FA - Farmers Alliance

FA - Focus Area

FA - Forage Area

FA - Forage Availability

FA - Foran Act (1885)

FA - Force Acts (3) (1870-1871)

FA - Freelance Agitator

FAA - Federal Aviation Administration

FAA - Franco-American Alliance (1788)

FAADS - Federal Assistance Awards Data System (This program is required by Title 31, Section 6102(a) of the U.S. Code, and has been available since 1981. The Bureau of the Census, with oversight by the Office of Management and Budget, is responsible for reporting federal grants, covering more than 600 federal programs, by more than 100 government agencies. Each agency is responsible for reporting grants, each quarter, through FAADS. The data has been all but useless. The FAADS user guide says "FAADS is not a 'database' to be queried. It is a sequential file that can only be 'read' by a custom-written computer program.")

FABP - The Facility of Architecture, Building and Planning

FAC - Food Aid Convention (FAO - UN)

FACA - Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972

Facilitation - Involves the assistance of a third party who is impartial toward the issues under discussion and who works with all participants in a whole group session providing procedural directions on how the group can effectively move through the problem-solving steps of the meeting and arrive at the jointly agreed upon goal. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Facilitator - One who makes it easier for others to accomplish objectives by offering advice and assistance in solving problems. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Fact-finding - Involves the use of neutrals acceptable to all parties to determine disputed facts. This can be particularly useful where disagreements about the need for or the meaning of data are impeding resolution of a dispute, or where the disputed facts are highly technical and would be better resolved by experts. Fact-finding usually involves an informal presentation of its case by each party. The neutral(s) then provides an advisory opinion on the disputed facts, which can be used by the parties as a basis for further negotiation. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Factors of Production - Input used to produce goods and services, for example, capital or labor. (WB-UN)

Factory Farm - See Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

Facultative - The ability to change metabolic pathways (i.e. aerobic and anaerobic) given the environmental conditions. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Facultative ponds - Ponds having an aerobic zone on the top and an anaerobic zone on the bottom. - Bioenergy Glossary

FADL - Foreign Animal Disease Laboratory (Canada)

FAF - Food And Fiber

FAFEI - Freedom Above Fortune Educational Institute

FAH - Fair and Affordable Housing

FAI - Fear of Alien Invasion

FAI - Federal Acquisition Institute (GSA)

FAIR - Food Animal Integrated Research

Fair annual rental - The amount of rental income that a permitted parcel of Indian land would most probably command in an open and competitive market. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Fair Habitat Condition - The condition of a watershed that has been moderately affected by land uses, characterized by the removal or altering in the past of natural riparian vegetation (few large trees) and the presence of only limited amounts of large woody debris, fine sediments above natural levels, some adverse changes in water quality or quantity, and habitat that has only partly recovered or is still decreasing in trend. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Fair market value- "Fair market value" is the money consideration which a buyer would give, and a seller would accept, for property or services, assuming that the buyer is willing to buy and the seller is willing to sell, that both are fully informed as to all facts material to the transaction, and that neither is under any compulsion to act. The definition of "fair market value" used in the larceny statute is, in substance, that used by various professional appraiser organizations, such as the American Institute of Appraisers. 28 O Jur 3d, Criminal Law 2016 Fair market value is the price which would be agreed upon at a voluntary sale by an owner willing to sell, to a purchaser willing to buy. More specifically, fair market value is what the land would bring, not upon a sale in the open market, either for cash or on long-time payments, but when offered for sale in the usual manner, by one who desires, but is not obliged, to sell, and bought by one who is under no necessity of having it, when both are fully aware and informed of all circumstances involving the value and use of the property. 38 O Jur 3d, Eminent Domain 161 The term "fair market value" is defined, for the purpose of the sale or other disposition of land, as a value arrived at by an appraisal made with reference to such redevelopment and reutilization restrictions as may be imposed by the municipal corporation as a condition of sale, or as may be otherwise applicable to the land. 87 O Jur 3d, Taxation 1044 Statutory Definition: RC 5722.07 The amount in cash, or on terms reasonably equivalent to cash, for which in all probability something might be sold by a knowledgeable owner to a knowledgeable purchaser. Several federal statutes state that the federal government should receive fair market value when exchanging or selling federal lands and resources.

Fair market value appraisals - Part 34, Section 7 - Fee areas administered by the Service will be appraised in accordance with standard appraisal procedures in order to estimate the fair market value of each area, as a whole. The evaluation will be premised on an appropriate determination of highest and best use in accordance with existing or potential zoning, the present condition of the land, and the general economic situation in the vicinity....The appraisals will be accomplished by the regional director, using Service staff appraisers or private appraisers contracted by the Service....The only structures that will be included in the appraisal are those that were present at the time of Federal acquisition, and have not been the subject of substantial renovation or modification with Federal funds. Evaluation of improvements will be based on their contributory value to the area as determined by the highest and best use study. Lands occupied by improvements not subject to appraisal will be valued as though unimproved. The appraisals will be reviewed by the Service's review appraisers, and the determination of the regional director as to fair market value shall be final and conclusive, and shall be the basis for computation of revenue sharing payments. Fair market value is determined by means of an appraisal that examines the current market value of similar properties in the same area. USFWS's offer to purchase a specific tract based upon the fair market value cannot be less than the going rate for similar properties in the same area, nor can it be more than the going rate for similar property.

Fair Wage - The level of payment for work done, that recognizes the true value of the work and is proportionate to the retail price received for the completed product. (UNESCO) (Author's note: Who determines and interprets what a "fair wage" is?)

FAL - Focal Area Landscape

Faller - A person who fells trees. Also called a sawyer or cutter. - FS

Fallow Cropland - Cropland left idle during the growing season, sometimes called summer fallow. It may be tilled or sprayed to control weeds and conserve moisture in the soil. The amount of cultivated summer fallow has ranged between 22 and 32 million acres over the past 10 years, or 7 to 10% of the cropland used for crops.

FAME - Framework for Achieving Managerial Excellence

FAMILY - Committee for Fathers and Mothers Independently Living with their Youth

Family (of classifications) - The family of international economic and social classifications is comprised of those classifications that have been internationally approved as guidelines by the United Nations Statistical Commission or other competent inter-governmental boards on such matters as economics, demographics, labor, health, education, social welfare, geography, environment and tourism. (UN)

Family Farm - As defined by USDA regulations, a farm that (1) produces agricultural commodities for sale in such quantities so as to be recognized in the community as a farm and not a rural residence; (2) produces enough income (including off-farm employment) to pay family and farm operating expenses, pay debts, and maintain the property; (3) is managed by the operator; (4) has a substantial amount of labor provided by the operator and the operator's family; and (5) may use seasonal labor during peak periods and a reasonable amount of full-time hired labor.

Family Planning - A health service that helps couples decide whether to have children, and if so, when and how many. (WB-UN)

Famine - Widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area because of shortage of food, usually caused by drought, war, flood, earthquake or other catastrophic event that disrupts food production and distribution. Famines due to natural causes continue to occur but famines often have more to do with human actions than nature. Over the centuries, warfare has been the most common cause. (UNESCO)

Famine - Extreme lack of food. - UNEP Children's Glossary

FAN - Forest Action Network

FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization (UN)

FAOSTAT - The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics http://apps.fao.org/ 

FAP - Federally Assisted Program(s)

FAP - Final Action Plan

FAP - Forest Action Plan

FAP - Funding At Par (Alexander Hamilton)

FAPEL - Federation of Associations for the Protection of the Environment of Lakes

FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations

FARC - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

FARM - Farm Animal Reform Movement

FARM - Farmers Against Regulatory Madness

FARM - Families Against Rural Messes

Farm - A property composed of a farmstead and its associated fields. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Farm - As defined for purposes of the Census of Agriculture since 1978, a farm is any place that has, or has the potential to produce, $1,000 or more in annual gross sales of farm products. According to the 1992 Census of Agriculture, there are about 1.925 million farms in the United States. This number includes all farm sizes and ownership structures, including corporate farms, partnerships, and family farms.

Farm Bill - See 2002 Farm Bill.

Farm Equity - The net worth of the farm sector's assets (i.e., farmland, machinery, equipment, facilities, crop and livestock inventories) against which there is no debt. This represents all farm proprietors' residual claims to farm assets. Increases in farm equity in the late 1970s became increasingly important for most agricultural producers as a source of additional collateral against which to obtain credit for operating and expansion purposes. The level of farm equity ranges widely from one farm to another and reflects the extent to which an individual producer has borrowed.

Farm Income - Several measures are used to gauge the earnings of a farming operation over a given period of time: Gross cash income is the sum of all receipts from the sale of crops, livestock, and farm related goods and services as well as all forms of direct payments from the government. Gross farm income is the same as gross cash income with the addition of non-money income, such as the value of home consumption of self-produced food and the imputed gross rental value of farm dwellings. Net cash income is gross cash income less all cash expenses such as for feed, seed, fertilizer, property taxes, interest on debt, wages to hired labor, contract labor and rent to non-operator landlords. Net farm income is gross farm income less cash expenses and non-cash expenses, such as capital consumption, perquisites to hired labor, and farm household expenses. Net farm income is a longer-term measure of the ability of the farm to survive as a viable income-earning business, while net cash income is a shorter-term measure of cash flow.

Farm Operator - A person who operates a farm, either by doing or supervising the work or by making the day-to-day management decisions. Nationally, farm operators own about 57% of their land and lease or rent the remainder.

Farm Price - The price farmers receive for the commodities they market. Sometimes the term farm-gate price is used to emphasize that the price does not include transportation or processing costs.

FARMS - Facilitating Agricultural Resource Management Systems Program

Farm Size - Although a standard definition is not available, the most common way to measure farm size is by the value of gross farm sales. USDA defines small farms as those having less than $50,000 in sales annually, representing 73% of the 2.1 million farms counted in 1992. It considers the remaining 27% of all farms (with sales of $50,000 or more) to be commercial farms. Although the 558,000 commercial farms counted in 1992 were a relatively small portion of all farms, they accounted for 88% of gross farm sales.

Farmed Wetland - Under the swampbuster program, these are wetlands that were partially drained or altered to improve crop production before swampbuster was enacted as part of the December 23, 1985, farm law. Farmed wetlands may be farmed as they were before the 1985 date, and the drainage that was in place before that date could be maintained, but no additional drainage is allowed.

Farmer - According to the USDA, anyone who sells more than $1,000 in agricultural commodities--one horse or 250 bushels of wheat--is a farmer.

Farmland - Land used for agricultural purposes. The federal government recognizes prime farmland and unique farmland as the most important categories. According to USDA, the United States has had roughly 1 billion acres of farmland. Farmland consists of cropland, pastureland, and grazing land.

Farmland Preservation Program - A voluntary program as defined in the Agriculture Retention and Development Act "which has as its principal purpose the long-term preservation of significant masses of reasonably contiguous agricultural land within agricultural development areas, and the maintenance and support of increased agricultural production as the first priority of that land," including programs for the purchase of development rights, easements and deed restrictions and programs for financial assistance subject to approval by the State Agriculture Development Committee.

Farmland - Indian land, excluding Indian forest land, that is used for production of food, feed, fiber, forage, and seed, oil crops, or other agricultural products, and may be either dry land, irrigated land, or irrigated pasture. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. Agricultural land or farmland can include cropland, rangeland, pastureland, forestland and other rural land. Acres enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program are included in the category "other rural land." Between 1982 and 1992, cropland acreage nationally decreased by 39 million acres (most went into the CRP), rangeland by 10 million acres and pasture land by 6 million acres. The total acreage of non-federal rural land decreased from 1,408,936,000 acres in 1982, to 1,390,774,000 acres in 1992. Of that, 334 million acres were prime farmland. [source: USDA-SCS 1992 NRI]

Farmland of local importance - In some local areas, there is a need for certain additional farmlands for the production of food, feed, fiber, forage and oilseed crops, even though these lands are not identified as having national or statewide importance. Where appropriate, these lands are to be identified by the local agency or agencies concerned. In places, additional farmlands of local importance may include tracts of land that have been designated for agriculture by local ordinance. [Source: USDA-SCS Soil Survey Land Classification and Interpretive Groups, November 1993]

Farmland of statewide importance - Land, in addition to prime and unique farmland, that is of statewide importance for the production of food, feed, fiber, forage and oilseed crops. [The] criteria for defining and delineating this land is to be determined by the appropriate state agency or agencies. Generally, additional farmlands of statewide importance include those that are nearly prime farmland and that produce high yields of crops in an economic manner when treated and managed according to acceptable farming methods. Some may produce as high a yield as prime farmlands if conditions are favorable. In some states, additional farmlands of statewide importance may include tracts of land that have been designated for agriculture by state law. [USDA-SCS Soil Survey Land Classification and Interpretive Groups, Nov. 1993]

Farmland Protection - Programs, operated mostly at state and local levels by government agencies or private entities such as land trusts, that are designed to limit conversion of agricultural land to other uses that otherwise might have been more financially attractive to the landowner. Every state has at least one such program; the most popular programs are tax relief through preferential or differential assessment, and right-to-farm laws. Easements are used in some states.

Farmland Protection Program (FPP) - FPP provides funding to purchase permanent easements to insure that agricultural land is kept in use for agriculture. It specifies that non-profit organizations are eligible entities for program participation.

Farmland Protection Program (FPP) - A program established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to fund the purchase of conservation easements of 170,000-340,000 acres of land having prime or unique soil or other desirable production qualities that are threatened by urban development. Eligibility depends upon already having a pending offer from a state or local government to protect qualifying land by limiting nonagricultural use. USDA is authorized to use up to $35 million of funds from the CCC. During the first year of operation, USDA awarded almost $15 million to 18 states to protect an estimated 50,000 acres of farmland.

Farmstead - A complex of farm-related buildings such as a house, barns and outbuildings. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Farmsteads and ranch headquarters - A Land cover/use category that includes dwellings, outbuildings, barns, pens, corrals and feedlots next to buildings, farmstead or feedlot windbreaks, and family gardens associated with operating farms and ranches. (Commercial feedlots, greenhouses, poultry facilities, overnight pastures for livestock, and field windbreaks are not considered part of farmsteads.) - National Resources Inventory

FAS - Federal agency staff/staffing

FAS - Federation of American Scientists (Formless self, all humankind, creating a Supra-historical history)

FASB - The Financial Accounting Standards Board

FASFR - Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Program

Fast intake - The rapid movement of water into the soil. - USDA

Fast Track Authority - A legislative procedure that may be adopted by Congress for considering bills to implement trade agreements. The procedure calls for consultation between the President and Congress as trade agreements are negotiated. Normally, once an implementing bill is introduced, it may not be amended, time for debate is limited, and the bill is subject to an up or down vote.

Fatality - Death. - UNEP Children's Glossary

FATASS - Federal Aviation Transportation And Security Services

Fatigue - Natural deterioration or loss of strength in a material. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

FATF - Financial Action Task Force

FATF - Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (Senate Sec. 362)

FATF - Focus Area Task Force

Fault - A geologic fracture or a zone of fractures along which there has been movement (off set) of one side relative to the other. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Fault Spring - A spring that originates where there is a fault in the rock layer.

Fault Zone - A delineated area assumed to be underlain by active or potentially active fault rifts. Proposed development within such areas may require detailed geologic investigation and specialized seismic design and construction. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Fauna - The animal life of an area. Animals, including lesser forms such as insects, mites, etc.

Faunal - Describing animals of a specified region or time.

FAZ - Forest Area Zones

FB - Farm Bill (1985)

FB - Farm Bloc

FB - Farm Bureau

FB - Field Borders

FB - Fire Break

FB - Food Production & Consumption Basins (Food Basins)

FB - Freedmen's Bureau

FBA - Flexible and Balanced Approach

FBC - Fish and Boat Commission

FBC - Fluidized Bed Combustion

FBF - Francis Beidler Forest (South Carolina)

FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation

FBIC - Florida Biotic Information Consortium. The LFNH database is an integrated statewide environmental database on Florida animals, plants, habitats and ecosystems that accesses bibliographic information from the state university libraries, bibliographic information from a customized bibliography created from comprehensive reference sources, full text database comprising 200 publications, and specimen information from the Florida Museum of Natural History records. It is searchable by keyword, specimen common name, specimen scientific name, and (eventually) by geographic location using name or coordinates. [PALMM (Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Materials - a digital library of the Florida university libraries) project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.] http://palmm.fcla.edu/lfnh/related/fbic/FBICdatabases.html 

FBO - Faith-Based Organizations

FBOR - Forest-Based outdoor recreation (USDA Forest Service)

FBP - The Florida Biodiversity Project, part of a coalition of environmental and animal welfare organizations that intervened in the lawsuit to help the federal government defend the management plan. The coalition also includes National Parks Conservation Association, The Fund for Animals, Wildlands CPR, The Wilderness Society, American Lands, Biodiversity Legal Foundation, Bluewater Network, Defenders of Wildlife, Humane Society of the United States and the Sierra Club. http://www.commondreams.org/news2001/0320-12.htm 

FBRNPSSP - French Broad River Non-Point Source Stakeholders Project (Land-of-Sky Regional Council)

FBS - Farmland Buying Strategies

FBT - Favorable Balance of Trade

FBU - Frequent Beef Users

FC - Fenton Communications

FC - Field Crops

FC - Fire Control

FC - Fireside Chat

FC - Flood Control

FC - Flyover Country

FC - Flyway Councils

FC - Foregone Conclusion

FC - Forestry Conclave

FC - Foster Care

FC - Foundation Center

FC - Foundation Coalition

FC - Foundational Concepts

FC - Friends Connect (National Wildlife Refuge Association)

FC - Functional Classifications

FCA - Farm Credit Administration

FCA - Flood Control Act (1936)

FCB - Forum on Central Banks (BIS)

FCC - Fairbury Cedar Club

FCC - Federal Communications Commission (1934)

FCCC - Framework Convention on Climate Change

FCD - Flood Control Districts

FCECT - French Congress of Elementary School Teachers

FCF - Free Congress Foundation

FCFC - Family and Children First Council (created by Ohio Governor Voinovich's Executive Order 92-212V in 1992)

FCI - Facilities Condition Index

FCI - Foreign Capital Investing

FCIA - Federal Crop Insurance Act

FCIC - Federal Citizen Information Center

FCN - Farm Crisis Network

FCNRB - The Ferry County Natural Resource Board (Washington state)

FCP - Flood Control Policy

FCP - Flood Control Project

FCPA - Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

FCR - Farmland Conversion Rate

FCR - Forest Community Research (CALFED)

FCRPS - Federal Columbia River Power System (Bonneville Power Administration)

FCSFP - The Four Corners Sustainable Forest Partnership

FCSCS - Freedom of Commercial Speech and Consumer Choice

FCT - Federal Candidate Taxa

FCT - Florida Communities Trust (TPL - Trust for Public Land)

FCT - Futile Care Theory (medical)

FCTO - The Federation of Connecticut Taxpayer Organizations, Inc. http://www.ctact.org 

FCUSA - Fur Commission USA

FD - Facilitated Discussions

FD - Faculty Development

FD - Fiduciary Duty

FD - Field Ditch

FD - Fifth Discipline

FD - Floodwater Diversion

FD - Foreign Dependence

FD - Freeport Doctrine

FDA - United States Food and Drug Administration

FDAA - Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (now FEMA)

FDC - Federal District Court

FDE - Foliage Density Evaluation

FDE - Foundation for Deep Ecology /Megatechnology & Globalization Program (William Devall)The mission of the Foundation for Deep Ecology (FDE) is to support education, advocacy, and legal action on behalf of wild Nature and in opposition to the technologies and developments that are destroying the natural world. FDE carries out this mission through grants to non-profit groups leading efforts to protect and restore big wilderness, making farming more compatible with biological diversity, and stop the homogenization of the world by the global industrial economy.

FDE - The Foundation for Deep Ecology (just north of the Presidio at Sausalito, California) We accept that true ecological sustainability may require a rethinking of our values as a society. Present assumptions about economics, development, and the place of human beings in the natural order must be reevaluated. If we are to achieve ecological sustainability, Nature can no longer be viewed only for its commodity value; it must be seen as a partner and model in all human enterprise. The mission of the Foundation for Deep Ecology (FDE) is to support education, advocacy, and legal action on behalf of wild Nature and in opposition to the technologies and developments that are destroying the natural world. FDE carries out this mission through projects, publications, public programs, and grants to non-profit groups leading efforts to protect and restore big wilderness, making farming more compatible with biological diversity, and stop the homogenization of the world by the global industrial economy. The Foundation is currently increasing its attention on land acquisition in South America as a leading form of wildlands conservation. http://www.deepecology.org/directory.html  and http://www.deepecology.org/mission.html  and http://nj.npri.org/nj00/02/nca_infamy.htm 

FDGC - The U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee

FDF - Fundamentally Different Factors

FDI - Foreign Direct Investment

FDIC - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (1933)

FDL - Final Determination Letter

FDM - Freeze-Dried Material

FDM - Fully Decomposed Material

FDP - Forest Development Plan

FDQA - Federal Data Quality Act of 2000

FDR - Forest Development Road

FE - Farming on the Edge

FE - Forest Ethics

FE - Fugitive Emissions

FEAR - False Evidence Appearing Real

FEAR - Finding Excuses and Reasons

FEAR - Forfeiture Endangers American Rights (http://www.fear.org)

Feasibility Study (FS) - A study which identifies and evaluates site cleanup alternatives, and analyzes the technologies and their benefits, limitations, and costs. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Feasibility Study - The phase of a project whose purpose is to describe and evaluate alternative plans and fully describe a recommended project. - Everglades Plan glossary

Feature mapping - The accurate recording of all features in a structure, including the observable imperfections of fabric, as a base for future preservation work or measuring the rate of change in physical condition. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

FEC - Federal Election Committee

Fecal Coliforms - Naturally occurring bacteria in the intestines of mammals (including humans) and birds. Their presence is an indicator of contamination by sewage waste in water quality monitoring and is the recommended bacterial indicator for assessing risk to human health. Although fecal coliforms are not pathogenic (a cause of disease), their presence is an indication that pathogenic bacteria and viruses may also be present. (UNESCO)

FED - Fear of Ecological Disaster

Federal agency - Any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States. - ESA

The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 - Authorized construction of the U.S. Interstate Highway System, increasing the demand for aggregates, cement and steel.

Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (1996 Act) (P.L. 104-127) - The omnibus food and agriculture legislation signed into law on April 4, 1996, that provided a 7-year framework (1996-2002) for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs. The 1996 Act fundamentally redesigns income support and supply management programs for producers of wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, rice, and upland cotton. Production flexibility contract payments are made available under Title I of the 1996 Act (see the Agricultural Market Transition Act). Acreage reduction programs are not in effect through 2002. Dairy price supports using government purchases are to be replaced by a commodity loan program, and Federal milk marketing orders are revised and consolidated under the Act. Program changes are also made for sugar and peanuts. Trade programs are more targeted and environmental programs are consolidated and extended in the 1996 Act. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Federal Candidate Taxa - A classification category for those threatened, endangered and sensitive plants or animals listed in the Federal Register (9-27-1985), and other plants recommended for addition to the Federal Candidate list.

Federal Crop Insurance Program - A subsidized insurance program providing farmers with a means to manage the risk of crop losses resulting from natural disasters. With the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994, coverage is classified as "catastrophic" (CAT) or "additional." CAT coverage guarantees 50 percent of a farmer's average yield, at 55 percent of the expected price for a nominal processing fee. Additional coverage, sometimes called "buy-up," provides higher levels of coverage. The 1996 Act continues the Federal Crop Insurance Program, but eliminates the requirement that producers purchase crop insurance to be eligible for farm program benefits. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Federal Data Quality Act - (A Useful Tool, by Fred Kelly Grant) Congress has provided a process through which farmers and ranchers can challenge the scientific basis for agency decisions which restrict their operations. The little known Data Quality Act provides that all federal agencies must establish guidelines by which their decisions can be challenged specifically on the basis that inaccurate, incomplete, scientifically unsound data has been used as a decision base. The Guidelines are required to be in place by October 1, 2002. Some of the agencies are attempting to evade the congressional mandate by creating exemptions for their most critical decisions. All natural resource users should become aware of the Act, the Guidelines issued by the agencies and the method for filing a complaint as to the quality of the agency data. Had this Act been in place, the unsound conclusions, which resulted in shutting off irrigation water in the Klamath Basin could have been specifically challenged within the agencies themselves. But, the Act must be used. That requires all farmers and ranchers to become familiar with its terms and its processes. To read the Act (specifically Title V, sections 515-518): http://www.stewardsoftherange.org/tempfiles/dataquality.pdf 

Federal Farmland Protection Policy Act (1981) - as amended: Minimizes the extent to which Federal programs contribute to the unnecessary and irreversible conversion of farmland to nonagricultural uses.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) of 1938 - P.L. 75-717 (June 25, 1938) is the basic authority intended to ensure that foods are pure and wholesome, safe to eat, and produced under sanitary conditions; that drugs and devices are safe and effective for their intended uses; that cosmetics are safe and made from appropriate ingredients; and that all labeling and packaging is truthful, informative, and not deceptive. The Food and Drug Administration is primarily responsible for enforcing the FFDCA, although USDA also has some enforcement responsibility. The EPA establishes limits for concentrations of pesticide residues on food under this Act.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) - This agency oversees the process of planning, designing and constructing federally funded highway projects.

Federal Highway Beautification Act (FHBA) - The legislation regulating the construction of signage on the Interstate and Federal-Aid primary highway systems. NPS - DOI

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act - 7 U.S.C. s/s 136 et seq. (1972) The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. EPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users (farmers, utility companies, and others) to register when purchasing pesticides. Through later amendments to the law, users also must take exams for certification as applicators of pesticides. All pesticides used in the U.S. must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Registration assures that pesticides will be properly labeled and that if in accordance with specifications, will not cause unreasonable harm to the environment.

Federal land - A land ownership class designating land that is owned by the Federal Government. It does not include, for example, trust lands administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs nor Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) land. No data are collected for any year that land is in this ownership. [NRI-97] - NRI Glossary 2. Land owned by the United States, without reference to how the land was acquired or which federal agency administers the land, including mineral or coal estates underlying private surface. - BLM See Ownership. - National Resources Inventory

Federal Land Bank (FLB) - Part of the Federal Farm Credit System. Provides long term loans to farmers and ranchers only for various agricultural purposes.

Federal Land Policy And Management Act Of 1976 (FLPMA) - The U.S. act that (1) sets out for the Bureau of Land Management standards for managing public lands, including land use planning, sales, withdrawals, acquisitions, and exchanges; (2) authorizes the setting up of local advisory councils representing major citizens groups interested in land use planning and management; (3) establishes criteria for review of proposed wilderness area; and (4) provides guidelines for other aspects of public land management such as grazing.

Federal Lands County - A county in which Federal lands made up 30 percent or more of the area in 1987. - USDA/FS

Federal milk marketing orders - Regulations issued by the Secretary of Agriculture specifying minimum prices that processors must pay for milk and other conditions under which milk can be bought and sold within a specified area. The orders classify and fix minimum prices according to the products for which milk is used. The 1996 Act required consolidation of the Federal milk marketing orders into 10-14 regional orders, down from 33. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Federal Noxious Weed Act (1990) - Requires the use of integrated management systems to control or contain undesirable plant species, and an interdisciplinary approach with the cooperation of other Federal and State agencies.

Federal Records Act (1950) - Directs the preservation of evidence of the government's organization, functions, policies, and decisions. operations, and activities, as well as basic historical and other information.

Federal Register - Each federal working day, the Federal Register publishes current Presidential orders or directives, agency regulations, proposed agency rules, notices and other documents that are required by statute to be published for wide public distribution. USDA publishes its rules, notices and other documents in the Federal Register.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act - A federal regulatory law administered by the states. The act created the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. - Bioenergy Glossary

Federally Endangered Species - An Endangered Species which is officially designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Marine Fisheries Service and published in the Federal Register. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Federation (or Federal state) - A political framework wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests-defense, foreign affairs, and the like, yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities, and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres.

FEE - Foundation for Economic Education

FEE - Friends of the Earth Europe

Fee - An estate of inheritance in land. - Cadastral Data glossary

Feedstock - Any material which is converted to another form or product. - Bioenergy Glossary

FEELDS - Farm Employers Education and Legal Defense Service

Fee interest - An interest in land that is owned in unrestricted fee status, and is thus freely alienable by the fee owner. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Fee Simple - An estate of inheritance in land without qualifications or restrictions as to the persons who may inherit it as heirs. Also called an "absolute fee" or a "fee title". Denotes absolute ownership. - Cadastral Data glossary

Fee simple - Absolute ownership of real property with unrestricted right of disposition. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Fee Title - The acquisition of most or all of the rights to a tract of land. Three is a total transfer of property rights with the formal conveyance of title. While a fee title acquisition involves most rights to a property, certain rights may be reserved or not purchased, including water rights, mineral rights, or use reservation, i.e. the ability to continue using the land for a specified time period, or the remainder of the owner's life. (Authors note: Who pays the taxes?)

FEI - Free Enterprise Institute

FEI - Friends of the Earth International

FEIR - Final Environmental Impact Report

FEIS - Final Environmental Impact Statement

FEIS - Fire Effects Information System (database)

FEL - Free Electron Laser

Fell - To cut down a tree. Cutting down trees and sawing them to manageable lengths is referred to as "felling and bucking" or "falling and bucking." - Bioenergy Glossary

Feller-buncher - A self-propelled machine that cuts trees with giant shears near ground level and then stacks the trees into piles to await skidding. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fellfield - Type of tundra that is thirty-five to fifty percent bare rock, with cushion plants, mosses, and lichens between. (NPS)

FEM - Fibrous Emitted Material

FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency

Fen - An area of wet peat that is typically alkaline due to ground water draining from surrounding calcareous rocks. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

FEOL - Florida Environments Online http://palmm.fcla.edu/lfnh/support.html 

FEP - Fisheries Enhancement Program

FEP - Fisheries Enhancement Project

FEP - Free Enterprise Press

FEPC - Fair Employment Practices Committee

FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FERM - Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Management

Fermentation - The biological conversion of biomass by yeast or sugar. The products of fermentation are carbon dioxide and alcohol. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fertigation - A term coined for application of fertilizers in irrigation waters, usually through sprinkler systems.

Fertile - Capable of producing fruit or spores. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Fertility - Capable of producing new life -- fertile. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Fertility, soil - The quality that enables a soil to provide plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper balance, for the growth of specified plants when light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth factors are favorable. - USDA

Fertilizer - Substance that provides plant nutrients when added to soil. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Fertilizer - Any organic or inorganic material, either natural or synthetic, used to supply elements (such as nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O)) essential for plant growth. If used in excess or attached to eroding soil, fertilizers can become a source of water pollution.

FET - Foundation on Economic Trends

Fetch - The open area and distance across a body of water in which wind can exert energy on waves to increase their strength of impact on the shoreline.

FEWS - Famine Early Warning System

FET - Foundation on Economic Trends

FEW - Fellowship of Eternal Warriors

FEZ - Federal Empowerment Zone

FF - Factory Farms

FF - Family Farmer

FF - Family Foundation

FF - Fatally Flawed

FF - Federal Funding

FF - Forum for the Future

FF - Founding Fathers (1787)

FF - Four Freedoms (1941-freedom of speech, religion, from want and fear)

FF - Frontiers of Freedom

FF - Fully Funded

FF - Future Farmers

FFA - Family Farm Alliance

FFA - Farmers For Action (Great Britain)

FFA - Future Farmers of America

FFCFS - Farm Folk/City Folk Society

FFF - Fact, Fantasy, Fear, Future of Freedom Foundation

FFF - The Future of Freedom Foundation

FFG - Flexible Funding Grants (DOI/USFWS)

FFI - Fact-Finding Investigation

FFI - Flora and Fauna International

FFI - Free Flow of Ideas

FFI - Full Field Investigation

FFIS - Federal Funds Information for States

FFP - Farmed Flood Plain

FFP - Federal Funding Program

FF/PFUSA - Frontiers of Freedom/People For the USA

FFPPA - Federal Farmlands Protection Policy Act

FFRRO - EPA's Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO) facilitates faster, more effective, and less costly cleanup and reuse of Federal facilities. FFRRO works with the DOD, DOE, and other Federal entities to help them develop creative, cost-effective solutions to their environmental problems.

FFS - Federal Financial System

FFW - Farms For Wetlands

FFY - Federal Fiscal Year

FFZ - Fracture Fill Zone

5G - Five Genders (heterosexual men, heterosexual women, homosexual men, homosexual women, and transsexuals)

FG - Focus Group

FG - Forest Guardians

FG - Foundation Grant

FGDC - Federal Geographic Data Committee (involved with The Nature Conservancy)

FGDC - The Federal Geographic Data Committee (member of the Western Governors' Association)

FGDC - Federal Geographic Data Committee http://www.fgdc.gov/ 

FGF - Fierce Green Fire

FGF - Full Global Framework

FGP - Federated Giving Program

FH - Fish Hatchery

FHA - Farmers Home Administration

FHA - Federal Housing Administration

FHC - Fish Health Centers

FHM - Forage Harvest Management

FHMLC - Federal Home Mortgage Loan Corporation (a private corporation, not a government agency)

FHR - Fear, Hate and Revenge

FHR - Fish Habitat Reserves

FHR - Friends of the Hay Refuge (New Hampshire)

FHST - Federation of High School Teachers

FHU - Future Habitat Units

FHWA - Federal Highway Administration

FI - Farmland Industries

FI - The Fertilizer Institute

FI - Fraser Institute

FI - Freeman Institute

FI - Freshwater Initiative (TNC)

FIA - Federal Insurance Administration (now FEMA)

FIA - Futures Industry Association, Incorporated

Fibric soil material (peat) - The least decomposed of all organic soil material. Peat contains a large amount of well-preserved fiber that is readily identifiable according to botanical origin. Peat has the lowest bulk density and the highest water content at saturation of all organic soil material. - USDA

FIC - Federal Consumer Information Center http://fic.info.gov/ 

FICMNEW - The Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious & Exotic Weeds

FID - Fraudulent Information Delivery

FIE - Frontiers In Education Conference (1998)

FIELD - Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (UN)

Field - Generally refers to the area or sphere of operation, observation, activity etc. In classifications, field could describe the scope of individual classifications or their constituent groups, categories or items at a given level. Refer also to Scope. (UN)

Field - A cultivated area of land that is marked out for a particular crop or cropping sequence. - National Resources Inventory

Field (water) Capacity - The amount of water remaining in a soil after the soil layer has been saturated and the free (drainable) water has been allowed to drain away (a day or two). Estimated at -33 kPa water potential.

Field acres - Acreage that is associated specifically with land that is classified as a field. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Field density - Field-measure density used to determine degree of compaction; expressed as a percentage. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Field-moisture capacity - The quantity of water which can be permanently retained in the soil in opposition to the downward pull of gravity. (Horton, 1935, p. 3.) - USGS 2. The moisture content of a soil, expressed as a percentage of the ovendry weight, after the gravitational, or free, water has drained away; the field moisture content 2 or 3 days after a soaking rain; also called normal field capacity, normal moisture capacity, or capillary capacity. - USDA

Field-moisture deficiency - The quantity of water, which would be required to restore the soil moisture to field-moisture capacity. (Horton, 1935, p. 3.) - USGS

Field of Use Restriction (general intellectual property-antitrust) - A provision in an intellectual property license restricting the licensee to use the licensed property only in a defined product or service market.

Field Research - Field research involves observation, description and explanation but adopts a problem solving focus, using techniques similar to those used in scientific explanation. This is the inductive approach to fieldwork. (UNESCO)

Field review (inspection / reconnaissance) - The on-site, physical observation and analysis required to ascertain the current conditions present at a historic property. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Field Teaching - Taking students to a field location and delivering a mini-lecture from which students are expected to take notes. Sometimes involves students in the careful observation and description of an environment and in suggesting possible explanations based on previously acquired information. (UNESCO)

FIF - Final Impact Forecast (EPA - watersheds)

FIFRA - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

50CFR424.16 [Page 360?361] TITLE 50 -- WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES CHAPTER IV ? JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, PART 424 -- LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT ?Table of Contents, Subpart B ? Revision of the Lists. Sec. 424.16 Proposed rules. (a) General. Based on the information received through Secs. 424.13, 424.14, 424.15, and 424.21, or through other available avenues, the Secretary may propose revising the lists as described in Sec. 424.10. (b) Contents. A notice of a proposed rule to carry out one of the actions described in Sec. 424.10 shall contain the complete text of the proposed rule, a summary of the data on which the proposal is based (including, as appropriate, citation of pertinent information sources), and shall show the relationship of such data to the rule proposed. If such a rule designates or revises critical habitat, such summary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, include a brief description and evaluation of those activities (whether public or private) that, in the opinion of the Secretary, if undertaken, may adversely modify such habitat, or may be affected by such designation. Any proposed rule to designate or revise critical habitat shall contain a map of such habitat. Any such notice proposing the listing, delisting, or reclassification of a species or the designation or revision of critical habitat shall also include a summary of factors affecting the species and/or critical habitat. (c) Procedures. (1) Notifications. In the case of any proposed rule to list, delist, or reclassify a species, or to designate or revise critical habitat, the Secretary shall -- (i) Publish notice of the proposal in the Federal Register; (ii) Give actual notice of the proposed regulation (including the complete text of the regulation) to the State agency in each State in which the species is believed to occur, and to each county or equivalent jurisdiction therein in which the species is believed to occur, and invite the comment of each such agency and jurisdiction; (iii) Give notice of the proposed regulation to any Federal agencies, local authorities, or private individuals or organizations known to be affected by the rule; (iv) Insofar as practical, and in cooperation with the Secretary of State, give notice of the proposed regulation to list, delist, or reclassify a species to each foreign nation in which the species is believed to occur or whose citizens harvest the species on the high seas, and invite the comment of such nation; (v) Give notice of the proposed regulation to such professional scientific organizations as the Secretary deems appropriate; and (vi) Publish a summary of the proposed regulation in a newspaper of general circulation in each area of the United States in which the species is believed to occur. (2) Period of public comments. At least 60 days shall be allowed for public comment following publication in the Federal Register of a rule proposing the listing, delisting, or reclassification of a species, or the designation or revision of critical habitat. All other proposed rules shall be subject to a comment period of at least 30 days following publication in the Federal Register. The Secretary may extend or reopen the period for public comment on a proposed rule upon a finding that there is good cause to do so. A notice of any such extension or reopening shall be published in the Federal Register, and shall specify the basis for so doing. (3) Public hearings. The Secretary shall promptly hold at least one public hearing if any person so requests within 45 days of publication of a proposed regulation to list, delist, or reclassify a species, or to designate or revise critical habitat. Notice of the location and time of any such hearing shall be published in the Federal Register not less than 15 days before the hearing is held.

FIJA - Fully Informed Jury Association

Fill material - Any material used for the primary purpose of replacing an aquatic area with dry land or of changing the bottom elevation of a waterbody. The term does not include any pollutant discharged into the water primarily to dispose of waste, as that activity is regulated under section 402 of the CWA. 33 CFR 323.2(e).

FILS - Federal Information Locator System

Filter Strip - An area of vegetation, generally narrow and long, that slows the rate of runoff, allowing sediments, organic matter, and other pollutants that are being conveyed by the water to be removed. Filter strips reduce erosion and the accompanying stream pollution, and can be a best management practice.

Filtration - Removal of particulate matter from water due to obstruction and reduced water velocity. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Final Consumers - The people who finally use the product. Contrast final consumers with intermediate consumers who buy goods in order to sell them again.

Final Cut - The removal of the last seed bearers or shelter trees after regeneration of new trees has been established in a stand being managed under the shelter wood system of silviculture.

Final Demand - The total spending by final consumers on all goods. The amount reported is the change in spending by final consumers in refuge regions attributable to refuge visitation. Final demand includes spending by people who earn income from refuge visitors' activities as well as spending by refuge visitors themselves. (USFWS-DOI)

Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) - The statement of environmental effects required for major federal actions under Section 102 of NEPA and released to the public and other agencies for comment and review.

Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) - A document describing the reasons why the impacts of a proposed federal action are not significant. Required by NEPA after an environmental assessment when a federal agency is not preparing an environmental impact statement. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fine - A very small particle of material such as very fine sander dust or very small pieces of bark. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fine Filter Management - Management that focuses on the welfare of a single or only a few species rather than the broader habitat or ecosystem.

Fine textured soil - Sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. - USDA

FIP - Fund for Independent Publishing (formerly the Social Policy Corporation)

FIPS - Federal Information Publications Standards

FIRE - Foundation for Individual Rights in Education

Fire-Adapted Ecosystem - An ecosystem with the ability to survive and regenerate in a fire-prone environment. - USDA Forest Service

Fire-Adapted Ecosystem - An ecosystem with the ability to survive and regenerate in a fire-prone environment. - www.fireplan.gov glossary

Fire Cycle - The average time between fires in a given area.

Fire-Dependent - The characteristic of requiring periodic fire as part of the ecosystem. - USDA/FS

Fire Frequency (Fire Return Interval) - How often fire burns a given area; often expressed in terms of fire return intervals (e.g., fire returns to a site every 5-15 years). - USDA Forest Service

Fire Frequency (Fire Return Interval) - How often fire burns a given area; often expressed in terms of fire return intervals (e.g., fire returns to a site every 5-15 years). - http://www.fireplan.gov glossary 

Fire management - The integration of fire protection, prescribed burning, and fire ecology knowledge into multiple use planning, decisionmaking, and land management activities. - BLM

Fire Regime - A generalized description of the role fire plays in an ecosystem. It is characterized by fire frequency, seasonality, intensity, duration and scale (patch size), as well as regularity or variability. (Agee, as modified by Sexton.) - www.fireplan.gov glossary

Fire Regime - A generalized description of the role fire plays in an ecosystem. It is characterized by fire frequency, seasonality, intensity, duration and scale (patch size), as well as regularity or variability. (Agee, as modified by Sexton.) - USDA Forest Service

Fire Regime - The characteristics of fire in a given ecosystem, such as the frequency, predictability, intensity, and seasonality of fire.

Firm power (firm energy) - Power that is guaranteed by the supplier to be available at all times during a period covered by a commitment. That portion of a customer's energy load for which service is assured by the utility provider. - Bioenergy Glossary

Firm water supplies - Non-interruptible water supplies guaranteed by the supplier to be available at all times except for reasons of uncontrollable forces or continuity of service provisions. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

FIRMs - Flood Insurance Rate Maps

Firn (firn snow) - Old snow on the top of glaciers, granular and compact but not yet converted into ice. It is a transitional stage between snow and ice. Also called ne've'. - USGS

Firn line - The highest level to which the fresh snow on a glacier's surface retreats during the melting season. (Matthes, 1949, p. 161.) The line separating the accumulation area from the ablation area. - USGS

First arrival - The first recorded signal attributed to seismic wave travel from a source. - USGS Earthquake glossary

First bottom - The normal flood plain of a stream, subject to frequent or occasional flooding. - USDA

First-Order Tributary - A nonbranching headwater channel segment. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

FISAC - Federal Information Services and Applications Council

Fiscal Year - A 12-month period for which an organization plans the use of its funds. This period may be a calendar year but can be any 12-month period. A fiscal year accounting period should normally coincide with the natural operating cycle of the organization. If an organization files an IRS Form 990, it is required to define its accounting period on Line A at the top of the form.

Fish aggregating device (FAD) - A manmade raft or other floating object used to attract tuna and make them available to fishing vessels. - MFCMA

Fish and Wildlife Act (1956) - Established a comprehensive national fish and wildlife policy and broadened the authority for acquisition and development of refuges.

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1934) - as amended: Requires that the Fish and Wildlife Service and State fish and wildlife agencies be consulted whenever water is to be impounded, diverted or modified under a Federal permit or license. The Service and State agency recommend measures to prevent the loss of biological resources, or to mitigate or compensate for the damage. The project proponent must take biological resource values into account and adopt justifiable protection measures to obtain maximum overall project benefits. A 1958 amendment added provisions to recognize the vital contribution of wildlife resources to the Nation and to require equal consideration and coordination of wildlife conservation with other water resources development programs. It also authorized the Secretary of Interior to provide public fishing areas and accept donations of lands and funds.

Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act (1978) - Improves the administration of fish and wildlife programs and amends several earlier laws including the Refuge Recreation Act, the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956. It authorizes the Secretary to accept gifts and bequest of real and personal property on behalf of the United States. It also authorizes the use of volunteers on Service projects and appropriations to carry out a volunteer program.

Fish or wildlife - Any member of the animal kingdom, including without limitation any mammal, fish, bird (including any migratory, nonmigratory, or endangered bird for which protection is also afforded by treaty or other international agreement), amphibian, reptile, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod or other invertebrate, and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof. - ESA

Fishbone Diagram - A graphic technique for identifying cause-and-effect relationships among factors in a given situation or problem. Also called Ishikawa Diagramming. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Fish Farming - Usually, freshwater commercial aquaculture; catfish farms are an example.

Fisheries Habitat - Streams, lakes, and reservoirs that support fish, or have the potential to support fish.

Fishery - Aquatic habitat that supports the propagation and maintenance of fish.

Fish Stock - A discrete population of a fish species that tends to inhabit the same waters and breed in the same stream. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Fishing - Searching for, catching, taking, or harvesting fish; attempting to search for, catch, take, or harvest fish; engaging in any other activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the locating, catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; placing, searching for, or recovering fish aggregating devices or associated electronic equipment such as radio beacons; any operations at sea directly in support of, or in preparation for, any activity described in this paragraph; or aircraft use, relating to the activities described in this definition, except for flights in emergencies involving the health or safety of crew members or the safety of a vessel. - MFCMA

Fishing trip - A period of time between landings when fishing is conducted. - MFCMA

Fishing vessel - Any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft that is used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type that is normally used for fishing or for assisting or supporting a vessel engaged in fishing, except purse seine skiffs. - MFCMA

FISP - The International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP is the highest non-governmental world organization for philosophy. It was established in 1948. Its main objectives are: to contribute directly to the development of professional relations between philosophers of all countries, freely and with mutual respect; to foster contacts between institutions, societies and periodical publications dedicated to philosophy; to collect documentation useful for the development of philosophical studies; to sponsor every five years the World Congress, which started meeting in 1900; to promote philosophical education, to make publications of global interest and to contribute to the impact of philosophical knowledge on global problems. FISP members are not individual philosophers, but philosophical societies and other similar philosophical institutions of national, regional and international levels. Among its one hundred and two full and corresponding members, seventy-nine are national and twenty-three international societies. FISP is a member of CIPSH, which is the French for ICPHS International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies. CIPHS, also a non-governmental organization, consists of thirteen World Federations and constitutes the link between these Federations and UNESCO.)

FITA - Federation of International Trade Associations

FITT - Forum for International Trade Training (Canada)

501(c)(3) - nonprofit, charitable, tax-exempt organizations, public charities, private operating foundations, and private non-operating foundations

FIU - Florida International University

FIVIMS - Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping Systems

FIW - Friends of Idaho Watersheds

Fixation - The process by which waterborne wood preservatives (such as CCA) chemically react with wood, causing water-soluble metal oxides to be chemically reduced to less toxic metal complexes bonding with the wood cellulose. This chemical fixation provides for a relatively insoluble, leach-resistant wood preservative. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Fixed Assets - Estimated value of land, buildings, equipment and other tangible items owned.

Fixity - The practice of fixing the results of an ICP aggregation for a country group when the country group is compared with a larger group. For example, the relation of France and Italy as given by Geary-Khamis or EKS for the 12 EEC countries would be fixed so that within the OECD, the France-Italy relationship would be preserved. (UN)

FJ - Frontier Justice

FJVP - Full Joint Venture Partner (USFWS-DOI)

FL - Farm Labor

FL - Farm Laborer

FL - Federal Lands

FL - Flu-Like

FL - Focal Length

FL - Fuel Load

FLA - Forest Landowners Association

Fladry - A non-lethal livestock protection technique, borrowed from Polish wolf hunters, that involves encircling wolves with a barrier of colored flags, evenly spaced, hung from ropes. For unknown reasons, wolves do not willingly cross this 'fence,' so it is hoped that wolves will be unable to gain access to livestock [that are] surrounded by fladry. (DOI/USFWS) http://mountain-prairie.fws.gov/wolf/annualrpt02/2002report.pdf 

FLAG - Federal Land Managers' AQRV Work Group

Flagstone - A thin fragment of sandstone, limestone, slate, shale, or (rarely) schist, 6 to 15 inches (15 to 38 centimeters) long. - USDA

FLAI - Florida Limerock and Aggregate Institute

Flash rust - Immediate corrosion of bare ferrous metals due to exposure to moisture in the air. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Flatwater - Slower flowing water that does not have the turbulence associated with a riffle due to lower gradient or more depth. For the fisheries survey, flatwater was classified as run, glide or pocketwater.

Flatwoods - Mesic pine communities on the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains with a well-developed woody shrub or midstory layer. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

FLB - Front-Load Buildings

FLC - Federal Lands Coordinator

FLDACS - Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

FLEG - Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (UN)

FLEP - Forest Land Enhancement Program (The FLEP program is designed to address the needs of owners of non-industrial private forests. Cost share is available. The FLEP replaces the SIP and the FIP programs. Implementation is through the states. Participating states are currently developing their programs.)

Flex acreage - See Normal flex acreage and Optional flex acreage. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

FLHP - Federal Lands Highways Program

FLM - Federal Land Management

FLOC - Fairness to Landowners Committee

FLO - "Friends of the........."

Floater - An adult bird not associated with a breeding group. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Floating object - Any natural object or FAD (Fish aggregating device) around which fishing vessels may catch tuna. - MFCMA

Floating Zones - Zones added to the zoning law but that "float" until an application is made to apply the new district to a certain parcel. Upon the approval of the application, the zoning map is amended to apply the floating district to that parcel of land.

Flockets - A local term for the ponds and associated wet meadows created in the sand dunes from melting eolian ice cells. BLM-DOI

Flood-control storage - Storage of water in reservoirs to abate flood damage. (See Retarding reservoir.) - USGS

Flood Control Storage Capacity - Reservoir capacity reserved for the purpose of regulating flood inflows to reduce flood damage downstream (compare with reservoir storage capacity). - Everglades Plan glossary

Flood crest - See Flood peak. - USGS

Flood event - See Flood wave. - USGS

Flood-frequency curve - 1. A graph showing the number of times per year on the average, plotted as abscissa, that floods of magnitude, indicated by the ordinate, are equaled or exceeded. 2. A similar graph but with recurrence intervals of floods plotted as abscissa. (See Dalrymple, 1960.) - USGS

Flood, maximum probable - The largest flood for which there is any reasonable expectancy in this climatic era. (Leopold and Maddock, 1954, p.112.) - USGS

Flood peak - The highest value of the stage or discharge attained by a flood; thus, peak stage or peak discharge. Flood crest has nearly the same meaning, but since it connotes the top of the flood wave, it is properly used only in referring to stage--thus, crest stage, but not crest discharge. - USGS

Flood plain - A strip of relatively smooth land bordering a stream, built of sediment carried by the stream and dropped in the slack water beyond the influence of the swiftest current. It is called a living flood plain if it is overflowed in times of highwater; but a fossil flood plain if it is beyond the reach of the highest flood. (Bryan, 1922, p. 88.) The lowland that borders a river, usually dry, but subject to flooding. (Hoyt and Langbein, 1955, p. 12.) That land outside of a stream channel described by the perimeter of the maximum probable flood. (After White, 1945, p. 44.) - USGS 2. Relatively flat surfaces adjacent to active stream or river channels, formed by deposition of sediments during major floods. The floodplain may be covered by water during floods. - Bioenergy Glossary

Floodplain - An area designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1995, and its maps, as being in the 100-year floodplain. Within the floodplain is "floodway" that must be kept free of encroachment in order that the 100-year flood may be carried without harmful increases in the height of floodwaters. Although it is not to be encouraged, the portion of the floodplain not in the floodway may be reclaimed for development under certain circumstances if in accordance with FEMA regulations. The designated land use for areas of reclaimed floodplain is that of the immediately adjacent land use category. 2. A lowland adjoining a watercourse, inland or coastal waters. At a minimum, the area is subject to a one- percent or greater chance of flooding in a given year.

Flood plane - The position occupied by the water surface of a stream during a particular flood. Also, loosely, the elevation of the water surface at various points along the stream during a particular flood. - USGS

Flood profile - A graph of elevation of the water surface of a river in flood, plotted as ordinate, against distance, measured in the downstream direction, plotted as abscissa. A flood profile may be drawn to show elevation at a given time, crests during a particular flood, or to show stages of concordant flows. - USGS

Flood Risk Reduction Program - Provides for contracts for producers on farms that have contract acreage under Title I of the FAIR Act of 1996 that are flooded frequently. Individuals can receive up to 95% of transition payments and projected crop insurance payments in lieu of market transition payments. In return, producers must comply with swampbuster and conservation compliance provisions and forego future conservation program payments and disaster payments. Though authorized, this program has not yet been implemented.

Flood routing - The process of determining progressively the timing and shape of a flood wave at successive points along a river. (See Carter and Godfrey, 1960.) - USGS

Floods above a base - See Partial-duration flood series. - USGS

Flood stage - The gage height of the lowest bank of the reach in which the gage is situated. The term "lowest bank" is, however, not to be taken to mean an unusually low place or break in the natural bank through which the water inundates an unimportant and small area. (Linsley, 1942, p. 89.) The stage at which overflow of the natural banks of a stream begins to cause damage in the reach in which the elevation is measured. (U.S. Weather Bur.) See also Bankfull stage. - USGS

Flood wave - A distinct rise in stage culminating in a crest and followed by recession to lower stages. - USGS

Floodway - The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the "base flood" without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Floodway - A part of the flood plain otherwise leveed, reserved for emergency diversion of water during floods. A part of the flood plain which, to facilitate the passage of floodwater, is kept clear of encumbrances. The channel of a river or stream and those parts of the flood plains adjoining the channel, which are reasonably required to carry and discharge the floodwater or floodflow of any river or stream (Erbe and Flores, 1957, p. 443). - USGS

Flood zone - The land bordering a stream which is subject to floods of about equal frequency; for example, a strip of the flood plain subject to flooding more often that once but not as frequently as twice in a century. (See White, 1945, p. 44.) - USGS

Flora - The plant life of an area.

Floret - A small flower, especially one in a dense cluster. Also used for a grass flower with its lemma and palea included. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Florida Current - A North Atlantic Ocean current setting northward along the south-east coast of the United States. A segment of the Gulf Stream System, the Florida Current extends from the Straits of Florida to the region off Cape Hatteras. - NOAA

FLOW - Friends of the Lower Olentangy

Flow - The volume of water passing a given point per unit of time. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Flow-duration curve - A cumulative frequency curve that shows the percentage of time that specified discharges are equaled or exceeded. (See Searcy, 1959.) - USGS

Flow Regimes - Characteristics of stream discharge over time. The natural flow regime is the regime that occurred historically. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Flow rate - The amount of water that moves through an area (usually pipe) in a given period of time. - Bioenergy Glossary

Flowway - An integrated regional ecosystem corridor, permitting dispersion of faunal species between basins.

FLPMA - Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976)

FLR - Front Lines Research (Planned Parenthood)

FLS - Flu-Like Symptoms

FLSA - Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

FLT - Forest Lands Tours

Fluidized-bed boiler - A large, refractory-lined vessel with an air distribution member or plate in the bottom, a hot gas outlet in or near the top, and some provisions for introducing fuel. The fluidized bed is formed by blowing air up through a layer of inert particles (such as sand or limestone) at a rate that causes the particles to go into suspension and continuous motion. The super-hot bed material increased combustion efficiency by its direct contact with the fuel. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fluvial - Pertaining to streams or produced by stream action. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

FM - Fishery Mitigation

FM - Fishpond Management

FM - Free-Market.com

FMA - Fabricators and Manufacturers Association

FMA - The Financial Markets Association

FMAG - Fire Management Assistance Grant

FMC - Federal Maritime Commission

FMC - Fishery Management Council(s)

FMC - Fuel Moisture Content

FMCA - Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets

FMCT - Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)

FMD - Foot and Mouth Disease

FMDAC - Federation of Metal Detectorists And Archeological Clubs

FMF - Freshwater Mussel Fund (DOI/USFWS)

FMIS - Floodplain Mapping Information System

FMP - Federally Mandated Planning

FMP - Fish Management Plan

FMP - Fishery Management Plan

FMS - Female Missionary Society

FMV - Fair Market Value

FN - First Nations

FN - Foreign National

FNAWS - The Foundation for North American Wild Sheep http://www.fnaws.org/ 

FNF - Friendsville National Freeway (Maryland)

FNMA - Federal National Mortgage Association (a private corporation, not a government agency)

FNTG - The Funders' Network on Trade and Globalization

FNYEH - Friends of the Northern Yellowstone Elk Herd (Robert Fanning, Jr., Pray, MT)

FO - Field Office

FO - Forests.org

FO - Free Ohio

FO - Functionally Obsolete

FO - Functional Obsolescence

FOC - Fiber-Optic Cable

FOC - Fisheries and Oceans Canada

FOC - Flyover Country

FOC - Forest Owner Cooperation (USDA/FS)

Focal Species - Focal species are surrogate measures used in the evaluation of ecological sustainability, including species and ecosystem diversity. The key characteristic of a focal species is that its status and trend provide insights to the integrity of the larger ecosystem to which it belongs. Individual species, or groups of species that use habitat in similar ways or which perform similar ecological functions, may be identified as focal species. Focal species serve an umbrella function in terms of encompassing habitats need for many other species, play a key role in maintaining community structure or processes, are sensitive to the changes likely to occur in the area, or otherwise serve as an indicator of ecological sustainability. Certain focal species may be used as surrogates to represent ecological conditions that provide for viability of other species, rather than directly representing the population dynamics of those other species (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52 

FOCS - Federal Outer Continental Shelf

FOE - Father Of Environmentalism (Jean-Jacques Rousseau)

FOE - Friends Of Earth

FOF - Fact Or Fiction

FOF - Free Our Forests

FOF - Frontiers Of Freedom

FOG - Fordyce Organic Growers

FOIA - Freedom of Information Act

Foley Bros. Inc. v. Filardo 336 U.S. 281(1949) - This decision dealt with the question of whether an Act of Congress was enforceable in places beyond the sovereign territory of the United States. The issue was a worker's right to overtime pay for anything over 8 hours under Congress' Eight Hour law, which specified such a right when working under a government contract. The specific question that the Court was dealing with was whether such an Act was enforceable when the company was under a US government contract to perform work in Iraq. The Court stated its now-famous quote, "It is a well established principle of law that all federal legislation applies only within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States unless a contrary intent appears", as its first cannon of statutory construction for settling the issue.

Foliage - The leaves of a plant, collectively.

FOM - Field Operations Manual

FONSI - Finding of No Significant Impact

501(c)(3) - Tax-Free Organization

Food Additives - Natural and synthetic chemicals added to foods. Food additives can be used to make food more nutritious or more flavorsome. They can also be used to color food, preserve the food item extending its storage life, and stabilize the oil in processed food so that oil does not separate out from the rest of the ingredients. (UNESCO)

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade (FACT) Act of 1990 - P.L. 101-624 (November 28, 1990) was a 5-year omnibus farm bill. It continued to move agriculture in a market-oriented direction by freezing target prices and allowing more planting flexibility. New titles included rural development, forestry, organic certification, and commodity promotion programs. The law established a Rural Development Administration (RDA) in the USDA to administer programs relating to rural and small community development. It extended and modified the Food Stamp Program and other domestic nutrition programs and made major changes in the operation of P.L. 480. It revised existing law involving agricultural trade credits and guarantees. The FACT Act was soon altered by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act Amendments of 1991 (P.L. 102-237) to correct errors and alleviate problems in implementing the law. The amendments allowed the Farm Credit Bank for Cooperatives to make loans for agricultural exports and established a new regulatory scheme and capital standards for the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac). The law also established new handling requirements for eggs to help prevent food-borne illness. More policy changes were made by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1993 (P.L. 103-66). This law intended to reduce federal farm spending by $3 billion over 5 years by eliminating USDA's authority to waive minimum acreage set-aside requirements for wheat and corn, reducing deficiency payments to farmers participating in the 0/92 and 50/92 programs from 92% to 85% of the normal payment level, reducing the acreage to be enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program and Wetlands Reserve Program, and requiring improvement in the actuarial soundness of the federal crop insurance program. The measure also provided for a temporary moratorium on sales of synthetic bovine growth hormone and reduced the loan rate for soybeans. It reduced Market Promotion Program (MPP) funding through fiscal 1997 and provided for a series of significant MPP operational reforms. It also provided, among other provisions, for the designation of a series rural (and urban) empowerment and enterprise zones, eligible for special federal aid and tax credits.

Food and Agriculture Councils (FACs) - These councils were instituted in 1982 by USDA to function as interagency coordinating groups on three levels: national, state, and local. The state FACs are composed of senior level officials of individual USDA agencies within each state, and in recent years they have played a major role in managing the reorganization and 'downsizing' of USDA's field office structure. Local FACs have consisted of USDA representatives at county or area-wide levels; and a national FAC at USDA's Washington headquarters has served as a liaison with the state and local FACs. (GB)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) - A UN organization founded in 1945 that collects and disseminates information about world agriculture. FAO also provides technical assistance to developing countries in agricultural production and distribution, food processing, nutrition, fisheries, and forestry. The FAO's Global Information Early Warning System (GIEWS) monitors for famine conditions in regions of risk.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - An agency within the Public Health Service of Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Importantly for agriculture, a major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of food. In this regard, its scientists test samples to see if any substances, such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts, it sets food labeling standards, and it sees that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for food are not threatening to the consumer's health.

Food and Fiber System - That sector of the U.S. economy that includes agricultural production and all economic activities supporting or utilizing that production, including farm machinery and chemical production, and processing, manufacturing, transportation, and retailing. In 1995, the food and fiber system employed 22.9 million workers, or 17.3% of the U.S. workforce, and accounted for $983 billion, or 13.5% of the gross domestic product.

Food Code - The code, published by FDA, consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health that may be adopted and used by various parts of local, state, and federal governments, if desired. It is used by officials who have compliance responsibilities for food service, retail food stores, or food vending operations.

Food Power - The act of withholding or making available agricultural commodities for export or aid by an exporting nation or group of nations for the purpose of influencing the actions of another country or group of countries. Food power implies a foreign policy motivation rather than a financial or humanitarian motivation to export activities.

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 - The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). These amendments fundamentally changed the way EPA regulates pesticides. The requirements included a new safety standard -- reasonable certainty of no harm -- that must be applied to all pesticides used on foods.

Food Security - Knowing that you have enough food. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Food Security - The ability of a country to produce or import enough food for normal health and physical activity of its people. (UNESCO)

Food Security Act of 1985 (1985 Act) (P.L. 99-198) - Omnibus food and agriculture legislation signed into law on December 23, 1985, that provided a 5-year framework (1986-90) for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs. The law provided for lower price and income supports, a dairy herd buy-out program, marketing loans and loan deficiency payments, and the Conservation Reserve Program. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Food Security Commodity Reserve - Formerly the Food Security Wheat Reserve, a special wheat, corn, grain sorghum, and rice reserve of up to 4 million metric tons, to be used for humanitarian purposes. Created by the Agriculture Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-494), the reserve is generally used to provide famine and other emergency relief when commodities are not available under P.L. 480. The 1996 Act expands the reserve to include corn, grain sorghum, and rice, in addition to wheat, and makes other administrative changes. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Foot slope - The inclined surface at the base of a hill. - USDA

Forage - All browse and non-woody, herbaceous growth (plants) available and acceptable to grazing animals (wildlife and livestock) or that may be harvested for feeding purposes. Forage includes pasture, rangelands, and crop aftermath. Feed includes forage, hay, and grains.

Forage Areas - Vegetated areas with less than 60 percent combined canopy closure of tree and tall shrub (greater than seven feet in height).

Forage crops - Forage crops can be used for grazing or hay. They include legume groups such as alfalfa and sweet clover, true clovers (such as red, ladino, white and alsike), peas and vetch (such as field pea, garden pea and hairy vetch), beans (such as garden and pinto), cowpeas and lespedeza, soybeans and lupines, and grasses. Grasses include cool-season perennials such as timothy, smooth romegrass, orchardgrass, reed canarygrass and tall fescue; warm-season annuals such as sudangrass, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and millets; and warm-season perennials such as switchgrass, big bluestem and indiangrass. - USDA

Forage Utilization - An index of the extent to which forage is used. Utilization classes range from slight (less than 20 percent) to severe (more than 80 percent). - BLM

Foraging habitat - See Spotted owl habitat. - Bioenergy Glossary

Forb - A herbaceous, broadleaf plant that has little or no woody material in it, and is not a graminod, grass, sedge, or rush.

FORBPO - The Fraternal Order of Retired Border Patrol Officers

Foreground - The part of a scene or landscape that is nearest to the viewer and in which detail is evident, usually one quarter to one-half mile from the observer.

Foreground of Visual Corridor - The area that is usually 1/4 to 1/2 mile from either side of the centerline of the road, that is visible from the road at normal traveling speeds. Areas beyond 1/2 mile are included and shown on Visual Resources maps if they are part of a significant vista seen for extended periods, or to complete a feature that is partially included, e.g., a mountaintop.

Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) - The USDA agency that administers agricultural export and food aid programs. FAS is also responsible for formulating agricultural trade policy, negotiating to reduce foreign agricultural trade barriers, and carrying out programs of international cooperation and technical assistance. The agency maintains a global network of agricultural officers (counselors and attaches) as well as a Washington-based staff to analyze and disseminate information on world agriculture and trade, develop and expand export markets, and represent the agricultural trade policy interests of U.S. producers in multilateral forums.

Foreign commerce - Foreign commerce includes, among other things, any transaction - (A) between persons within one foreign country; (B) between persons in two or more foreign countries; (C) between a person within the United States and a person in a foreign country; or (D) between persons within the United States, where the fish and wildlife in question are moving in any country or countries outside the United States. - ESA

Forest Development Road - A road wholly or partially within or adjacent to a National Forest System boundary that is necessary for the protection, administration, and use of National Forest system lands, which the Forest Service has authorized and over which the agency maintains jurisdiction.

Forest Health - A measure of the robustness of forest ecosystems. Aspects of forest health include biological diversity; soil, air, and water productivity; natural disturbances; and the capacity of the forest to provide a sustaining flow of goods and services for people. A term used for a collection of concerns over the alleged deterioration in forest conditions, including both current problems (e.g., insect and disease infestations, wildfires, and related tree mortality) and risks of future problems (e.g., too many small-diameter trees (overstocking), excessive biomass, and an unnatural mix of tree species in mixed stands).

Foreign investment - Investment in an enterprise that operates outside the investor's country. See also foreign direct investment and portfolio investment. - World Bank Glossary

Foreign Key - a primary key from another entity that points to a record in the related entity. - Cadastral Data glossary

Foreshock - A small tremor that commonly precedes a larger earthquake or main shock by seconds to weeks and that originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Forest ecosystem network -A planned landscape zone that serves to maintain or restore the natural connectivity within a landscape unit. A forest ecosystem network (or FEN) consists of a variety of fully protected areas, sensitive areas, and old-growth management areas. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Forest Fragmentation - The breaking up of large, contiguous forested tracts into smaller or less contiguous tracts. - USDA/FS

Forest Health surveys and evaluations, Federal and Cooperative lands (million acres) - Forest Health surveys and evaluations are a component of the State and Private Forestry Forest Health Management program. It provides professional forest health assistance, including forest insect and disease detection surveys and evaluations for all Federal forest lands, including National Forest System, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, Corps of Engineers, Smithsonian Institution, and Department of Defense lands. Through cooperation with State governments, assistance is provided to private landowners in the area of forest health, especially with insect and disease surveys and evaluations. Assistance is also provided to tribal governments. - FS

Forest Industry land - Land owned by companies or individuals operating primary wood-using plants. - USDA/FS

Forest Influences - Effects resulting from the presence of forest or brush upon climate, soil water, runoff, streamflow, floods, erosion, and soil productivity. (Kittredge, 1948, p. l.) - USGS

Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) - A USDA Forest Service research program that periodically conducts a forest inventory for each State. - USDA/FS

Forest Land - Land that is now, or is capable of becoming, at least ten percent stocked with forest trees and that has not been developed for non-timber use. (BLM)

Forest land - A Land Cover/Use that is at least 10 percent stocked by single stemmed forest trees of any size which will be at least 4 meters (13 feet) tall at maturity. When viewed vertically, canopy cover is 25 percent or greater. Also included are areas bearing evidence of natural regeneration of tree cover (cutover forest or abandoned farmland) and not currently developed for nonforest use. For classification as forest land, an area must be at least one acre and 100 feet wide. [NRI-97] - NRI Glossary 2. Land that is at least 16.7 percent stocked by forest trees of any size, or formerly having had such tree cover, and not currently developed for non-forest use. The minimum area considered for classification is 1 acre. Forested strips must be at least 120 feet wide. - USDA/FS

Forest Legacy Program - Statewide Assessment of Needs (acres, States and projects): The Forest Legacy Program conserves environmentally important forests threatened by conversion to non-forest uses through the acquisition of land or interests in land from willing landowners. Statewide assessments, or plans, identify Forest Legacy Areas. Within those areas, interested landowners can apply for the program to the State lead agency, which maintains a list of potential projects and their acreages. - FS

The Forest Management Act of 1897 - It is arguable whether this particular law had any impact on mineral supply since important deposits have been developed within national forests. However, this legislation does serve to mark the beginning of the period of controlled development when other value sets began to achieve prominence.

Forest Management Type - A classification of timberland based on forest type and stand origin, consisting of: Pine plantation: Stands that (a) have been artificially regenerated by planting or direct seeding (b) are classed as a pine or other softwood forest type, and (c) have at least 10 percent stocking. Natural pine: Stands that (a) have not been artificially regenerated, (b) are classed as a pine or other softwood forest type, and (c) have at least 10 percent stocking. Oak-pine: Stands that have at least 10 percent stocking and classed as a forest type of oak-pine. Upland hardwood: Stands that have at least 10 percent stocking and classed as an oak-hickory or maple-beech-birch forest type. Lowland hardwood: Stands that have at least 10 percent stocking with a forest type of oak-gum-cypress, elm-ash-cottonwood, palm, or other tropical. Nonstocked stands: Stands less than 10 percent stocked with live trees. forest type: A classification of forest land based on the species forming a plurality of live-tree stocking. Major eastern forest-type groups are: White-red-jack pine: Forests in which eastern white pine, red pine, or jack pine, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include hemlock, birch, and maple). Spruce-fir: Forests in which spruce or true firs, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include maple, birch, and hemlock.) Longleaf-slash pine: Forests in which longleaf or slash pine, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include oak, hickory, and gum.) Loblolly-shortleaf pine: Forests in which loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, or other southern yellow pines, except longleaf or slash pine, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include oak, hickory, and gum.) Oak-pine: Forests in which hardwoods (usually upland oaks) constitute a plurality of the stocking but in which pines account for 25 to 50 percent of the stocking. (Common associates include gum, hickory, and yellow-poplar.) Oak-hickory: Forests in which upland oaks or hickory, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking, except where pines account for 25 to 50 percent, in which case the stand would be classified oak-pine. (Common associates include yellow-poplar, elm, maple, and black walnut.) Oak-gum-cypress: Bottomland forests in which tupelo, blackgum, sweetgum, oaks, or southern cypress, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking, except where pines account for 25 to 50 percent, in which case the stand would be classified oak-pine. (Common associates include cottonwood, willow, ash, elm, hackberry, and maple.) Elm-ash-cottonwood: Forests in which elm, ash, or cottonwood, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include willow, sycamore, beech, and maple.) Maple-beech-birch: Forests in which maple, beech, or yellow birch, singly or in combination, constitute a plurality of the stocking. (Common associates include hemlock, elm, basswood, and white pine.) Palm, other tropicals: Forests in which palms and other tropicals constitute a plurality of the stocking. Nonstocked stands: Stands less than 10 percent stocked with live trees. - USDA/FS

Forest health - A condition of ecosystem sustainability and attainment of management objectives for a given forest area. Usually considered to include green trees, snags, resilient stands growing at a moderate rate, and endemic levels of insects and disease. Natural processes still function or are duplicated through management intervention. - Bioenergy Glossary

Forest Plan - The document that sets goals, objectives, desired future condition, standards and guidelines, and overall programmatic direction for a National Forest. Required by the National Forest Management Act of 1976. - Bioenergy Glossary

Forest Plans - Land and resource management plans for units of the National Forest System under the National Forest Management Act. The Act specifies a detailed process and numerous requirements, including public participation and periodic revision intended to achieve multiple use in the national forests.

Forest residues - Material not harvested or removed from logging sites in commercial hardwood and softwood stands as well as material resulting from forest management operations such as precommercial thinnings and removal of dead and dying trees. - Bioenergy Glossary

Forest Roads and Trails - Roads and trails under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service.

Forest Service (FS) - The largest USDA agency in terms of employees (about 37,000) with responsibility for administering the National Forest System, for providing financial and technical forestry assistance to states and to private landowners under State and Private Forestry, and for conducting Forestry Research.

Forest Service Handbook (1909.15, Environmental Policy & Procedures)

Forest Service Road Initiative - See Forest Service Road Management Policy.

Forest Service Road Management Policy (RMP) - There are two parts to the roads initiative: a rule and a policy. The Forest Service refers to the entire package as the road management policy. The road management policy applies to existing and future roads on National Forest System lands. It emphasizes local, science-based decisions designed to maintain a road system that is safe, responsive to public needs, environmentally sound and affordable to manage. It also sets official definitions regarding roads management terms. The policy is intended to ensure that the national forest road system: meets current and future land and resource management objectives; provides for public uses of National Forest System lands; allows for economical and efficient management; and minimizes and begins to reverse adverse ecological impacts associated with the agency's current transportation system. The new policy shifts the agency from developing new roads to managing the existing road system. The policy has four major elements: 1. A public involvement process and scientific analysis at the local level will be implemented to make better decisions on roads; 2. Decommissioning unneeded roads and upgrading and maintaining important access roads will be emphasized; 3. Decisions to reconstruct, decommission and build new roads will be made only upon completion of a science-based roads analysis and with local public involvement; and 4. The availability of road maintenance funding will be considered when assessing new road construction. The roads policy provides basic procedural protection for inventoried roadless areas and contiguous unroaded areas from road building until the Roadless Area Conservation Rule becomes effective (for inventoried roadless areas) and a forest completes a forest-scale roads analysis and incorporates it into their forest plan. The interim requirements include: a determination by the regional forester that there is a compelling need for the new road; development of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposal; and approval of the proposal by the regional forester. Decisions made on projects requiring a road in inventoried roadless areas and contiguous unroaded areas within six months of the road policy being issued do not require a forest to conduct a roads analysis. These projects must still meet the compelling need test and must complete an EIS to be signed by the regional forester. The policy clarifies a number of issues, emphasizing: Addressing the access benefits as well as the ecological costs of roads; Giving priority to reconstructing and maintaining needed roads and decommissioning unneeded roads or, where appropriate, converting them to less costly and other more environmentally beneficial uses; Using a science-based roads analysis as an open public process when road management decisions may have ecological or social-economic effects; and Adding new roads only where resource management objectives and benefits may have been documented and where long-term funding obligations have been carefully considered. In managing the Forest Service's road system, managers will need to address both the access benefits and ecological costs of the effects of road activities. In addition, managers are to give priority to the reconstruction and maintenance of needed roads and to the decommissioning of unneeded roads or, where appropriate, the conversion of them to less costly and more environmentally beneficial other uses. In addition, every forest must develop a transportation atlas that will display the system of roads, trails and airfields on the forest. Also, each forest and grassland must identify the minimum road system needed for safe and efficient travel and for administrative, recreational and other uses of the forest. In identifying the minimum road system needed for a particular forest or grassland, the agency will use a science-based roads analysis and involve a broad spectrum of interested citizens as well as local, State and tribal governments.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) - NGO based in Mexico acting as an umbrella organization for the independent certification of good forest management.

Forest Supervisor - The official responsible for administering National Forest lands on an administrative unit, usually one or more National Forests. The Forest Supervisor reports to the Regional Forester.

Forest Transportation Facility - Replaces the term Forest Transportation System and refers to "facility'' instead of system and includes other necessary transportation facilities, such as bridges, parking lots, and other appurtenances. - USDA Forest Service

Forest type - A category of forest defined by its vegetation, particularly composition, and/or locality factors, as categorized by each country in a system suitable to its situation.

Forested areas or land - Any land that is capable of producing or has produced forest growth or, if lacking forest growth, has evidence of a former forest and is not now in other use. - Bioenergy Glossary

Forested Tract Size - The area of forest within the contiguous tract containing each Forest Inventory and Analysis sample plot. - USDA/FS

Forestland - A classification of land use in the Natural Resources Inventory (NRI). It includes areas where trees cover at least 10% of the land and must be at least an acre in size. Forestland was found on 395 million acres, almost 30% of all private lands, in the 1992 NRI.

Forestry - The science of active forest management that believes forests can provide a wide variety of public benefits including products for human consumption.

Forestry - The science, art, and practice of managing and using for human benefit the natural resources that occur on and in association with forest lands." Thus forestry is a broader term than silviculture, which refers more specifically to the planting and tending of growing trees. Forests are usually composed of many individual stands in different stages of development and with different characteristics. Thus, a forest can include a range of different forested ecosystems composed of different species and different ages and having different carbon stock densities (t C ha-1). IPCC/UN

Forestry Incentive Program (FIP) - Initiated in 1975 as an independent program and currently administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, FIP provides financial assistance for up to 65% of the cost of tree planting and timber stand improvement on private forest stands of less than 1,000 acres. Payments are limited to $10,000 per year. More than 4,500 forest owners with 165,000 acres participated in 1995. The program now is authorized under the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978, as amended.

Form 990-PF - Public record information return that all private foundations area required by law to submit annually to the Internal Revenue Service.

Formal Meeting of the UN Security Council - A formal meeting is held when the Council wishes to vote on a draft resolution or adopt a presidential statement, which has been agreed upon during informal consultations. Involvement - The meeting is open to all to observe, but only Council members are permitted to vote or make statements.

Formation - The primary unit in stratigraphy consisting of a succession of strata useful for mapping or description. Most formations possess certain lithologic features that may indicate genetic relationships. - BLM

Formative Assessment - Formative assessment refers to the ongoing forms of assessment that are closely linked to the learning process. It is characteristically informal and is intended to help students identify strengths and weaknesses in order to learn from the assessment experience. (UNESCO)

Formula Funds - Federal dollars distributed to the land grant colleges of agriculture through formulas found in the Hatch Act, the Smith-Lever Act, the McIntire-Stennis Act, and the Evans-Allen Act for (1) agricultural research at the state agricultural experiment stations, (2) extension programs and (3) forestry research at the land grant colleges of agriculture, and (4) research at the 1890 institutions, respectively.

42 USC 1982 - Property rights of citizens. All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. (United States Code)

The Fort Valley Restoration Project (FVRP) - An effort by the Grand Canyon Forest Partnership, a coalition of government and private organizations. The project covers about 1,900 acres in the Coconino National Forest, which has lost about 60,000 acres to fire in the 1990s.

Forward Capital - Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border, it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Forwarder - A self-propelled vehicle to transport harvested material from the stump area to the landing. Trees, logs, or bolts are carried off the ground on a stake-bunk, or are held by hydraulic jaws of a clam-bunk. Chips are hauled in a dumpable or open-top bin or chip-box. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fossil - The remains or traces of animals or plants which have been preserved by natural causes in the earth's crust exclusive of organisms which have been buried since the beginning of historic times. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Fossil fuels - Coal, natural gas, and petroleum products (such as oil) formed from the decayed bodies of animals and plants that died millions of years ago. A nonrenewable source of energy. - World Bank Glossary

Fossiliferous - Containing fossils.

Fossil landscape - See Relict (or fossil) landscape - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

FOTB - Friends Of The Bitterroot

Four-Wheel-Drive (4WD) - Four-wheel-drive, differential transfer case disperses 50/50 front and rear displacement. Trucks, cars, buses, or sport utility vehicles with high clearance and the ability to operate off-pavement as well as on highways. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

42 USC 1982 - Property rights of citizens. All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. (United States Code)

4H - Head, Heart, Hands, Health

The 4 Hs (T4Hs) - The 4 Hs: Human, animal, plant and environmental health. The 4-Hs go beyond the agricultural component of insect sciences to include human health as the basis for development, and biodiversity and the environment as the basis for sustainability. (ICIPE)

4WD - Four-Wheel Drive

4WDV - Four-Wheel Drive Vehicle

FOR - Farmer-Owned Reserve

FORTRAN - Formula Translation

FOTT - Friends of the Trail

Foundations - Nongovernmental, nonprofit organizations that aid educational, social, charitable, religious, or other activities. Gifts of money from monied people and groups help establish and finance most foundations. Many foundations are called corporations, endowments, funds, or trusts. Foundations are much more common and influential in the United States than they are in Canada, the United Kingdom, and other countries. A foundation can be organized as a trust or as a nonprofit corporation. It is easier to set up a trust than a nonprofit corporation because there are fewer legal formalities. A nonprofit corporation can operate with greater freedom, however, because the law does not restrict its powers so narrowly. Both trusts and nonprofit corporations are governed by one or more legally appointed administrators called trustees. Foundations are also organized according to the way they spend their funds. A perpetuity can spend only the income from its assets. An optional foundation can spend either its income or both the income and the assets. A liquidating foundation must spend all its money within a specified period. The Carnegie Corporation of New York is a perpetuity. The Rockefeller Foundation is an optional foundation. An example of a liquidating fund was the Julius Rosenwald Fund, which operated from 1917 to 1948. It was dedicated largely to improving the lives of African Americans. Foundations may be either public or private. Private foundations include independent, company-sponsored, and operating foundations. The most common type of public foundation is the community foundation. Independent foundations often bear their founders' names. They include the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The charters of many independent foundations allow them to operate freely in such fields as education, health, and welfare. Operating foundations award few or no grants to outside organizations. Community foundations or community trusts operate like private foundations, but their funds come from many donors rather than from a single individual, family, or corporation. Such foundations make grants for social, educational, or other charitable purposes in a specific community or region. Their boards of directors tend to represent the diversity of the community served. Community foundations include the New York Community Trust, the Columbus Foundation, and the Marin Community Foundation. Education is historically the largest category of foundation giving. Most foundation grants go to institutions of higher education. Other grants go to programs in high schools, elementary schools, and libraries. The Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York lead in contributing to this field. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts among others are important contributors to health organizations. Foundations that fund efforts to conserve natural resources include the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, most active in California. Foundations involved in international affairs are the Central European University Foundation and the Open Society Institute, among others. Both are funded by the Hungarian-born American financier George Soros and had a large impact on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The number of foundations in the United States has increased markedly since 1980. Booming stock markets, economic growth and reduction in inheritance taxes are important growth factors. The Foundation Center, an independent national service organization headquartered in New York City, is the leading source of information about U.S. foundations. Canadian foundations do not have the same freedom as U.S. foundations. The Canadian government carefully regulates their growth. Canadian foundations include the J. W. McConnell Family Foundation, the Vancouver Foundation, and the Hospital for Sick Children Foundation. The J. W. McConnell Family Foundation ranks as Canada's largest charitable organization. It is headquartered in Montreal. The McConnell Foundation distributes its funds to institutions in the fields of conservation, culture, education, health, and welfare. Institutions in the province of Quebec receive a large percentage of its contributions. The Vancouver Foundation, Canada's largest community foundation, supports projects in Vancouver and British Columbia. It especially funds projects involved with the environment, youth activities, education, children and families, arts and culture, and health and welfare. The Hospital for Sick Children Foundation helps support the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. The earliest foundations appeared in ancient Egypt and the city-states of ancient Greece. The Greek philosopher Plato established a fund to support his academy. Many Roman emperors set up municipal foundations for the relief of the poor. During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church administered private funds for hospitals, schools, and other charitable causes. Few foundations were established in the United States before the mid-1800's. In 1790, American statesman Benjamin Franklin's will established funds for the poor in Boston and Philadelphia. In 1846, funds left by scientist James Smithson were used to found the Smithsonian Institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The Peabody and Slater funds became the first modern foundations in the United States. George Peabody, an American banker, founded the Peabody Fund in London in 1867. John Fox Slater, a manufacturer, founded the Slater Fund in New York in 1882. Peabody and Slater created funds to aid education in the South after the Civil War, which had ended in 1865. Andrew Carnegie, one of the greatest steel manufacturers in the United States, spread the idea in the early 1900's that people with large fortunes should devote part of their wealth to the betterment of humanity. Carnegie established many foundations, including the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Many other wealthy people, such as John D. Rockefeller, Henry Ford, Andrew W. Mellon, J. Paul Getty, and David and Lucile Packard, have followed Carnegie's example. The number of foundations in the United States increased rapidly after 1980. Philip English Mackay, "Foundations," World Book Online Americas Edition, http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wbol/wbPage/na/ar/co/207660, July 8,2001. 

FOV - Field Of View

FOZ - Foothill Overlay Zone (Utah)

FP - Farmland Preservation

FP - Farm Pond (EPA)

FP - Federal Program(s)

FP - Federalist Papers

FP - Federalist Party

FP - Fish Passage

FP - Foreign Policy

FP - Forest Products

FP - Fourteen Points (1918)

FP - Free the Planet

FPA - Federal Power Act

FPA - Forest Practice Inspector

FPA - Forest Protection Association

FPAB - Farmland Preservation Advisory Board

FPC - Federal Power Commission

FPC - Front Porch Campaign (President McKinley)

FPCB - Food Production & Consumption Basins (Food Basins)

FPD - Fundamental Principles of Democracy

FPDSS - The Fish Passage Decision Support System (DOI/USFWS) http://ecos.fws.gov/fpdss/index.do 

FPF - Flood Plain Forest(s)

FPI - Foundation Program Interests

FPIF - Foreign Policy In Focus

FPM - Fine Particulate Matter

FPMB - Food production management boards

FPO - Foothill Protection Ordinance (Salt Lake City, Utah)

FPP - Farmland Protection Program (USDA)

FPPA - Federal Farmlands Protection Policy Act

FPPF - Friends of Pennsylvania Parks and Forests

FPPARESD - Fifth Program of Policy and Action in Relation to the Environment and Sustainable Development (European Union)

FPR - Federal Parks and Recreation

FPR - Forest Plan Revision (USDA/Forest Service)

FRESC - Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS) http://fresc.fsl.orst.edu/ 

FPS - Farmland Preservation Summit

FPSD - Foundation for the Promotion of Sustainable Development

FPT - Four Power Treaty (US, Britain, France, Japan)

FPTF - Farmland Preservation Task Force

FPW - Functioning, Productive Wetlands

FQPA - Food Quality Protection Act (EPA)

FR- Federal Register

FR - Federal Reserve

FR - Fiduciary Responsibility

FR - Final Rulemaking

FR - Fishery Resources

FR - Freedom Rides

FRA - Federal Railroad Administration

FRA - Federal Register Act

FRA - Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Fractional - The use of fractional in a deed means there is less land than is usually contained in a lot, block, section, or township. "Fractional" is not synonymous with "part". - Cadastral Data glossary

Fractional Lot - A fractional lot is a portion of a section not subdivided in the regular manner and may be more or less than the smallest division (40 acres). It is meaningless to refer to a lot in a subdivision, other than government sections as being a fractional lot. - Cadastral Data glossary

Fractional Section - A section that does not have the full 640 acres due to a body of water or because of a boundary of county or state, but not because the original survey was inaccurate. - Cadastral Data glossary

Fractionated tract - A tract of Indian land owned in common by Indian landowners and/or fee owners holding undivided interests therein. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Fragile Ecosystems - Uncommon ecosystems of limited distribution and size that support unique sensitive/endemic species or communities; ecosystems that have low resilience to environmental stress or to disturbance. - BLM

Fragipan - A loamy, brittle subsurface horizon low in porosity and content of organic matter and low or moderate in clay but high in silt or very fine sand. A fragipan appears cemented and restricts roots. When dry, it is hard or very hard and has a higher bulk density than the horizon or horizons above. When moist, it tends to rupture suddenly under pressure rather than to deform slowly. - USDA

Fragmentation - 1.) The break up of an organism's population and breeding grounds. 2.) The reduction in connectivity among ecosystems within a landscape. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. "The process by which a landscape is broken into small islands of forest within a mosaic of other forms of land use or ownership -- note e.g. islands of a particular age class (e.g., old growth) that remain within areas of younger-aged forest -- note fragmentation is a concern because of the effect of noncontiguous forest cover on connectivity and the movement and dispersal of animals in the landscape" - definition from John A. Helms, ed., 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. The Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD. - USDA/FS

Fragmentation - Habitat loss that results in isolated patches of remaining habitat. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Fragile Nonsuitable - A Timber Production Capability Classification indication on forest land having fragile conditions, which, if harvested, would result in reduced future productivity; even if special harvest or restrictive measures are applied. These fragile conditions are related to soils, geologic structure, topography, and ground water. (BLM)

Fragmentation - A term that refers to forest landscapes that are broken and not continuous. The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clear-cut logging.

Fragmented State - A state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole. The individual parts may be isolated from each other by the land area of other states or by international waters.

Francis turbine - A water-powered turbine used to transform water falling vertically to mechanical (rotating) energy. - Bioenergy Glossary

FPAGSA - Federal Preparedness Agency of the General Services Administration (now FEMA)

Framework - A framework is a multi dimensional classification system that seeks to bring in a range of elements. A framework could include a combination of classifications, code lists and/or data items modules, and generally metadata. The term framework can also be used to describe the skeleton of classification from which a detailed classification is developed. Such a framework encompasses the concepts to be embedded in a classification (e.g. product and activity) and provides the structure for the classification. At a broader level, the term framework may be used to describe a family of related classifications, such as those produced by the UN. (UN)

Framework for Indicators of Sustainable Development (FISD) - Conceptual framework for environmental, social and economic indicators that addresses the concerns of potential data users as reflected in Agenda 21 (United Nations, 1993b) of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development with the information categories of the framework for environmental data production (FDES). It was developed by the United Nations Statistics Division in 1994.

Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics (FDES) - Conceptual framework that assists in the development, coordination and organization of environment statistics and related socio-economic and demographic statistics. It was developed by the United Nations Statistics Division in 1984, and is based on stress-response principles of environmental impacts.

Frazil (frazil ice) - A French-Canadian term for fine spicular ice, derived from the French for cinders which this variety of ice most resembles. When formed in salt water, it is known as lolly ice. It is composed of fine particles which, when first formed, are colloidal and not seen in the water in which they are floating. (Barnes, 1928, p. 108; see also Schaefer, 1950, p. 888.) - USGS

FRC - Family Research Council

FRCRM - The Feather River Coordinated Resource Management group

FRDS - Federal Reporting Data System

FREE - Foundation for Research on Economics & the Environment

Free Rider - In agricultural policy, the term generally refers to a firm or person who benefits from a collectively funded activity (such as a generic advertising and promotion, or check-off, program) without contributing to its costs.

Free Trade Area - A group of countries that have removed trade barriers among the members, but each country may maintain its own trade regime with nonmember countries. A form of economic integration, usually consisting of two or more states. In which partners agree to remove tariffs on trade among themselves. Usually accompanied by a customs union that establishes common tariffs on imports from outside the trade zone. The best-known current example is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) - A proposal under discussion with the launch of comprehensive negotiations envisaged for the Summit of the Americas, scheduled for Santiago, Chile in March 1998. The goal of a single market of more than 800 million consumers that would extend from the Arctic shores of Alaska and Canada to Chile's southernmost Cape Horn.

Free Water - Ground water free to move in response to gravity. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Freedom of Information Act - 5 U.S.C. s/s 552 (1966) The Freedom of Information Act provides specifically that "any person" can make requests for government information. Citizens who make requests are not required to identify themselves or explain why they want the information they have requested. The position of Congress in passing FOIA was that the workings of government are "for and by the people" and that the benefits of government information should be made available to everyone. All branches of the Federal government must adhere to the provisions of FOIA with certain restrictions for work in progress (early drafts), enforcement confidential information, classified documents, and national security information.

Freedom-to-Farm - A phrase that was used in the congressional arena to characterize the production flexibility contract provisions of the FAIR Act of 1996.

French drain - An underground linear drain designed to intercept and disperse water. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Frequency - Stable rivers can accommodate natural levels of water resulting from typical storms. However, with increased runoff water entering the system from surrounding areas with impervious roadways and surfaces lacking vegetation, water levels quickly rise to less manageable levels. High water levels, with greater than normal velocities can accelerate the rate of bank erosion, increase sediment load, and displace aquatic species of plants and animals. - EPA

Fresh Water - Water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids. - USDA/FS

Fresh-Water Estuary - A condition similar to a salt-water estuary except that the semi-enclosed body of fresh water has a free connection with a larger body of fresh water. An example is an area where a river empties into a large lake and there is considerable mixing between the two water bodies at the point of connection.

FRFLCT - Flying Rye, Friendly Legumes, and Cow Tails

FRH - Fundamentals of Rangeland Health

FRIL - Federal Register Internet Library Service

FRMD - Future Raw Material Demands

FRN - Federal Register Notice

Fronting - The words "fronting" and "adjoining" are synonymous, and reference to lots fronting upon a street means that the lots touch the boundary line of the street. - Cadastral Data glossary

Frost action - Freezing and thawing of soil moisture. Frost action can damage roads, buildings and other structures, and plant roots. - USDA

Frost Heave - A land surface that is pushed up by the accumulation of ice in the underlying soil.

FRPTAP - Forest Restoration Program Technical Advisory Panel

FRR - Federally Reserved Rights

FRT - Fish Raceway or Tank

FRT - Floodwater Retarding Dam

FRTA - Federal Roads and Trails Act (1964)

FRUC - Front Range Urban Corridor

Frugivore - An animal that eats fruit. - UNDP/WRI

FS - Factory System

FS - Family Structure

FS - Feasibility Study

FS - Federal Statute

FS - Federal Subsidies

FS - Federal System

FS - Federalist Society

FS - Fee Simple

FS - Fertilization Specialist

FS - Filter Strips

FS - Flagship Species

FS - Food Selectivity

FS - Force Solutions (advocated by Greenpeace)

FS - Forest Service

FS - Free Silver

FSA - Farm Service Agency

FSA - Farm Services Administration (formerly the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service)

FSA - Food Security Act (1985)

FSA - Fugitive Slave Act (1850)

FSAP - Financial Sector Assessment Program (BIS)

FSC - Forest Stewardship Council http://www.fscoax.org/ 

FSC - Forestry Stewardship Council

FSCWRTF - Federal-State Coastal Wetlands Restoration Task Force

FSEFEE - Forest Service Employees For Environmental Ethics

FSF - Financial Stability Forum

FSH - Forest Service Handbook

FSI - Forest Stand Improvement

FSIS - Food Safety and Inspection Service

FSM - Forest Service Manual

FSM - Free Speech Movement (1960s)

FSP - Field Sampling Plan

FSP - Forest Site Preparation

FSP - Free Soil Party (1848)

FSRA - The Forest Scale Roads Analysis

FSRIA - Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002

FSS - Feedback Skills Seminars

FSS - The Foundation for Success in Scholastics

FSSMAS - Federal Supply Service Multiple Award Schedules program (GSA)

FSU - Former Soviet Union

FSWIG - The Florida School-to-Work Implementation Grant

FSZ - Firearm Safety Zone (DOI)

FT - Fast Track (NAFTA Railway tracking system)

FT - Field Trip

FT - Flood Tracking

FT - Foreign Troops

FT - Free Trade

FTA - Fast Track Authority

FTA - Federal Transit Administration

FTA - Free Trade Agreement

FTAA - Free-Trade Area of the Americas

FTC - Federal Trade Commission (1914)

FTC - Fish Technology Centers

FTE - Full-time equivalent (generally refers to agency staffing levels)

FTGOA - For The Good Of All

FTIR - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

FTL - Forest Trails and Landings

FTM - Follow The Money

FTMT - Follow The Money Trail

FTR - Federal Travel Regulations

FUARAA - Federal Uniform Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Act of 1970

Fuels - Combustible materials present in the forest, plants and woody vegetation, both living and dead, that are capable of burning, and potentially contribute a significant fire hazard.

Fuels Management - The treatment of fuels that would otherwise interfere with effective fire management or control. For instance, prescribed fire can reduce the amount of fuels that accumulate on the forest floor before the fuels become so heavy that a natural wildfire in the area would be explosive and impossible to control. (Author's note: Remember Los Alamos and Cloudcroft, New Mexico in the fires of 2000.)

Fuel cycle - The series of steps required to produce electricity. The fuel cycle includes mining or otherwise acquiring the raw fuel source, processing and cleaning the fuel, transport, electricity generation, waste management and plant decommissioning. - Bioenergy Glossary

Fuel Treatment - Manipulation or reduction of natural or activity fuels (generated by a management activity such as slash left from logging) to reduce fire hazard.

Fuelwood - Wood cut into short lengths for burning. 2. Wood used to provide heat for cooking and warmth. Many people who live mainly in poor rural communities rely on wood for their primary source of energy; most of them do not have access to secure supplies. This fuelwood crisis is caused by an increasing population coupled with the degradation of woodlands by commercial forestry operations and the clearing of forests for plantations and cattle ranching. Despite its widespread use, fuelwood is also a major health hazard as the smoke from woods fires is attributed to many respiratory diseases. (UNESCO)

Fugitive Dust - Particulate matter emissions that do not pass through a stack, chimney, vent, pipe or similar opening. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Function - A set of related activities that is part of a process, often known as a subprocess within a process. Organizations often divide themselves into functional units, such as purchasing, product development, order fulfillment, and so forth. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Full-Cost Water - An annual rate for water delivered from Bureau of Reclamation facilities, which includes project construction costs attributed to irrigation, as well as outstanding deficits on operation and maintenance charges, with interest on both accruing from October 12, 1982. The term is defined in Section 202 of the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982. The Bureau charges full-cost for water delivered to lands above the acreage limitation.

Full Log Suspension - Suspension of the entire log above the ground during yarding operations. (BLM)

Full Powers - "Full powers" means a document emanating from the competent authority of a state designating a person or persons to represent the state for negotiating, adopting, authenticating the text of a treaty, expressing the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty, or for accomplishing any other act with respect to that treaty. Heads of State, Heads of Government and Ministers for Foreign Affairs are considered as representing their state for the purpose of all acts relating to the conclusion of a treaty and do not need to present full powers. Heads of diplomatic missions do not need to present full powers for the purpose of adopting the text of a treaty between the accrediting state and the state to which they are accredited. Likewise, representatives accredited by states to an international conference or to an international organization or one of its organs do not need to present full powers for the purpose of adopting the text of a treaty in that conference, organization or organ. [Art.2 (1) (c) and Art.7 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Fully Developed - Areas where nearly all development opportunities consist of redevelopment.

Function - All the processes within an ecosystem through which the elements interact, such as succession, the food chain, fire, weather, and the hydrologic cycle.

Functional At Risk (Riparian-Wetland Areas) - Areas that are in functional condition but an existing soil, water, or vegetation attribute makes them susceptible to degradation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Functional Integrity - The ability of a place to continue to function as a viable whole without excessive outside support. The functional integrity of an area is endangered when a component of the area is damaged or removed.

Functional Roadway Classification (FRC) - In transportation studies, roadways are classified by the character of service provided. Character of service refers to serving the mutually exclusive objectives of through or regional trips versus providing access to adjacent land uses. Typical roadway classifications are arterial (primarily serving through and regional traffic on roads designed for mobility), local roadways (providing access to adjacent land uses) and collectors (connecting local roads to arterial roads and providing some service to adjacent land uses).

Functionality (patent-trademark-copyright) - That aspect of design that makes a product work better for its intended purpose, as opposed to making the product look better or to identifying its commercial source.

Fund - See World Heritage Fund - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Fund for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage - See World Heritage Fund - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Fund for Rural America - A fund established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to augment existing resources for agricultural research and rural development. Funding is provided from the U.S. Treasury in three separate payments between January 1, 1997, and October 1, 1999. One-third of the fund is to be for competitive agricultural research grants, one-third for rural development, and one-third to be designated by USDA either for research or for rural development.

Fungi - Plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll and must obtain their food by microscopic, rootlike filaments that penetrate wood tissue and absorb its energy-rich chemicals. The fungi that colonize wood can cause surface mold, staining, or wood deterioration. In most cases, careful design and construction of wood structures with preservative-treated wood can prevent or minimize attack by fungi. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Furnacite - Processed coal for use in domestic fires. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Furrow Irrigation - Small, shallow channels guide water across the surface of a leveled field. Crops are typically grown on a ridge or raised bed between the furrows. This is the major irrigation system that is based on gravity.

FVDD - Fringe Village Development Districts

FUNEP - Friends of the United Nations Environment Programme

FVI - Full Vertical Integration

FVRP - The Fort Valley Restoration Project (FVRP) - An effort by the Grand Canyon Forest Partnership, a coalition of government and private organizations. The project covers about 1,900 acres in the Coconino National Forest, which has lost about 60,000 acres to fire in the 1990s.

FW - Farmed Wetlands

FWA - Federal Works Agency

FWA - Fish & Wildlife Authority

FWB - Field Windbreaks

FWCA - Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

FWCC - Friends World Committee for Consultation (Along with QUNO in New York, we represent Quakers to the UN ECOSOC in its Category II Status since 1948) (UN)

FWF - Florida Wildlife Federation http://www.flawildlife.org 

FWG - Federal Working Group

FWHA - Federal Highway Administration

FWIW - For What It's Worth

FWP - Fish, Wildlife and Parks (DOI)

FWPCA - Federal Water Policy Control Act

FWPCA - Federal Water Pollution Control Act

FWQA - Federal Water Quality Association

FWRS - Fish and Wildlife References Services

FWS - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

FY - Fiscal Year

FYFS - Farmers.....Your Favorite Scum (Animal Liberation Front slogan)

FYI - For Your Information

FZ - Fault Zone



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