acreage planted multiplied by the normal yield. These measures, required by previous commodity programs, are not required for production flexibility contracts under the FAIR Act of 1996.

Normalized Heading and Codes - This refers to standardization of headings/titles and their codes in the classifications. For example, the titles and use of n.e.c. (not elsewhere classified) categories and the codes given to them, as well as the code ending in zero should normally be standardized, e.g. by using the title of the aggregate group when naming its n.e.c. group, and by using 9 as the last digit for n.e.c. categories and 0 to be equivalent with coding to the higher level, e.g. because the information needed for a more detailed code is not available. Not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.), not elsewhere included (n.e.i.) or not elsewhere specified (n.e.s.) residual category. Applies to a subset of a category (e.g. class, group, etc.) which represents those members of the category that do not belong to any of the other, separately identified, categories. (Note that it should not be used as a 'dump' code for observations for which there is insufficient information to assign a detailed code. Such units should be given a code ending in zero to indicate the appropriate aggregate group.) The significance of the observations (e.g. income, employment etc.) for this category should be relatively low compared to those of the other categories in the same more aggregated group of the hierarchical set. (UN)

NORPAC - North Pacific Canners and Packers

North American Development Bank (NADBank) - The NADBank, to be capitalized and governed by the United States and Mexico, is intended to provide financing related to the North American Free Trade Agreement. The NADBank will finance projects certified by the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and support for community adjustment and investment. Up to 10 percent of NADBank resources may be made available for community adjustment and investment which need not be in the border region.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) - A multilateral trade agreement negotiated by the United States, Canada and Mexico that sets forth agreements to lower and/or eliminate unfair trade barriers that affect the trade of goods and services between the three countries. NAFTA entered into force on January 1, 1994. The agriculture portion of NAFTA effectively is three bilateral agreements; U.S./Mexico, Mexico/Canada, and U.S./Canada. The U.S.-Canada agricultural agreement in NAFTA was negotiated previously as part of the U.S.- Canada Free Trade Agreement.

North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act - P.L. 103-182 (December 8, 1993) approved and implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA pertains to cross-border trade between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. NAFTA substantially eliminated all non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade between the United States and Mexico, generally through their conversion to tariff rate quotas or ordinary tariffs, and maintained the provisions of the United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement on agricultural trade. The law eliminated tariffs on a broad range of agricultural products and provided for a phase-out over up to 15 years for tariffs on other products. A special safeguard provision will apply to certain products, with a designated quantity of imports allowed at a NAFTA preferential tariff rate. NAFTA increases incentives for buying within the NAFTA region.

North American Waterfowl Management Plan - An international program in cooperation with Mexico and Canada to protect, restore, enhance, and manage wetland ecosystems for migratory birds and other wildlife and fish. It was authorized by the North American Wetlands Conservation Act of 1989. This program is administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service, and USDA agencies participate as appropriate.

The North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) - NAWCA is a federal grant program designed to conserve the continent's wetland resources. Every dollar invested in conservation through NAWCA must be matched by funds from state, local, or private sources.

The North American Wetlands Conservation Act (Act) of 1989 (NAWCA) - The North American Wetlands Conservation Act (Act) of 1989 provides matching grants to private or public organizations or to individuals who have developed partnerships to carry out wetlands conservation projects in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.  and 

North American Wetlands Conservation Act - P.L. 101-233 (December 13, 1989), and amended in 1990 and 1994, authorizes a wetlands habitat program; administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service. The law authorizes annual appropriations of up to $20 million to fund a grant program to protect and manage wetland habitats for migratory birds and other wetland wildlife in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. A nine-member council meets periodically to decide which projects to fund. The program encourages private-public cost-sharing projects. It must allocate between 50% and 70% of all funds to projects in Mexico and Canada, and no more than 50% of the U.S. share for projects in these countries can come from federal funds. Agricultural wetlands are not specifically identified in the law, and agricultural interests are not expressly represented on the council.

The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (NAWCC) - NAWCA established the Council to review and recommend project proposals to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission -  - which has the authority to approve funding for projects. The Council is comprised of nine members. The Director of the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Executive Secretary of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation have permanent seats on the Council. Four state representatives -- one from each flyway -- and three non-governmental organization representatives (each from a different non-governmental organization that is an active partner in wetlands conservation) are appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. These members serve 3-year terms. Non-voting ex officio members are also appointed by the Secretary. There are currently two ex officio members representing non-governmental organizations and one each representing Canada and Mexico. The Council meets three times each year. and 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - Members include Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France (which has only partial membership), Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Germany. With the end of the "cold war," NATO's role, originally defense-oriented is being redefined.

Northeast Kingdom REAP Zone - Essex, Orleans and Caledonia Counties of Vermont make up an area known as the "Northeast Kingdom". The three-county region is the most isolated and sparsely populated corner of the state. As a result, it has consistently been the most economically distressed. The countryside is dotted with picturesque villages that have lost their economic foundation, leaving behind poverty and a community infrastructure with few means of support. The Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP), as a pilot program, is established to mitigate the negative effects of a lack of employment opportunities and job losses to rural communities. This REAP is also established to create an environment for communities to find strategies to solve their own problems. The outcomes and lessons learned will help USDA to assist other communities throughout rural America experiencing similar problems. The REAP will document the success of the Northeast Kingdom Enterprise Collaborative and its member's efforts to promote social, economic and community development in the region. The Northeast Kingdom Enterprise Collaborative is committed to the economic and social well being of the Northeast Kingdom and the highest possible quality of life for its people and communities. The Northeast Kingdom Enterprise Collaborative is a non-profit organization incorporated in the state of Vermont. The Board of Directors is inclusive of the community, including low income residents. The Board of Directors will bring a wide variety of public and private individuals and organizations from the area into the planning of the demonstration area. The Snelling Center for Government will provide financial and administrative services for the Northeast Kingdom Enterprise Collaborative.

Northerly - Towards north. When not controlled by definite courses, monuments, or other definite descriptions, usually means due north. This term must always yield to monuments and other definite calls. - Cadastral Data glossary

Northwest Forest Plan (USDA-Forest Service) - The President's Northwest Forest Plan, also known as "Option 9," was adopted in 1994 to guide the management of 24 million acres of federal lands in western Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The Plan came into being after decades of clear-cutting ancient forests harmed species, damaged streams, and degraded the drinking water for millions of people in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, a U.S. federal court ordered the government to stop logging until a strategy was devised to adequately protect and restore the Pacific Northwest's forests and streams for the future. The Northwest Forest Plan was intended to fulfill that goal.

The Northwest Ohio Wetlands Initiative (NOWI) - The Northwest Ohio Wetlands Initiative will be implemented in seven Ohio counties: Erie, Fulton, Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Williams, and Wood. The grant will expand efforts to protect and restore threatened and degraded wetlands and associated uplands in NW Ohio. This is the first landscape-scale conservation effort in this region. Ducks Unlimited applied for and received a $1 million grant from the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) that will support the new wetlands initiative in Ohio. The Northwest Ohio Wetlands Initiative will fund the acquisition, restoration, and enhancement of 4,000 acres of wetland and associated upland habitat.

Norton vs Shelby County - 118 US 425 p 442 "An unconstitutional act is not law, it confers no rights, it imposes; no duties, affords no protection, it creates no office, it is in legal contemplation, as inoperative as though it had never been passed."

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) - Provides financing of project exports from Norway to developing countries for development undertakings which contribute to development and which can be sustained without future external assistance. About 50 percent of Norwegian assistance is bilateral aid; the balance is channeled as multilateral aid through UN specialized agencies and financial institutions, including regional development banks. NORAD bilateral aid includes provisions for Norwegian private industrial sector participation as suppliers of capital equipment and services and technology. A portion of assistance may involve concessional financing for Norwegian project exports, including mixed credits, export credit guarantees, support for training in connection with project exports, and tied co- financing on grant basis with the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. NORAD assistance is subject the OECD's Development Assistance Committee guidelines for development assistance and associated financing. NORAD was established in 1968; headquarters are in Oslo, Norway.

NOS - Naturally Occurring Substance

NOS - National Ocean Service (NOAA and U.S. Dept. of Commerce)

NOS - National Outreach Strategy

NOS - NOAA's National Ocean Service 

Nose slope - The projecting end of an interfluve, where contour lines connecting the opposing side slopes form convex curves around the projecting end and lines perpendicular to the contours diverge downward. The overland flow of water is divergent. - USDA

NOSFs - National Open Society Foundations

Notice - The notification a mining operator must submit to BLM of the intention to begin an operation that will disturb 5 acres or less a year within a mining claim or project area. The intent of a Notice is to permit operations with limited geographic disturbance to begin after a quick review for potential resource conflicts and to eliminate the need for federal action. A Notice requires no special forms, but an operator must submit specific information. BLM must complete its review of the Notice within 15 calendar days of its receipt unless more information is required to determine if the operation would cause unnecessary or undue degradation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Notice Of Intent - A notice in the Federal Register of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement on a proposed action (40 CFR 1508.22).

Notice of intent - A notice that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and considered. The notice shall briefly: (1) Describe the proposed action and possible alternatives; (2) Describe the agency's proposed scoping process including whether, when, and where any scoping meeting will be held; and (3) State the name and address of a person within the agency who can answer questions about the proposed action and the environmental impact statement. 40 CFR 1508.22.

Notice-Level Operation - A mining or exploration operation involving more than casual use but requiring that the operator submit only a Notice rather than a Plan of Operations. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Notice of Noncompliance - An authorized officer's decision, sent to the mining operator and claimant, that (1) details provisions of the regulations that a mining operation has violated and (2) states corrective actions that the operation must take within a specified time. See Record of Noncompliance. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Notification - The term "notification" refers to a formality through which a state or an international organization communicates certain facts or events of legal importance. Notification is increasingly resorted to as a means of expressing final consent. Instead of opting for the exchange of documents or deposit, states may be content to notify their consent to the other party or to the depositary. However, all other acts and instruments relating to the life of a treaty may also call for notifications. [Arts.16 (c),78 etc. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Notification Area - The distance surrounding all or a portion of a lot or tract for which State law requires any adjacent landowner listed on the current tax rolls to be notified upon a request for zoning and certain platting changes.

NOTT - Nature On The Trail

NOW - National Organization of Women

NOW - Northeast Ohio Watershed Council

Noxious Plant - A plant specified by law as being especially undesirable, troublesome, and difficult to control. (BLM)

Noxious Weed - A plant species that is highly injurious or destructive and has a great potential for economic impact. A plant species that is listed as noxious. Undesirable plants that infest either land or water resources and cause physical and economic damage. Under the Federal Noxious Weeds Act of 1974, (P.L. 93-629, January 3, 1975) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service works to prevent noxious weeds from entering the country, and conducts cooperative control/eradication programs with the states. Local governments frequently impose taxes on landowners to carry out noxious weed control programs.

Noxious Weed - A plant species that is undesirable because it conflicts, restricts or otherwise causes problems under management objectives. Not to be confused with species declared noxious by laws concerned with plants that are weedy in cultivated crops and on range. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

NP - National Park

NP - Neighborhood Parks

NP - Neighborhood Preservation

NP - Noise Pollution

NP - Not Published

NPA - National Parks Association

NPAB - National Park Advisory Board

NPC - National Planning Commission

NPC - National Plant Collection (NCCPG) 

NPC - National Press Coverage

NPC - National Project Committee

NPC - Northwest Power Council

NPCA - National Paint & Coatings Association

NPCA - National Parks and Conservation Association

NPCA - National Parks Conservation Association 

NPCI - Native Plant Conservation Initiative (DOI/USFWS)

NPDES - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (EPA)

NPE - No Personal Experience

NPE - No Practical Experience

NPG - Negative population growth 

NPGS - Naval Post-Graduate School

NPL - National Priority List

NPL - The National Priorities List (NPL) is an information and management tool of the Superfund site cleanup process. A specific site is listed on the NPL after the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) screening process has been completed and public comments about the proposed site have been solicited and addressed. - EPA Superfund glossary

NPLGC - National Public Lands Grazing Campaign

NPLGC - The National Public Lands Grazing Campaign (made up of the American Lands Alliance, Center for Biological Diversity, Committee for the High Desert, Forest Guardians, Oregon Natural Desert Association and Western Watersheds Project)

NPO - Non-Profit Organization

NPO - Not-for-Profit Organization

NPOMA - National Parks Omnibus Management Act

NPPC - National Pork Producers Council

NPPC - Northwest Power Planning Council

NPPR - National Pollution Prevention Roundtable (EPA)

NPR - National Partnership for Reinventing Government 

NPR - National Performance Review

NPR - National Public Radio

NPRC - National Property Rights Commission

NPRC - Northern Plains Resource Council - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)

NPS - National Park Service (aka National Core Area Service under United Nations/World Biosphere Management)

NPS - Native Plant Society

NPSP - Non Point Source Pollution

NPSPP - Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention

NPT - The National Park Trust 

NPTO - National Petroleum Technology Office

NPWRC - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 

NR - National Register

NR - National Review

NR - Natural Resource

NR - Neighborhood Revitalization

NRA - National Recreation Area

NRA - National Rifle Association

NRA - Needles (California) Resource Area

NRA - Newlands Reclamation Act

NRB - Natural Resource Base (UNEP)

NRC - The National Resources Committee

NRC - Natural Resources Commission

NRC - Nevada Range Commission

NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

NRCA - National Roofing Contractors Association

NRAC - Natural Resources Advisory Council

NRCC - Natural Resource Conservation Commission

NRCD - Natural Resources Conservation and Development (See RC&D)

NRCS - Natural Resource Conservation District

NRCS - Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly named Soil Conservation Service)

NRD - Natural Resource Damages (NRD) are defined as injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources. The measure of damages under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) is the cost of restoring injured natural resources to their normal condition, compensation for the interim loss of injured resources pending recovery, and the reasonable costs of a damage assessment. - EPA Superfund glossary

NRD - Natural Resource District

NRDA - Natural Resource Damage Assessment

NRDC - National Resources Defense Council

NRDP - National Rural Development Partnership

NRE - National Register Eligible

NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

NREP - Natural Resource Educational Project

NREPA - Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act

NREPA - Northern Rockies Environmental Protection Act

NRF - National Retail Federation

NRG - Northwest Research Group

NRHP - National Register of Historic Places - DOI/NPS/BLM

NRI - National Resources Inventory 

NRI - Nationwide Rivers Inventory (DOI)

NRLC - National Recreation Lakes Coalition

NRM - Natural Resources and Mines - Australia

NRM - Natural Resources Management

NRMLPA - Northern Rocky Mountain Linkage Priority Areas

NRMP - Natural Resources Management Program

NRN - Natural Resource Needs

NRP - Natural Resource Protection

NRP - Natural Rivers Program

NRPA - National Recreation and Park Association

NRPA - National Recreation and Parks Association

NRPA - Natural Resources Protection Act

NRPE - National Religious Partnership for the Environment

NRR - Natural Resource Restoration. Restoring habitats helps ecosystems by removing pollutants and invasive species, re-establishing natural ecosystem processes, and re-introducing native plants and other wildlife. Several programs within NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) are actively restoring injured resources by providing the necessary data, science, tools and long-term monitoring efforts. As a natural resource trustee under the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Oil Pollution Act and the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, NOAA conducts restoration activities along the nation's coastal zones and estuaries. The Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 also mandates NOAA's restoration activities. NOS's Office of Response and Restoration addresses environmental threats to coastal resources that result from oil and chemical spills, chronic releases from Superfund sites, and damage to resources within the nation's marine sanctuaries. It also works with the responsible parties, other NOAA offices, and other agencies to conduct hazardous waste site investigations, assess natural resource damage, and implement coastal ecosystem restoration projects. The office also pursues legal action, if necessary, against those parties responsible for the harm, and works with them to restore damaged resources. In addition, NOS restoration scientists conduct ecological research and test restoration approaches to determine the most effective restorative measures. NOS scientists also have developed several tools using geographic information system technology to build state and local capacities for restoration planning and implementation. These tools include interactive watershed mapping projects and databases. Once restorative measures are implemented, NOS scientists monitor the ecosystem response to allow for adjustments to the restoration approach when necessary. In addition, NOS scientists also help local groups to design monitoring plans that will accurately gauge the success of restoration projects and determine the need for any further action. NOS restoration experts also participate in an interagency restoration council created by the Estuary Restoration Act (ERA) of 2000. With staff from the Restoration Center of NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), NOS supports an interagency workgroup tasked with developing a National Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy. This workgroup coordinates restoration activities with other federal agencies and with private sector partners. In addition, NOS is working to develop monitoring protocols and guidance that will be used to implement the ERA. NOS and NMFS also are developing a database that will help track progress in restoring estuarine habitat. 

NRRI - Natural Resources Research Institute

NRRIPS - Natural Resources Research Information Pages

NRS - Natural Reserve System

NRSI - Natural Resource Scientists, Inc.

NRRCD - Northwest Regional Resource Conservation and Development

NRTF - National Recreational Trails Fund

NRTW - National Right To Work

NRW - New Right Watch (now the Violence Policy Center)

NRWA - National Rural Water Association 

NS - Nation-State

NS - National Scope

NS - National Security

NS - National Seashore

NS - National Sovereignty

NS - Natural Selection

NS - Natural Systems

NS - Nordic Ski

NS&T - NOAA National Status and Trends Program 

NSA - National Scenic Area

NSA - National Security Advisor

NSA - National Security Agency

NSA - National Stewardship Area (Wildlands Project)

NSA - The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer (Africa)

NSAS - Nebraska Sustainable Agriculture Society

NSAS - Nuclear Sealed Authentication System

NSAWG - Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group

NSBA - National School Board Association

NSBP - National Scenic Byways Program

NSCEP - National Service Center for Environmental Publications (EPA). Atlas of America's Polluted Waters Published - EPA has recently published the Atlas of America's Polluted Waters, EPA 840-B-00-002, which include maps showing waters within each state that do not meet state water quality standards. States listed these waters in their most recent submission to EPA, generally, in 1998, as required by section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. This provision of the Clean Water Act requires a "total maximum daily load" or TMDL for each listed water. Over 20,000 waterbodies, including more than 300,000 miles of rivers and streams and more than 5 million lake acres across the country, are identified as not meeting water quality standards. A key feature of the 1998 lists of polluted waters is computer-based "geo-referencing" data that allow consistent mapping of these polluted waters. To better illustrate the extent and seriousness of water pollution problems around the country, EPA prepared this Atlas of state maps that identify the polluted waters in each state. The maps are color coded to indicate the type of pollutant causing the pollution problem. And, bar charts show the types of pollutants impairing stream/river/coastal miles, and lakes/estuary/wetland acres. Copies of the document are available at no charge from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP) in Cincinnati at: 513-489-8190; Fax: 513-489-8695. A copy of the Atlas has also been posted on the TMDL web site for browsing and downloading at: 

NSCUSA - NEW STATES CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Of HUGE significance: notice the all upper case letters. This signifies a CORPORATION, not a country.)

NSDI - National Spatial Data Infrastructure

NSDS - National Sustainable Development Strategy (IUCN)

NSF - National Science Foundation

NSFC - National Science Foundation Coalitions

NSFHWR - National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation

NSGA - National Soybean Growers Association

NSGB - The New Standards Governing Board

NSI - National Security Industries (SAFE - pertains to U.S. food quality)

NSNRC - Northern Sierra Natural Resource Coalition

NSO - No Surface Occupancy (a stipulation on an oil and gas lease) (BLM-DOI)

NSPE - National Society of Professional Engineers (administers the MATHCOUNTS program for 7th and 8th grade students)

NSPS - National Society of Professional Surveyors

NSPS - New Source Performance Standards (EPA)

NSR - New source review (EPA)

NSR/PSD - New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration - EPA, 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments

NSRE - National Survey on Recreation and the Environment

NSRN - National Security Resource Needs

NSRR - New Source Review Regulations (EPA)

NSRS - National Spatial Reference System

NSSM - Non-irrigated Soil Salinity Management

NSSN - National Standards Systems Network

NST - National Scenic Trail

NSTA - National Science Teachers Association

NSTP - Natural Systems Thinking Process

NSTS - Nature's Services To Society

NT - Normal Threshold

NT - No-Till

NT - Nuclear Transfer

NT - Nutrient Trends (USGS)

NTA - National Trappers Association

NTCS - Northwest Timber Chamber Summit

NTEC - National Transportation Enhancement Clearinghouse

NTEC - The National Tribal Environmental Council

NTHP - National Trust for Historic Preservation

NTIABS - National Training Institute for Applied Behavioral Science

NTP - Necktie Party

NTR - Normal Trade Relations

NTS - National Topographic Series

NTS - Nonresident Tracking System

NTSTRM - No-Till and Strip-Till Residue Management

NTT - National Tree Trust

NTTAA - National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995

NTU - National Taxpayers Union

NTU - Nephelometric Turbidity Units

NTV - Independent Russian TV company

NUA - National Uniform Act

NUA - Non Urban Areas

Nuclear Family - A family unit comprising just parents and their children unlike an extended family. (UNESCO)

Nuclear Power Plant - Facility that converts atomic energy into usable power. In a nuclear electric power plant, heat produced by a reactor is generally used to drive a turbine that in turn drives an electric generator. (UN)

Nuclear Waste Pollution - Pollution created by mishandling and inappropriate storage of spent nuclear fuel rods, and pieces of protective clothing and tools that have become contaminated, and by insecure transportation of highly radioactive material over long distances to a processing plant. (UN)

Nuclear Winter - Widespread climatic cooling caused by the probably effect of nuclear warfare on such atmospheric conditions as would reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface. (UN)

NUE - New Urban Ecology

NUEC - Northern Uplands Environmental Corridors

NUFAC - The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (Council) (Forest Service)

Nuisance - Nuisance has historically meant, as noted in Blackstone's Commentaries, "anything that unlawfully worketh hurt, inconvenience or damage." A public nuisance means, according to Blackstone, such an inconvenience or troublesome offense as annoys the whole community in general, and not merely some particular person. A law dictionary published before the last half-century of increasing litigiousness, observed, "The exact amount of annoyance or inconvenience necessary to constitute a private nuisance has never been settled. In general terms, the injury should cause an inconvenience 'materially interfering with the ordinary comfort, physically, of human existence; not merely according to elegant or dainty modes and habits of living, but according to plain, sober, and simple notions.' "(1) It is a great distance from the genuine nuisance of keeping inflammable or explosive substances to today's prosecutable "nuisance" of an unlicensed vehicle parked in a driveway, which affects the physical comfort of no one, often enforced through zoning laws. Jack Down, president of Citizens Against Repressive Zoning (C.A.R.Z.) wrote in an unusual section on junk (and historic) vehicle laws in Planning and Zoning News that any unlicensed car, whether a true classic or antique or the old heap of a poor person, is private property. He gave examples of how nuisance laws are used against the poor. "I feel as an example, that a junk car (and Price v. Junction City, Texas, found that 'even a junk car is protected by the Constitution...'), if 'taken' under a nuisance code, is a full-fledged... Taking. Currently few courts will agree, although there is Bibbe v. Flint (Michigan) in which the judge did support everything I believe in this area."(2) Compare discussion of nuisance in Lucas under Regulatory Taking (1) James C. Cahill, The Cyclopedic Law Dictionary, Chicago 1922, p708, citing 4 Eng. Law & Eq. 15 English Law & Equity Reports, American Reprint (2) Jack Down, "Freedom, Property Rights and Zoning," Planning and Zoning News, July 1996, p9 - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Nuisance blooms - Referring to obnoxious and excessive growths of algae caused by excessive nutrient loading; often due to scum forming cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) that can regulate their buoyancy to float high in the water column to obtain sunlight. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Nuisance Water - Water that is safe, from a human or animal health standpoint, but is unpleasant to use. (UN)

Null hypothesis - The assumption that any observed difference between two samples of a statistical population is purely accidental and not due to systematic causes. - Bioenergy Glossary

NULSUS - Nonconforming Uses of Land, Structures, Uses of Structures

Numeraire - Usually the currency unit of one country is chosen as numeraire for expressing real expenditures and PPPs. The CPD, EKS and Geary-Khamis procedures are all invariant as to which country is the numeraire or base. The numeraire may also be the average of a group, as has been the case in the EEC and the African comparisons. (UN)

Nutrient - Substance, element or compound necessary for the growth and development of plants and animals. (UN)

Nutrient Cycle - Repeated pathway of a particular nutrient or element from the environment through one or more organisms and back to the environment. Examples include the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle and the phosphorus cycle. (UN) The circulation of chemical elements and compounds, such as carbon and nitrogen, in specific pathways from the non-living parts of ecosystems into the organic substances of the living parts of ecosystems, and then back again to the non-living parts of the ecosystem. For instance, nitrogen in wood is returned to the soil as the dead tree decays; the nitrogen again becomes available to living organisms in the soil, and upon their death, the nitrogen is available to plants growing in that soil.

Nutrient, plant - Any element taken in by a plant essential to its growth. Plant nutrients are mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, boron, and zinc obtained from the soil and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from the air and water. - USDA

Nutrient Pollution - Contamination by excessive inputs of nutrient: a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal growth. Sources of nutrient pollution include runoff from fields and pastures, discharges from septic tanks and feedlots, and emissions from combustion.

Nutrition - Food. The essential vitamins, minerals, proteins and carbohydrates essential for a healthy body. (UNESCO)

NVC - Native Vegetation Conservation

NVCS - National Vegetation Classification Standard

NVDA - Non-Violent Direct Action (Greenpeace and others)

NVMS - No Visible Means of Support

NVOAD - National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster

NVSA - Not Visually Sensitive Area

NVSL - National Veterinary Services Laboratories (APHIS)

NWAG - National Water Assessment Group 

NWAIS - Northwest Aquatic Information System

NWC - National Wetlands Coalition

NWC - Northeast Wildlands Coordinator

NWCA - National Wetlands Conservation Alliance

NWCC - National Water and Climate Center (USDA - NRCS)

NWCG - National Wildfire Coordination Group

NWF - National Watershed Forum

NWF - National Wildlife Federation (a link on the VHEMT Links page) Makes connections between wildlife preservation and human population growth.

NWFP - Northwest Forest Plan (Forest Service) 

NWI - National Wilderness Institute

NWI - National Wetlands Inventory

NWI - The USFWS National Wetlands Inventory. The USFWS National Wetlands Inventory launched the Wetlands Interactive Mapper, a web-based, browser-driven system that allows the general public to view digital wetlands data, conduct simple processing (e.g., zoom, pan, identify, etc.) and print a custom map on their desk top printer. Users must have a web browser. Netscape 4.x or Internet Explorer 4.01 work best. The goal of the mapper is to provide information to meet the public's needs concerning their local wetlands and deepwater habitats. It will help people identify potential opportunities and potential problems, set goals, and determine the actions necessary to maintain or improve the "livability" of their communities. The mapper can be found on the NWI web site at  or 

NWIFC - Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission 

NWIS - National Water Information System

NWISWeb - National Water Information System

NWMA - Northwest Mining Association

NWMP - National Weather Modification Projects - In the annual register of National Weather Modification Projects, compiled and published by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) since 1975, twenty-four countries provided information on more than one hundred ongoing weather modification activities in 1999. It should be emphasized that these data only pertain to countries that report such data. Many countries do not report their activities. At least ten more countries are conducting weather modification activities. In the U.S., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reported information about 46 (up from 36 in 1994) ongoing weather modification activities in 10 states in 1998. The federal government sponsored only one of these projects. Twenty-nine projects were for precipitation enhancement. 

NWN - National Watershed Network

NWO - New World Order

NWP - Nationwide Permit (as in NWP 27)

NWPS - The National Wilderness Preservation System (Pew Wilderness Center)

NWQI - National Water Quality Initiative (USDA)

NWQI - National Water Quality Inventory

NWR - National Wildlife Refuge

NWR - Northwest Region

NWR - Nuclear Waste Repository

NWRA - National Water Resources Association

NWRG - Northwest Research Group

NWRS - National Wildlife Refuge System

NWRSAA - The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd, 6683ee)

NWRSIA - The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 

NWS - National Weather Service

NWS - Non-Waterfowl Species

NWSCPP - National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program (now FEMA)

NWSRS, Recreation - Rivers or sections of rivers readily accessible by road or railroad that may have some development along their shorelines and may have undergone some impoundment or diversion in the past. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

NWSRS, Scenic - Rivers or sections of rivers free of impoundments, with shorelines or watersheds still largely undeveloped, but accessible in places by road. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

NWSRS, Wild - Rivers or sections of rivers free of impoundments and generally inaccessible except by trails, with essentially primitive watersheds or shorelines and unpolluted waters. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

NWZ - National Work Zone

NWZSIC - National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse

NYFEA - National Young Farmers Education Association

NYNJTC - New York-New Jersey Trail Conference

NYSE - New York Stock Exchange

free hit counter