DA - Decision Analysis

DA - Delegates Assembly

DA - Denver (CO) Airport

DA - Department of the Army

DA - Direct Action

DA - Disaster Assistance

DA - Discussion Agenda

DA - Distribution Amplifier

DAC - Development Assistance Committee

DAC - Digital to Analog Converter

DAC - Disability Action Center Northwest (an Idaho CIL with a main office in Moscow and a satellite in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho)

DAHI - Doctors Against Handgun Injury

Dairy Export Incentive Program - A program that offers subsidies to exporters of U.S. dairy products based on the volume of exports. The intent is to make the U.S. products more competitive in world markets, thereby increasing U.S. exports. The Commodity Credit Corporation receives export-price bids from exporters and makes the payments either in cash or through certificates redeemable for commodities. The program was originally authorized by the 1985 Act, and reauthorized by subsequent acts. The 1996 Act extends the program through 2002. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Dairy Termination Program - Also called the whole herd buyout, this program was authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985. Under it, farmers received USDA payments for agreeing to remove their entire dairy herds from production for 5 years.

DAL - Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia http://www.dal.ca/aczisc/new.htm

DALYs - disability-adjusted life years

Dams - Dams are used to restrict or divert the normal flow of water in rivers and streams for a variety of purposes. These include: raising the water level for navigation; storing and providing water for irrigation and industry; and producing a high-pressure source of water to generate hydro-electricity. Dams are not without serious problems: habitats are lost and people are displaced from their homes and land; downstream ecosystems are disrupted; silt and valuable nutrients are trapped behind the dam; fisheries are also severely depleted; reduced silt deposits downstream means that soil fertility is severely reduced; and coastal erosion can also increase as a result of silt-load loss. (UNESCO)

DARBY-OHIO - Darby Alliance for the Refuge on Behalf of the Youth of Ohio

DARE - Drug Abuse Resistance Education

Darien - A dense swamp/tropical rainforest that forms a barrier between Middle America and South America.

Dark/Middle Ages - Rome's decline coincided with peoples migrating to (and invading from) central Europe and invasions from Africa and Southwest Asia which commenced the Dark Ages; a long thousand year period of turmoil and poverty. The Dark Ages ended when Monarchies strengthened at the expense of feudal societies, marking the beginning of nation-states, discovery of new territories in the world, promotion of mercantilism-accumulation of precious metals through trade agreements and colonial conquests and the beginning of the Agricultural, Industrial and Political Revolutions.

DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DASNMSS - Drainage area, stream network, and monitored stream segments

DAT - Damage Assessment Team (FEMA)

Data Dictionary - an organized compilation of definitions for data entities and attributes. - Cadastral Data glossary

Data Element - A logically primitive item of data. - Cadastral Data glossary

Data Model - A data model defines for an organization what data is needed, and the interrelationship of that data. This data is needed by an organization to support decision making and provide rules to govern the use of the data. - Cadastral Data glossary

Data Quality Act - See Federal Data Quality Act.

Data Set - A collection of related data. - Cadastral Data glossary

Data sheets - Standardised data sheets for each natural property nomination are prepared by IUCN using the information held by the Protected Area Data Unit (PADU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). These data sheets are used as the basis for monitoring natural properties (IUCN 1995: 3). - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Database - Files of data interrelated in some manner and organized for quick search and retrieval by various data elements. For example, a database of names and addresses might be retrieved by ZIP codes or alphabetically by last name or street. A location is always included in a GIS database, since that is what gives GIS its value - the spatial distribution and relative locations of various features. - Cadastral Data glossary

DATCP - Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (Wisconsin)

Data Collection Platform (DCP) - Automatic measuring facility with a radio transmitter to provide contact and transmission of data via satellite. (UN)

Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 (tribal lands) - Also known as the General Allotment Act of 1887, the Dawes Allotment Act gave the President of the United States the power to allot land to Natives. The Dawes Allotment Act was approved on February 8, 1887 and was "considered an administrative victory as the first step toward the solution of the Indian question even though its evident purpose was to release land to settlement" (Stewart, 41). The Act empowered the President to allot land in severalty to Indians who were believed to benefit from it. There were various allotments given at this time, but the distribution of the land depended on age and status in the family. The head of a family was entitled to 160 acres; orphans under 18 and those non-orphans over 18 would receive 80 acres; and those who were under 18 could receive 40 acres (Stewart, 41). With regards to mixed marriages, the Act entitled Native women married to non-Native men to be officially deemed the head of the family for the purposes of the Act, and for the children to be eligible for land just as full blood Indians were (Dawes Allotment Act, s. 331, Note 90). Although the Dawes Allotment Act deals specifically with land, there are broader issues that have serious results on Natives in the United States. Specific details within the Dawes Allotment Act suggested that it was not fair to all Natives. Land that was allotted on reservations were to be used for grazing or farming purposes and was to be in trust for 25 years. During that 25-year trust period, the land could not be sold or mortgaged to anyone. The non-negotiable period was put in place to "protect the new individual owners from white sharpers [sic] until the Indians had adjusted well their new roles" (Prucha, 221). Therefore, it appears that the reason behind the trust period was the hope that this length of time would be and effective period for assimilation to take place. In addition to this, the President had the discretionary power to add time to a particular trust period if he believed it was necessary. With land that was left over, the President could negotiate any surplus land to settlers at 160 acres blocks and with ownership after 5 years (Stewart, 41).

The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 - Permitted individual Indians to own land privately. Resulted in transfers of large parts of Indian Territory to Euro-American settlers.

Day - A calendar day. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Days - Calendar days, including weekends and holidays. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

DB - Data Bank

DB - Data Base

dB - Decibel

DB - Displaced Businesses

DBA - Doing Business As

DBL - Designated Bike Lane

DBW - Department of Boating and Waterways

DC - Delisting Criteria (DOI/USFWS)

DC - Damage Control

DC - Definitive Codification

DC - Delivered Constituent

DC - Demand Creation

DC - Democratic Curriculum

DC - Department of Conservation

DC - Destabilization Campaign

DC - Devastating Consequences

DC - Developing Countries

DC - Development Corporation

DC - Disinheritment Clause

DC - Distribution Committee

DC - District of Columbia (Washington DC)

DC - District Consolidation

DC - District of Columbia

DC - Downlisting Criteria (DOI/USFWS)

DC - Drain Commissioner

DC - Dutchess County (New York)

DCA - Data Collection and Analysis

DCA - Department of Community Affairs

DCAT - Drug, Chemical, and Allied Trades Association

DCCC - Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee

DCEDA - Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration (Federal)

DCEDAG - Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration Grants (Federal)

DCI - Daycare Industry

DCNR - Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

DCO - Disease-Causing Organisms

DCP - Development Concept Plan

DCPA - Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD)

DCR - Diversity and Civil Rights

DCS1000 - Digital Collection System (formerly known as CARNIVORE)

DD - Developers Dream (cheap land purchased from those ruined by ESA restrictions)

DD - Development Districts

DD - Diversion Dam

DDA - Department for Disarmament Affairs (UN)

DDB - Downtown Development Board

DDGS - Distillers' dried grains

DDOADS - Degree of Dietary Overlap Among Different Species

DDR - Due Diligence Review

DE - Deep Ecology

DE - Delineation and Evaluation (Corps of Engineers) http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/pdfs/wlman87.pdf

DE - Destruction Efficiency

DE - Diagnostic Education

DEA - Draft Economic Analysis

DEA - Draft Environmental Assessment

DEA - Drug Enforcement Agency

Dead Fuels - Fuels with no living tissue in which moisture content is governed almost entirely by atmospheric moisture (relative humidity and precipitation), dry-bulb temperature, and solar radiation. - FS

Dead storage - The volume in a reservoir below the lowest controllable level. (Thomas and Harbeck, 1956, p. 13.) - USGS

Deaeration - Removal of gases from a liquid. - Bioenergy Glossary

Death Rate - The number of deaths in a year per 1000 population. (UNESCO)

Debitage - Debris or waste material derived from the manufacturing of prehistoric stone tools; debitage is always the most common artifact found and it is the chief indicator of an archeological site. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Debris Torrent - Rapid movement of a large quantity of materials (wood and sediment) down a stream channel during storms or floods. This generally occurs in smaller streams and results in scouring of streambed. (BLM)

Debt-asset Ratio - A financial ratio that measures the percentage of a farm operator's assets that are financed by debt. For example, a ratio of 0.4 means that for every $100 of assets the operator has $40 of debt. The ratio indicates to a lender the degree of security of a loan. Higher values indicate greater risk. Although a safe or acceptable level varies greatly by enterprise, a debt-asset ratio in excess of 0.4 may indicate financial stress. A ratio of 0 means that the operator owes no debt; a ratio greater than 1 means that the borrower's debts exceed the value of assets, indicating the insolvency of the farm business.

Debt-for-Nature Swap - Arrangement by which an indebted developing country undertakes, in exchange for cancellation of a portion of its foreign debt, to establish local currency funds to be used to finance a conservation program (United Nations).

Debt Reorganisation - (also Restructuring) Any action officially agreed between creditor and debtor that alters the terms previously established for repayment. This may include forgiveness (extinction of the loan), or rescheduling which can be implemented either by revising the repayment schedule or extending a new refinancing loan. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

DEC - Department of Environmental Conservation

Decay - Decomposition of wood by wood-destroying fungi. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

DECD - Diffused and Extending Cloud Deck

De-centralization - The distribution of responsibilities for decision making and operations to lower levels of government, community organizations, the private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). (FAO-UN)

Deciduous - Plants which do not retain their leaves from year to year. Opp: Evergreen - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2.Falling off; not permanent or evergreen. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Decision Area - The geographic area defining the scope of a document and the alternatives proposed by it.

Decision Criteria - The rules and standards used to evaluate alternatives to a proposed action on land. Decision criteria are designed to help a decision-maker identify a preferred choice from the array of alternatives.

Decision Memo - This type of decision is used when the environmental analysis has been "categorically excluded" from documentation in an EA or an EIS. Ordinarily, decisions documented in a Decision Memo are subject to administrative appeal; the exception is the category of small timber sales.

Decking Area - A site where logs are collected after they are cut and before they are taken to the landing area where they are loaded for transport.

Declaration - Document stating agreed upon standards but which is not legally binding. UN conferences, like the 1993 UN Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the 1995 World Conference for Women in Beijing, usually produce two sets of declarations: one written by government representatives and one by Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). The UN General Assembly often issues influential but legally Nonbinding declarations. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Declarations - Sometimes states make "declarations" as to their understanding of some matter or as to the interpretation of a particular provision. Unlike reservations, declarations merely clarify the state's position and do not purport to exclude or modify the legal effect of a treaty. Usually, declarations are made at the time of the deposit of the corresponding instrument or at the time of signature. (UN) 2. The term "declaration" is used for various international instruments. However, declarations are not always legally binding. The term is often deliberately chosen to indicate that the parties do not intend to create binding obligations but merely want to declare certain aspirations. An example is the 1992 Rio Declaration. Declarations can however also be treaties in the generic sense intended to be binding at international law. It is therefore necessary to establish in each individual case whether the parties intended to create binding obligations. Ascertaining the intention of the parties can often be a difficult task. Some instruments entitled "declarations" were not originally intended to have binding force, but their provisions may have reflected customary international law or may have gained binding character as customary law at a later stage. Such was the case with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Declarations that are intended to have binding effects could be classified as follows: (a) A declaration can be a treaty in the proper sense. A significant example is the Joint Declaration between the United Kingdom and China on the Question of Hong Kong of 1984. (b) An interpretative declaration is an instrument that is annexed to a treaty with the goal of interpreting or explaining the provisions of the latter. (c) A declaration can also be an informal agreement with respect to a matter of minor importance. (d) A series of unilateral declarations can constitute binding agreements. Typical examples are declarations under the Optional Clause of the Statute of the International Court of Justice that create legal bonds between the declarants, although not directly addressed to each other. Another example is the unilateral Declaration on the Suez Canal and the arrangements for its operation issued by Egypt in 1957 which was considered to be an engagement of an international character. (UN)

Decommission - Removal of a road from the Forest Transportation road system. This may include demolition, dismantling, removal, and obliteration, and/or disposal of a deteriorated or otherwise unneeded asset or component, including necessary cleanup work. This action eliminates the deferred maintenance needs for the fixed asset. Decommissioning is done to travel ways that are no longer needed for resource management. Portions of an asset or component may remain if the do not cause problems nor require maintenance. Decommissioning includes meeting the following objectives, as a minimum: 1. Motorized access is signed closed and/or access is physically blocked. 2. The road is hydrologically self-maintaining. 3. The road prism is re-vegetated. 4. Slopes are stabilized. - FS

Decommissioning - Some roads are discussed in terms of decommissioning, a specific type of road closure. On a decommissioned road, access would be controlled by means of a moderately sized berm or "tank trap" impassable to vehicles but capable of being easily bulldozed to permit vehicle passage if the road were recommissioned in the future. For all decommissioned roads, water bars are installed, the roadbed is seeded, all culverts are removed and self-maintaining crossroad drainage is provided.

Decomposition - The breakdown of organic materials by organisms in the environment, releasing energy and simple organic and inorganic compounds. About 10 percent of the energy that enters living systems through photosynthesis in plants passes to herbivores, and a fraction of this energy then passes to carnivores. Whether feeding on living or non-living material, however, the detritivores (the organisms consuming non-living material, such as many fungi, bacteria, and earthworms) and consumers break down organic material (such as sugars and proteins) to obtain energy for their own growth, thereby returning the inorganic components (the nutrients) to the environment, where they are again available to plants. - UNDP/WRI

Decomposition - The action of microorganisms causing the breakdown of organic compounds into simpler ones and the release of energy. - Everglades Plan glossary 2. Breaking down a process into subprocesses and activities. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Decoupled payments - Government program payments to farmers that are not linked to the current levels of production, prices, or resource use. When payments are decoupled, farmers make production decisions based on expected market returns rather than expected government payments. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Decoupling - A regulatory design that breaks the link between utility revenues and energy sales to encourage utility investment in conservation. - Bioenergy Glossary

Decoupling - The concept of separating federal farm payments from the requirement that farmers produce specified program crops and/or diverts land from production. A chief goal of decoupling is to remove a seemingly inherent contradiction in traditional policy: asking farmers to reduce production, while implicitly encouraging more output by tying their benefits to each unit produced. The decoupling concept was first introduced during debate over policy options in the 1985 omnibus farm bill, and was effectively implemented by policy changes made by the FAIR Act of 1996.

Decreaser - Plant species of the original or climax vegetation that will decrease in relative amount with continued overuse. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Decreasing population trend - See critical rate of decline.

DED - The Data Element Dictionary (DED) enables users to find specific data elements that are categorized under the following tables: site, action, alias, operable unit, and financial. The information contained in DED includes [the] element name, table name, common name, and field definition. - EPA Superfund glossary

Deed - A written document that transfers an interest in land.

Deed Restriction - Clauses included in a property deed which restrict the property owner's use of the land. Often, the term is used to refer to deed restrictions that are intended to preserve the land for agricultural use. Such deed restrictions typically prohibit the property owner from developing the land in such a way that the land is irretrievably lost to farming. Commonwealth agencies and County governments can create farmland deed restrictions under certain State authority. Conservation organizations can also create deed restrictions through normal real estate transactions.

Deeds - A deed is evidence in writing of an executed contract for the sale of and. Its purpose is to define location and title to land. Several types exits: (1) A Grant Deed conveys the fee title of the land described and owned by the grantee. If at a later date the grantor acquires a better title to the land conveyed, the grantee immediately acquires a better title to the land conveyed, the grantee immediately acquires the better title without formal documents (after rights). In some States, by law, the grantor warrants the deed against acts of his own volition; (2) A Quit Claim Deed passes on to the grantee whatever title the grantor has at the time at which the transaction is consummated. It carries no after rights. In essence, if the grantor acquires a better title at a later date, it is not passed on to the grantee. The deed carries no warranties on the part of the grantor; (3) An Agreement Deed is an agreement between owners to fix a disputed boundary line; (4) A Warranty Deed conveys the fee title to the land described to the grantee and in addition guarantees the grantor to make good the title if it is found lacking; (5) A Trust Deed is a written instrument by which a borrower (trustor) conveys his land to another (trustee) for the benefit of the lender (beneficiary) as security for the repayment of money lent. In the event of a failure of the trustor to repay the money, the trustee conducts a foreclosure sale of the real property. - Cadastral Data glossary

Deemed Disposition - This expression is used when a person is considered to have disposed of a property, even though a sale did not take place.

Deemed Proceeds of Disposition - This expression is used when a person is considered to have received an amount for the disposition of property, even though that person did not actually receive that amount.

Deep Ecology - Containing little of the science of ecology, deep ecology is a philosophy that gives equal value to human and non-human life. Deep ecologists believe that humans should use natural resources to satisfy only vital needs.

The Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act (DSHMRA) of 1980 - This Act establishes protocols and permit procedures for development of seabed minerals.

Deepwater habitat - Any open water area in which the mean water depth exceeds 6.6 feet in nontidal areas or at mean low water in freshwater tidal areas. Covered by water during extreme low water at spring tides in salt and brackish tidal areas, or covers the deepest emerging vegetation, whichever is deeper [USFWS] - NRI Glossary

De facto: exercising power "as if" legally constituted.

Deferred Revenue - Money that the non-profit organization has received, but has not yet earned as of the closing date on the balance sheet. This amount is carried as a liability until the organization provides the goods or services for which the money was received.

Deferral - See Deferred - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Deferred - When the Bureau and Committee examine nominations of properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List, they classify their decisions into those they choose to inscribe, those they decide not to inscribe, those referred back to States Parties for further information and those whose consideration is deferred (UNESCO February 1996: 23-25, Paragraph 65). The inscription of a property in the World Heritage List is deferred when the Committee awaits "evidence of the full commitment of the nominating government" to protect the property (UNESCO February 1996: 3, Paragraph 6 (v)). Paragraph 32 of the Operational Guidelines recommends that examination of nominations of "new towns of the twentieth century" should be deferred pending the passage of time (UNESCO February 1996: 10). The Bureau and Committee may defer the examination of a property for inclusion in the World Heritage List pending the completion of an "in- depth assessment or study" (UNESCO February 1996: 24, Paragraph 65 June/July (d)). - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Deferred grazing - Postponing grazing or resting grazing land for a prescribed period. - USDA

Deficiency payments - Direct government payments made prior to 1996 to farmers who participated in an annual commodity program for wheat, feed grains, rice, or cotton. The crop-specific payment rate for a particular crop year was based on the difference between an established target price and the higher of the commodity loan rate or the national average market price for the commodity during a specified time period. The total payment to the farmer for the crop year was calculated as the product of the payment rate, the farm's eligible payment acreage, and the farm's established program payment yield. In recent years, farmers could receive up to half of their projected deficiency payments at program sign-up. If the projected payment amount exceeded the subsequently determined final amount, the farmer was required to reimburse the Government for the difference, except in the case of the payments made under special provisions called "0,50/85-92." - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

DEFRA - Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (England)

DEFRA - Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK)

DEFRA - Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UN)

Deferment - Delay of livestock grazing on an area for an adequate period of time, to provide for plant reproduction, establishment of new plants, or the restoration of vigor in existing plants. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Deferred Grazing - The use of deferment in grazing management of a management unit. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Deferred Rotation - Any grazing system that provides for a systematic rotation of deferment among pastures. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Definitions - The United Nations, at several various conventions, has addressed the problem of definitions. Difficult and crucial terms, such as "alien", "invasive", "non-native", "native", "indigenous" and others have been discussed. Probably all speakers, presenters and participants in the discussions have agreed on the importance of definitions and also on the fact that most national laws tend to neglect or underestimate the definition problems. All agreed on the urgent need of internationally harmonized terminology, a need particularly emphasized by John Hedley in his presentation at the International Plant Protection Convention. If any new international regime is being developed, whatever its scope, harmonization of terms should be an essential element, if not the starting point. 2. A statement of the precise meaning of something. In classifications this refers to the explanation of the concepts encompassed in category description and often includes specific examples of what is and is not included in particular categories. In deliberations on the use of terms, delegates called for definitions of the terms "exploration area", "commercially sensitive area", "inspectors" and "precautionary measures". With regard to the definition of exploitation, one delegation objected to the inclusion of construction and operation of mining, processing and transportation systems as part of the exploitation process. The point was made, however, that if a contractor wished to include the costs associated with these systems in cost-recovery claims, they would have to be considered part of exploitation. Another representative questioned the allusion to the production of minerals, since the production process was a land-based, rather than an exploitation, activity, but according to another member, insofar as land-based activities were associated with exploitation, they had to be included in any definition of that term. The definition of "guidelines" to be issued by the Legal and Technical Commission was the subject of much debate. Some members stressed that the Commission had no authority to issue a legally binding instrument but could only formulate recommendations or suggest practices that the Council would then have to approve. Guidelines would not override the rules laid down by the Council, as they were merely mechanisms to assist contractors in the implementation of those rules. As such, there was no question of the Commission exceeding its mandate. Some speakers questioned whether the code should attempt to define "marine environment", in view of the difficulty of interpreting it in a legal document. Others, however, wondered how serious harm to the environment could be understood if there was no definition. The draft under discussion defines "marine environment" as "the physical, chemical and biological components, conditions and factors which interact and determine the productivity, state, condition and quality of the marine ecosystem, including the coastal area, the waters of the seas and oceans and the airspace above those waters, as well as the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof". On the definition of "serious harm to the marine environment", several delegations wanted the words "serious harm" to be replaced by the phrase "harmful effects", which would be consistent with article 145 of the Convention. A contractor during exploration activities may find 6 bis, relating to the protection of archaeological or historical objects that the Council agreed to incorporate in the regulations a new section. Under this regulation, contractors would be required to notify the Authority's Secretary-General in writing of any such discovery, and to take all reasonable measures not to disturb it. Members agreed that all references to provisional members of the Authority should be omitted from the regulations. There was also general agreement to omit from the list of definitions the terms already defined in the Convention, and to add an explanatory paragraph to this effect. Inclusion of the crime of aggression is acceptable provided that a clear and precise definition is arrived at. (UN)

Definitive Signature - When the treaty is not subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, "definitive signature" establishes the consent of the state to be bound by the treaty. Most bilateral treaties dealing with more routine and less politicized matters are brought into force by definitive signature, without recourse to the procedure of ratification. [Art.12, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Deflection - Deformation of a structural element caused when loading exceeds resistance. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Defoliation - The removal of plant leaves, by grazing or browsing, chemical action, or natural phenomena such as hail, fire, or frost.

Deforestation - The process of clearing of forests. Since tree root systems are essential for keeping topsoil in place, deforestation can bring about soil erosion. In addition, loss of trees is said to contribute to global warming because trees reduce greenhouse gases and provide shade. (WB-UN)

DEHNR - Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources

DEIS - Draft Environmental Impact Statement

Delaney Clause - The Delaney Clause in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states that no additive shall be deemed to be safe for human food if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals. It is an example of the zero tolerance concept in food safety policy. The Delaney prohibition appears in three separate parts of the FFDCA: Section 409 on food additives; Section 512, relating to animal drugs in meat and poultry; and Section 721 on color additives. The Section 409 prohibition applied to many pesticide residues until enactment of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-170, August 3, 1996). This legislation removed pesticide residue tolerances from Delaney Clause constraints.

Deletion - Deletion of a property from the World Heritage List refers to the same process as delisting. A property may be deleted or removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger when that property is no longer under threat (UNESCO February 1996: 31, Paragraph 89). A property may be deleted from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List if the property has deteriorated to the extent that it has lost those characteristics which determined its inclusion in the World Heritage List (UNESCO February 1996: 31, Paragraph 89). The Operational Guidelines outline a procedure concerning the possible deletion of a property from the World Heritage List in Paragraphs 46-54 (UNESCO February 1996: 15-17). See Delisting - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Delft Declaration - Declaration on Capacity Building, agreed at the UNDP Symposium A Strategy for Water Resources Capacity Building, held in Delft, the Netherlands, June 1991. (FAO-UN)

Delisting - Delisting a property from the World Heritage List refers to the same process as deletion. Paragraph 22 of the Operational Guidelines comments that the Committee will consider delisting a property when the corrective measures agreed to by the State Party nominating a property for inclusion in the World Heritage List are not submitted "within the time proposed by the State" (UNESCO February 1996: 6). See Deletion - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Delivery Ratio - The amount of a pollutant generated at its source, compared to the amount of the pollutant actually reaching a water resource. This term is frequently expressed as a percentage. Point and non-point source pollutants may have different delivery ratios. A large percentage of many point source pollutants may actually reach a water resource in nearly the same amount as when they were generated and released into the environment. Suppose that a commercial operation generated a waste product as part of a manufacturing process, did not treat the waste, and subsequently discharged the waste directly to a stream. The delivery ratio for this point source case would be near 100 percent. Some NPS pollutants also may have large delivery ratios. As an example, pollution from parking lots where the runoff flows from paved surfaces directly to a storm sewer or stream may have a large delivery ratio. The delivery ratio for pollutants generated from agricultural land use is variable, but usually ranges between I and 40 percent. For example, much soil may be detached and eroded on an agricultural field during a rainfall event. However, only a small percentage of the sediment may actually enter a stream depending on field slope, soil type, tillage direction, proximity of field to stream, proper use of sediment control methods or BMPs, or other factors that might help reduce runoff velocity and amount, and enhance sediment deposition within the field.

Deliverable - The clearly defined result, good or service produced during the project or at its outcome; this may include a report, plan or physical product. - Everglades Plan glossary

Delphi Technique - The Delphi Technique, or Delphi Process is a name that has been applied to a technique used to attain opinions with the object of obtaining a consensus from a group of experts. Delphi replaces direct confrontation and debate by a carefully planned, orderly program of sequential discussions. Researchers point out that the Delphi Technique "eliminates committee activity altogether, thus further reducing the influence of certain psychological factors, such as specious persuasion, the unwillingness to abandon publicly expressed opinions, and the bandwagon effect of majority opinion.

DEM - Department of Environmental Management

DEM - Digital Elevation Model (for surveying/mapping)

Demand management - The use of price, quantitative restrictions and other devices to limit the demand for water. (FAO-UN)

Demilitarization - Orientation of a country's economy away from military production. The opposite of militarization. - World Bank Glossary

De minimis rule - The total Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) includes a specific commodity support only if it equals more than 5 percent of its value of production. The non-commodity-specific support component of the AMS is included in the AMS total only if it exceeds 5 percent of the value of total agricultural output. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Democrat - A person who attempts an undue opposition or influence over government by means of private clubs, secret intrigues, or by public popular meetings that are extraneous to the Constitution. - Noah Webster (1758-1843)

Demographic stochasticity - Randomly occurring events affecting individuals. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Demography - The statistical study of human populations, especially with reference to size and density, distribution and vital statistics. (WB-UN)

Demos - The people.

De-nitrification - The biochemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen or as an oxide of nitrogen.

DENR - Department of the Environment and Natural Resources

DENR - Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Densification - A mechanical process to compress biomass (usually wood waste) into pellets, briquettes, cubes, or densified logs. - Bioenergy Glossary

Density - The number of dwelling units per gross area of land.

Density Bonus - The allocation of development rights that allows a parcel to accommodate additional square footage or additional residential units beyond the maximum for which the parcel is zoned. Under Government Code Section 65915, a housing development that provides 20 percent of its units for lower income households, or ten percent of its units for very low-income households, or 50 percent of its units for seniors, is entitled to a density bonus and other concessions.

Density Management - Cutting of trees for the primary purpose of widening their spacing so that growth of remaining trees can be accelerated. Density management harvest can also be used to improve forest health, to open the forest canopy, or to accelerate the attainment of old growth characteristics if maintenance or restoration of biological diversity is the objective. (BLM)

Density Stratification - Creation of layers in a water body due to density differences; controlled by temperature, dissolved solids concentration and particle concentration. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Density Transfer - A governmentally enabled development strategy for directing development away from less suitable areas (sending areas) and to areas that are more suitable for development (receiving areas). Density Transfers permit the transfer of permitted density or Development Rights (as granted by local zoning or other development regulations) associated with a property in the sending area to a property in the receiving area. The property that sends the development rights is then restricted by a deed restriction, easement or other means from ever using the rights sold.

Denuded - Stripped of all vegetative cover as after a severe disturbance such as a landslide. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

DEP - Deep Ecology Platform

DEP - Deep Ecology Platform 1) ) The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves (synonyms: inherent worth; intrinsic value; inherent value). These values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes. 2) Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are also values in themselves. 3) Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs. 4) Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening. 5) The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population. The flourishing of nonhuman life requires such a decrease. 6) Policies must therefore be changed. The changes in policies affect basic economic, technological structures. The resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present. 7) The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent worth) rather than adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. There will be a profound awareness of the difference between big and great. 8) Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation directly or indirectly to participate in the attempt to implement the necessary changes. - Arne Naess and George Sessions. We will remind ourselves and all that work with us that the industrial juggernaut, with all its life-destroying power, just cannot endure. That with our help, as small as our contribution may be in the totality of things, we shall collectively find, as Gary Snyder has said, "the place to put the arrow through the heart of the growth monster." Some time ago, we put the question to as good a counsel as we have: farmer, writer, and ironic sage Wendell Berry. And we got back what seems to be about as good advice as we'll need to keep up our interest and our energy to chip away at the work that's in front of us. Wendell wrote: "Maybe there is some sort of bombshell idea or strategy that could bring about a quick change of consciousness, though I don't know what it would be. An economic collapse would probably do it. That would be a bombshell, but not a strategy or an idea. All the credit would have to go to idiots. The harder problem is that even a sudden and universal change of consciousness would not be sufficient to bring about good use of the land. For that we would need a change of knowledge. That means millions of good farmers and foresters, which we don't have, haven't tried to have, and have been at pains to avoid having. An adequate number of them can't be grown up suddenly; that will take generations. A change of consciousness is only the beginning. Beyond that you have got to have knowledge and character too." http://www.deepecology.org/deepplatform.html

DEP - Department of Environmental Protection

Department - The Department of Transportation. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Department of Agriculture (USDA) - USDA was originally established in 1862 and raised to cabinet status in 1889. In FY1997 it had an employment level equal to about 113,000 staff years, working in some 30 separate agencies, carrying out program activities valued at $84 billion, with net federal budgetary outlays of $57 billion. Forestry, natural resource, and farm activities utilized 58% of the staff time. However, about 70% of USDA expenditures went to domestic food assistance programs. Over 90% of the staff are located in local, state, and regional field offices away from the Washington, DC, headquarters. Approximately three-fourths of USDA spending is classified as mandatory spending, which by definition is not constrained by the annual appropriations process. Eligibility for mandatory programs is written into law; any individual or entity that meets the eligibility requirements is entitled to a payment as authorized by the law. The vast majority of mandatory spending is in the Food Stamp Program and certain other food and nutrition programs, the farm commodity programs, the crop insurance program, and the Conservation Reserve Program. The other roughly 25% of USDA budget is classified as discretionary and is subject to annual appropriations, including rural development, agricultural research and education, agricultural credit, international food aid, food marketing and inspection, forestry, and certain nutrition programs. All USDA discretionary programs are funded through an annual Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act (except the Forest Service is funded through the Department of Interior appropriations act). Annual appropriations are made to the food stamp and other mandatory nutrition programs based on estimated spending needs. However, supplemental appropriations are generally made if and when these estimates fall short of required spending. An annual appropriation is made to the Commodity Credit Corporation, which funds the commodity programs and the Conservation Reserve Program, in order to cover its past net realized losses. Most, but not all, USDA programs are under the congressional authorizing jurisdiction of the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. http://www.usda.gov/

Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 - Title II of P.L. 103-354 (October 13, 1994) was designated the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 and gave the Secretary of Agriculture broad authority to reorganize USDA to achieve greater efficiency, effectiveness, and economy. The law called for consolidation of agencies and offices, as well as a reduction in personnel of 7,500 by the end of FY1999.

DEPC - Department of Environmental Pollution Control

Department of the Interior (DOI) - A cabinet-level organization with overall responsibility and accountability for all agency bureaus, offices, services, and other internal organizations.

Dependable yield, in-years - The minimum supply of a given water development that is available on demand, with the understanding that lower yields will occur once in n years, on the average. (Paulsen, 1950, p. 801.) - USGS

Dependency Ratio - A rough estimate of the number of dependents per worker. The ratio is computed by dividing the number of people who are most likely to be dependent (those under age 19 plus those over 64) by the number of people in the working-aged population (ages 19 through 64). - USDA/FS

Depletion - The progressive withdrawal of water from surface- or ground-water reservoirs at a rate greater than that of replenishment. (see Recession curve and streamflow depletion.) - USGS

Deposit - After a treaty has been concluded, the written instruments, which provide formal evidence of consent to be bound, and also reservations and declarations, are placed in the custody of a depositary. Unless the treaty provides otherwise, the deposit of the instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession establishes the consent of a state to be bound by the treaty. For treaties with a small number of parties, the depositary will usually be the government of the state on whose territory the treaty was signed. Sometimes various states are chosen as depositaries. Multilateral treaties usually designate an international organization or the Secretary-General of the United Nations as depositaries. The depositary must accept all notifications and documents related to the treaty, examine whether all formal requirements are met, deposit them, register the treaty and notify all relevant acts to the parties concerned. [Arts.16, 76 and 77, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Depreciable Property - This is usually capital property used to earn income from a business or property. The cost can be written off as capital cost allowance over a number of years.

Depression - Basin in the landscape created by forces such as glaciation or wind.

Depression Spring - A spring that occurs where the topography of the Earth's surface dips below the water table, thus forming marshes or small ponds.

Depression storage - The volume of water contained in natural depressions in the land surface, such as puddles. (After Horton, 1935, p. 2) - USGS

Depth to Aquifer - The vertical distance between the deepest point at which hazardous substances are suspected and the top of the shallowest aquifer that supplies drinking water. - EPA

Depth to rock - Bedrock is too near the surface for the specified use. - USDA

DEQ - Department of Environmental Quality

DER - Department of Environmental Resources

DER - Distinguished Encoding Rules

DERA - Defense Evaluation Research Agency

Derived Classifications - Are based upon reference classifications. Derived classifications may be prepared either by adopting the reference classification structure and categories, providing additional detail beyond that provided by the reference classification, or they may be prepared through rearrangement or aggregation of items from one or more reference classifications. Derived classifications are often tailored for use at the national or multi-national level (e.g. NACE). (UN)

Derivation of terms - The Glossary of World Heritage Terms has been prepared primarily by extracting terms and their definitions and interpretations from the World Heritage Convention, the Operational Guidelines and to reports of relevant expert meetings. Other documents and publications consulted during the preparation of the Glossary are listed in the Bibliography. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

DES - dietary energy supply

Descendants - All those who have issued from an individual; i.e., children, grandchildren, and their children-to the remotest degree. - Cadastral Data glossary

Description - The exact location of a piece of property stated in terms of lot, block, and tract, or by metes and bounds. - Cadastral Data glossary

Description/Descriptor - Is normally a one-line statement/heading/index entry of a category in a classification, designed to convey its content. (UN)

Desert Pavement - A cemented, hydrophobic layer of rocks or small pebbles that occurs over time on desert soil surfaces; prevents water infiltration into soils and wind/water erosion of the soil; often covered with a chemical varnish layer. - BLM

Desert Pavement - A desert ground surface of thin, smooth, or sheetlike, wind-polished, closely packed pebbles, boulders, gravel, and other rock fragments, where wind and sheetwash have removed all small particles. These fragments are commonly cemented by mineralized solution. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. A natural, residual concentration of wind-polished, closely packed pebbles, boulders, and other rock fragments, mantling a desert surface where wind action and sheetwash have removed all smaller particles. It usually protects the underlying, finer-grained material from further deflation. The coarse fragments commonly are cemented by mineral matter. - BLM

Desertification - A process of landscape change usually due to land mismanagement or climate change whereby the land becomes increasingly arid and vegetation is replaced by more dry-adapted species. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Desertification - Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations (drought) and human activities (overexploitation of drylands). 2. The process of becoming desert (as from land management or climate change). (WB-UN)

Desiccant - A chemical agent that absorbs moisture; desiccants can be used to control insect pests or mildew, and also to dry foliage before harvest (as with potatoes). Desiccants are regulated as pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

Design Agreement - A Cooperative Agreement between the Department of the Army and the local sponsor for the Design of Elements of the Comprehensive Plan. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Design-basis phenomena - Earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, etc., that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to withstand without loss of systems, structures, and components necessary to assure public health and safety. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Design Coordination Team (DCT) - Comprised of USACE, SFWMD and FDEP staff who meet regularly to provide for consistent and effective communication, coordination and issue resolution on projects included in the Design Agreement. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Design criteria - The best engineering practices available to ensure the health, safety and welfare of the public.

Design Criteria - State and national standards and procedures that guide the establishment of roadway layouts, alignments, geometry, and dimensions for specified types of roadways in certain defined conditions. The principal design criteria for roadways are traffic volumes, design speed, the physical characteristics of vehicles, the classification of vehicles, and the percentage of various vehicle classification types that use the roadway.

Design Documentation Report (DDR) - an implementation document that describes results of investigations, analyses and calculations made during the detailed design phase, and which provides the technical basis for the plans and specifications. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Design Guide - A document that illustrates principles of design, provides design guidance for particular development types and makes explicit the benchmarks for assessing the level of amenity and design quality of a development. (UN)

Design Guideline - A standard of appropriate activity that will preserve the historic and architectural character of a structure or area.

Design parameters - Variables of function, need, or usage that directly affect the design of a building, structure, or object. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Design Patent (patent) - A government grant of exclusive rights in a novel, non-obvious, and ornamental industrial design. A design patent confers the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling designs that closely resemble the patented design. A design patent covers the ornamental aspects of a design; a utility patent covers its functional aspects. A design patent and a utility patent can cover different aspects of the same article, such as an automobile or a lamp.

Design Speed - The speed determined for design and correlation of the physical features of a road or road segment that influence vehicle operation. It is the maximum safe speed that the design vehicle can maintain over a specific segment of a road when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the road, rather than operational limitation of the vehicle, govern. The design speed is the safe speed for the design situation only. (FSH 7709.56, section 4.25) - FS

Design Standards - The definitive lengths, widths, and depths of individual elements, such as a 12-foot traveled way, 2-foot shoulders, :1 cut slopes, 3-foot curve widening, and 6 inches of crushed aggregate, that define a road template. (FSM 7721.05. Also see FSH 7709.56, section 4.05) - FS

Designated Uses of Water - Water uses identified in state water quality standards that must be achieved and maintained as required under the Clean Water Act. Uses can include cold water fisheries, public water supply, irrigation, etc.

Design Vehicle - The vehicle frequently using the road that determines the minimum standard for a particular design element. (FSH 7709.56, section 4.1) - FS

Designed landscape - See Clearly defined landscape - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Designation - Approval of an organization allowing it to hold a conservation covenant.

Designation Application - The package of information, including the Corridor Management Plan (CMP), that is submitted to the Department for review to determine whether a roadway should be officially designated as a Scenic Highway. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Designation Phase - The second phase of the process for the Scenic Highways Program that ends with an approval/denial for state designation. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

DESIP - Demographic, Environmental, and Security Issues Project (a link on the VHEMT Links page) Examines social and political issues and their effects on Earth's ecosystems.

Desired Future Condition - Used to describe the future condition of federal rangeland resources that meet management objectives. Desired future condition is based on ecological, social, and economic considerations during the land and resource management planning process. Desired future condition is usually expressed as ecological status or management status of vegetation and desired soil qualities. Land or resource conditions that are expected to result if goals and objectives are fully achieved.

Desired Landscape Character - Appearance of the landscape to be retained or created over time, recognizing that a landscape is a dynamic and constantly changing community of plants and animals. Combination of landscape design attributes and opportunities, as well as biological opportunities and constraints. - FS

Desired Plant Community - The plant community that has been determined through a land use or management plan to best meet the plan's objectives for a site. A desired plant community is consistent with the site's capability to produce the required resource attributes through natural succession, management intervention, or a combination of both.

Desirable Plant Species - These are defined as species and percentage occurrence of the species common to pristine plant communities. They are usually good forage plants and generally are first to show adverse effects of excessive grazing use. The species are generally good soil binders, especially in natural mixtures of desirable species. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Desired Nonnative Species - Those species of plants or animals that are not indigenous to an area but valued for their contribution to species diversity or their high social, cultural, or economic value (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52

DET - Domestic Environmental Terrorists

Determination of Eligibility - This process is used to determine the significance of a potential historic property. The State Historic Preservation Officer (Historical and Museum Commission) applies National Register of Historic Places criteria to decide if a property is eligible for inclusion in the National Register.

Determination of Endangered and Threatened Species (ESA 4) - The Act requires the Secretary of the Interior to list species as endangered or threatened because of any of a number of factors, including habitat destruction, overutilization, disease or predation, inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms, or other natural...factors....The Secretary must give consideration to species designated as requiring protection...or identified as in danger of extinction...A regulation designating critical habitat for the species being listed must be published at the same time as the listing. The Act requires the Secretary to designate critical habitat....after taking into consideration the economic impact and any other relevant impact of specifying a particular area. The Act requires the Secretary to publish lists of all species determined to be endangered or threatened....The Secretary must revise lists periodically to reflect recent actions....The Secretary may treat an unlisted species as listed.....

DETR - Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions (United Kingdom)

Detritus - Any accumulation of disintegrated material or debris.

DEUF - Dendrimer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (A novel water treatment process for removing toxic metal ions from contaminated water.)

Developed countries (industrial countries, industrially advanced countries) - High-income countries, in which most people have a high standard of living. Sometimes also defined as countries with a large stock of physical capital, in which most people undertake highly specialized activities. According to the World Bank classification, these include all high-income economies except Hong Kong (China), Israel, Kuwait, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates. Depending on who defines them, developed countries may also include middle-income countries with transition economies, because these countries are highly industrialized. Developed countries contain about 15 percent of the world's population. They are also sometimes referred to as "the North." - World Bank Glossary

Development Education - To enable people to participate in the development of their community, their nation and the world as a whole. Such participation implies a critical awareness of local, national and international processes. Development education is concerned with issues of human rights, dignity, self-reliance and social justice in both developed and developing countries. It is concerned with the causes of under-development and the promotion of an understanding of what is involved in development, of how different countries go about undertaking development, and of the reasons for and ways of achieving a new international economic and social order. (UN)

Developable Land - Unimproved land exclusive of: (1) public open space, (2) land precluded from development due to deed restrictions, and (3) land deemed undevelopable by State or local regulation of natural factors (e.g. slopes, wetlands, etc.)

Developed land - A combination of land cover/use categories, Urban and built-up areas, and Rural Transportation Land. - NRI Glossary 3. A combination of land cover/use categories, Large urban and built-up areas, Small built-up areas, and Rural transportation land. - National Resources Inventory

Developed Recreation - Recreation that requires facilities that, in turn, result in concentrated use of the area, such as ski areas, resorts and campgrounds. For example, skiing requires roads, parking lots, drinking water, ski lifts, parking lots, buildings, and roads. Campgrounds require roads, picnic tables, and toilet facilities.

Developed Recreation Sites - Recreation sites that have facilities, structures, or developments such as drinking water, bathrooms, picnic tables, and developed campsites.

Developing Country - Low- and middle-income countries in which most people have a lower standard of living with access to fewer goods and services than do most people in high-income countries. There are currently about 125 developing countries with populations over 1 million; in 1998, their total population was more than 5.0 billion. (World Bank-UN)

Development - The following activities: (1) the division of a parcel of land into two or more parcels (2) the construction, reconstruction, conversion, structural alteration, relocation, enlargement, or demolition of a structure, or of any mining, excavation, landfill, or deposition (3) any use, or change in the use, of any structure, or land, or extension of use of land.

Development Assistance Committee (DAC) -The committee of the OECD which deals with development co-operation matters. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary 2. A specialized committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), established to coordinate, monitor, and evaluate official development assistance (ODA) from OECD member countries and others, such as OPEC, to developing countries. - WB

Development Capacity - The extent to which an area can support development consistent with sustaining appropriate levels of economic performance, infrastructure, public fiscal capacity, community quality of life, and the functional integrity of Natural Systems.

Development Committee - Formally, the "Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries." Established in October 1974, the Committee consists of 24 members, generally Ministers of Finance, appointed in turn for successive periods of two years by one of the countries or groups of countries that designates a member of the Bank's or IMF's Board of Executive Directors. The Committee is required to advise and report to the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the IMF on all aspects of the broad question of the transfer of real resources to developing countries, and to make suggestions for their implementation. - WB

Development Easement - A legal agreement by which a landowner surrenders the right to develop a designated parcel of property. Some local and state governments have programs to acquire development easements from private landowners to prevent conversion of farmland to other uses.

Development (Mineral) - The preparation of a proven deposit for mining. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Development Regulation - A zoning ordinance, subdivision ordinance, site plan ordinance, official map ordinance or other regulation of any public agency concerning the use and development of land.

Development Rights - The nature and the extent to which land, including the air space above and subsurface resources, may be developed under zoning and other development regulations.

Deviation - Departure from existing landscape character or from landscape character goals. Deviation from existing landscape character can be positive, negative, or have no effect. - FS

Devolution - The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. In Europe: regionalism is heightened by disunifying forces, also known as devolution, as it attempts to unify the realm into a common economic sphere.

Dewatering - The process of pumping large amounts of ground water from wells to lower the water table over a large area to allow an open pit or underground mine to operate in dry conditions. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

DF - Decision Framework (DOI)

DF - De Facto (without law)

DF - Department of Forestry

DF - Development Factors

DF - Discretionary Funds

DF - Discussion Forum

DF - Distribution Formula

DF - The Donnelley Foundation

DFA - Development and Finance Authority

DFA - The Division of Federal Aid -- Landowner Incentive Program (DOI/USFWS)

DFAIT - The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade

DFC - Desired Future Condition

DFG - Department of Fish and Game

DFID - The UK (United Kingdom) Department for International Development (UN)

DFIRMS - Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps

DFM - Direct Farm Marketing

DFN - Debt For Nature

DFNS - Debt For Nature Swap

DFP - Defensive Fire Position (modern-day foxhole)

DFW - Drop / Fail / Withdrawal Rates

DFWA - De Facto Wilderness Area

DGH - Doctors for Global Health

DGS - Division of Geological Survey

DH - Dispersal habitat

DH - Dry Hydrant

DHC - Deer Hiding Cover

DHCP - Draft Habitat Conservation Plan

DHE - Department of Health and Environment

DHEC - Department of Health and Environmental Control

DHHS - Department of Health and Human Services

DI - Database Initiative

DI - Demonstrated Interest

DI - Development Issues

DI - Diplomatic Immunity

DI - Disparate Impact

DIA - Draft Implementing Agreement

DIALOG - an online database service made available by Knight Ridder Information Services, Inc. Offers much information on foundations and grants through DIALOG.

Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) - The diameter of a tree measured at about 4.5 feet above the ground on the uphill side of the tree. This measurement, correlated to the height of the tree, gives an indication of the board foot volume of lumber in a tree.

Diarrheal Illness - A disease that affects the intestines. The victims of this disease, frequently children in low- and middle-income countries, may die from the resulting dehydration. (WB-UN)

DICC - Deer Island Club Corporation

DIF&W - Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (Maine)

Differential - Movement due to change in size caused by changes in temperature. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Diffused Water - Water, usually resulting from rainfall and/or snowmelt, that spreads over the land surface. Once diffused water enters a well-defined channel, it is usually described as concentrated flow.

Diffusion - The slow movement of an ion in water mostly by its own kinetic motion.

Diffusion - The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Turbulent diffusion, or mixing, results from atmospheric motions (wind) diffusing water, vapor, heat, and other chemical components by exchanging parcels called eddies between regions in space in apparent random fashion. Molecular diffusion, which operates in stagnant zones, such as at the bottom sediment-water boundary in a deep lake, occurs much, much more slowly and so is important only on a very small scale such as right at the bottom. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Digester - An airtight vessel or enclosure in which bacteria decomposes biomass in water to produce biogas. - Bioenergy Glossary

DIH - Department of Indian Health

DILG - Department of the Interior and Local Government

Dimension lumber - A size classification of lumber that is from two inches up to, but not including, five inches thick, and that is two or more inches in width. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Dimorphic - Two forms. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Dioxin - A family of compounds, some of which are hazardous, that result from combustion of carbon materials. The most toxic of these compounds is 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (Times Beach, Missouri) - Bioenergy Glossary

DIN - Draconian In Nature

DINAMO - Association for the Development of Inland Navigation in America's Ohio Valley

Direct Effect - An effect, influence or occurrence caused by a given action and caused by the action and occurring at the same time and place.

Direct Effect - Economic response in an industry that results from a change in that industry's output. - USDA/FS

Direct Impacts -The effects that are caused by an action and occur at the same time and place as the action.

Direct Price or Quantity Comparison - Made by comparing for two or more countries the prices or quantities for a representative sample of equivalent commodities. (UN)

Direct Runoff - Water that flows over the ground surface or through the ground directly into streams, rivers, and lakes. Runoff is the cause of rill erosion and a source of non-point pollution.

Dirt Bike - Non-street legal motorcycle. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

DIS - Distributed Information Systems

Disaggregation - Disaggregation is the breakdown of observations, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to a more detailed level to that at which detailed observations are taken. With standard hierarchical classifications, statistics for related categories can be grouped or collated (aggregated) to provide a broader picture, or categories can be split (disaggregated) when finer details are required and made possible by the codes given to the primary observations. (UN)

Disarmament - The process of limiting the number of military personnel or the size of weaponry arsenals. It also describes the process of decommissioning weapons, ammunition, military facilities and hardware, and the de-mobilization of military personnel. (UNESCO)

Disbursement - The release of funds to, or the purchase of goods or services for a recipient; by extension, the amount thus spent. Disbursements record the actual international transfer of financial resources, or of goods or services valued at the cost to the donor. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Discharge - In its simplest concept discharge means outflow; therefore, the use of this term is not restricted as to course or location, and it can be applied to describe the flow of water from a pipe or from a drainage basin. If the discharge occurs in some course or channel, it is correct to speak of the discharge of a canal or of a river. It is also correct to speak of the discharge of a canal or stream into a lake, a stream, or an ocean. (See also Streamflow and Runoff.) The data in the reports of the Geological Survey on surface water represent the total fluids measured. Thus, the terms discharge, streamflow, and runoff represent water with the solids dissolved in it and the sediment mixed with it. Of these terms, discharge is the most comprehensive. The discharge of drainage basins is distinguished as follows: Yield. Total water runout or crop; includes runoff plus underflow. Runoff. That part of water yield that appears in streams. Streamflow. The actual flow in streams, whether or not subject to regulation, or underflow. Each of these terms can be reported in total volumes (such as acre-feet) or time rates (such as cubic feet per second or acre-feet per year). The differentiation between runoff as a volume and streamflow as a rate is not accepted. - USGS

Discharge - 1) Cancel (as in covenants). 2) In water resources, the term refers to the flow of surface water in a stream or canal or the outflow of ground water from a flowing artisan well, ditch, or spring. The rate of flow or volume of water flowing in a stream at a given place or within a given period of time. In environmental protection, the term is used synonymously with effluent or emission as a term of point source pollution release.

Discharge of Dredged Material - The (Army) Corps (of Engineers) and EPA regard the use of mechanized earth-moving equipment to conduct landclearing, ditching, channelization, in-stream mining or other earth-moving activity in waters of the United States as resulting in a discharge of dredged material unless project-specific evidence shows that the activity results in only incidental fallback. This does not and is not intended to shift any burden in any administrative or judicial proceeding under the Clean Water Act (CWA). - EPA

Discharge (Water) - The rate of flow or volume of water flowing in a stream at a given place or within a given period of time. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Discharge rating curve - See Stage discharge relation. - USGS

Disclaimer - Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. - USDA glossary

Discount rate - A rate used to convert future costs or benefits to their present value. - Bioenergy Glossary

Discount to Net Present Value - A reduction of an award for damages arising in the future by making allowance for the fact that such award -- if properly invested -- would earn interest. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

Discovery - The knowledge of the presence of valuable minerals within or close enough to a location to justify a reasonable belief in their existence. Discovery is an extremely important to public lands mining because the Mining Law of 1872 provides that mining claims can be located only after a discovery is made. Discovery was first legally defined in a landmark Department of the Interior 1894 land decision Castle versus Womble. The definition, now know as the "Prudent Person Test," described a discovery as "...where minerals have been found and the evidence is of such a character that a person of ordinary prudence would be justified in the further expenditure of his labor and means, with a reasonable prospect of success in developing a valuable mine..." - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Disjunct - Separated from the main, continuous portion of a species' range. (NPS)

Dispersal - Movement of individuals from natal to first breeding location (natal dispersal), or between consecutive breeding locations (breeding dispersal). - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Dispersal habitat - See Spotted owl habitat. - Bioenergy Glossary

Dispersed Recreation - Recreation that does not occur in a developed recreation site, such as hunting, backpacking, viewing scenery, cross-country skiing, and scenic driving, and recreation in primitive environments. Requires few, if any, facilities or other improvements.

Dispersed recreation - Canoe accesses may be constructed at a rate of one per l0 miles of stream with parking areas and sanitary facilities for about 25 persons at one time (PAOT) capacity. One canoe camping site will be provided per each mile of stream, but they will be consolidated at canoe access points. The design capacity of one site is 5 PAOT. A maximum of l camping unit (walk-in) per 2 miles of hiking trail will be developed when needed if the length of trail the units serve is l0 miles or greater. If the trail is less than l0 miles in length, camp units will not be constructed. When more than 3 walk-in camp units are provided in a cluster, toilet facilities may be provided. - USDA Forest Service

Dispersive clays - Clays that are usually high in absorbed sodium and that disperse or deflocculate easily and rapidly in water of low salt content.

Displacement of Soil - The movement of the ground and surface soils from one place to another by mechanical forces such as a blade used in piling and windrowing timber. Mixing of surface soil layers by disking, chopping, or bedding operation, is not considered displacement.

Dispute - An issue that is material to a decision concerning an administrative or mission-related program of an agency and with which there is disagreement between the agency and a person or persons who would be substantially affected by the decision. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Dispute Resolution - See Conflict Resolution.

Dispute resolution communication - Any oral or written communication prepared for the purposes of a dispute resolution proceeding, including any memoranda, notes, or work product of the neutral, parties, or nonparty participants. A written agreement to enter into a dispute resolution proceeding, or a final written agreement or arbitration award reached as a result of a dispute resolution proceeding, is not dispute resolution communication. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Dispute resolution proceeding - Any process in which an alternative means of dispute resolution is used to resolve an issue in controversy in which a neutral is appointed and specified parties participate. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) - An entity to which all World Trade Organization members belong that is responsible for adjudicating disputes arising under various trade agreements.

Disruptive Activities - The physical presence, sounds, and movements of people and their activities (on, below, or above the land surface) whether on foot, riding animals, or using non-motorized or motorized vehicles or equipment. The bulk of the concern for mitigation of disruptive activities is associated with the effects of human presence and activity on wildlife. That is, the effect that human presence, movements and sounds (including those of the equipment used) may have on the well-being of wildlife during critical lifecycle stages (breeding, nesting, birthing), or during periods of severe weather conditions (severe winter storms, long periods of severe cold or deep snow conditions), when forage or habitat are severely limited, and when the animals are under high stress and depleted body-energy conditions. Harassment of wildlife from human presence, movements, or sounds during these kinds of periods and conditions can cause excessive and unnecessary impacts, including mortality, fetal abortion, and abandonment of young. While these types of activities can be associated with the performance of surface-disturbing activities, they are not exclusive to that. Disruptive activities can also be associated with effects to other resources, such as excessive or adverse influences and effects of human presence or modern society's imprint on areas of highly primitive, seclusive, scenic, or historic value. BLM-DOI

Disseminated Ore - Ore carrying small particles of valuable minerals spread more or less uniformly through the worthless minerals, as distinct from massive ore, in which valuable materials occur in almost solid form with little waste material included. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) - The oxygen freely available in water, vital to fish and other aquatic life and necessary for the prevention of odors in water. DO levels are a critical indicator of a waterbody's ability to support desirable aquatic life. Secondary and advanced wastewater treatments are generally designed to ensure adequate DO in waste-receiving waters by removing, digesting, or oxidizing oxygen-demanding wastes.

Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant and Loan Program (DLT) - A program authorized by the FACT Act of 1990 to provide grants to rural schools and health care providers to help them invest in telecommunications facilities and equipment to bring educational and medical resources to rural areas where the services otherwise might be unavailable. The FAIR Act of 1996 reauthorized and streamlined the program. Funding is authorized at $100 million annually. DLT is administered by the Rural Utilities Service.

Distance Zones - Landscape areas denoted by specified distances from the observer. Used as a frame of reference in which to discuss landscape attributes or the scenic effect of human activities in a landscape. - FS

Distillers' dried grains (DDGS) - The dried byproduct of the grain fermentation process. Typically used as a high-protein animal feed. - Bioenergy Glossary

Distinct vertebrate population segment - A distinct vertebrate population segment is a population that can be protected under the Act as if it were a separate species if it meets the criteria of our Distinct Vertebrate Population Policy. The Distinct Vertebrate Population Policy was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 1996. This policy allows the Service to apply the protections of the Endangered Species Act to a species' population that may be threatened or endangered without having to also list other populations of the species. - DOI/USFWS

Distribution - 1.) The spatial arrangement of organisms in a defined area, which fall into one of three categories: clumped, uniform, or random. 2.) The geographic area in which a species naturally occurs Syn: range. 3.) In a statistical sense, the total observed (or estimated) frequency of occurrence for the studied subject (or statistic). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 4. The transfer of electricity from the transmission network to the consumer. - Bioenergy Glossary

Distribution Center - A concentration of intermodal transportation facilities and warehouses devoted to the transshipment of goods.

Distribution graph (distribution hydrograph) - A unit hydrograph of direct runoff modified to show the proportions of the volume of runoff that occurs during successive equal units of time. (After Hoyt and others, 1936, p. 124.) - USGS

Distribution of revenues - Part 34, Section 5 - (a) For reserve areas, an amount equal to 25 per centum of the net receipts...(b) For fee areas, whichever of the following is greater: (1) An amount equal to 75 cents per acre for the total acreage of the fee area located within such county. (2) ...For those areas of fee lands added to lands administered by the Service (USFWS) after September 30, 1978, by purchase, donation, or otherwise, fair market value shall be determined by appraisal as of the date said areas are administered by the Service. (c) ...payment to those units of local government which have incurred the loss or reduction of real property tax revenues...TYPICAL TAX BILL FOR THE AREA County.......$80 or 80%........School District.......$20 or 20%.....Total....$100 or 100% FOR A TYPICAL ACRE Assessed value - $100 x 80 mils County..................$8.......80% $100 x 20 mils School District....$2.......20% ...The record shall be available for inspection by the regional director, should a dispute arise as to the distribution of payments....

District Defined Reserves - Areas designated for the protection of specific resources, flora and fauna, and other values. These areas are not included in other land use allocations or in the calculation of the Probable Sale Quantity. (BLM)

District heating or cooling - A system that involves the central production of hot water, steam, or chilled water and the distribution of these transfer media to heat or cool buildings. - Bioenergy Glossary

Disturbance - Any event, such as forest fire or insect infestation that alter the structure, composition, or functions of an ecosystem. (Authors note: or, earthquake, flood, planet cooling or warming, or a number of natural causes not necessarily to be blamed on humans.)

Disturbance Zone - Area of influence around a disturbance causing a change in animal behavior such as: leaving the area, increased stress, abandoning young, not breeding, and aberrant behavior. Examples of disturbances include: road construction and road use, facility construction and placement, pipeline construction, field facility maintenance, rights-of-way construction, range improvement construction. BLM-DOI

DITE - Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development (UN)

Divaricate - Widely spreading. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Divergent Boundary - Where new earth crust is generated as tectonic plates pull away from each other. Divergent boundaries explain the volcanoes of Iceland and the rift valleys (deep 60-mile wide trenches) of eastern Africa.

Diversion - A channel constructed across the land slope to intercept surface runoff and to conduct it to an outlet.

Diversion (or diversion terrace) - A ridge of earth, generally a terrace, built to protect downslope areas by diverting runoff from its natural course. - USDA

Diversion Payments - Payments once but no longer made to farmers who voluntarily reduced their planted acreage of a program crop and devoted the land to a conservation use when a paid acreage diversion was in effect. Also, payments made to dairy producers in the 1980s under the no longer operating dairy termination program who agreed to reduce their milk marketings below a prescribed level.

Diversity - The amount of visual interest as viewed from any one location. 2. The distribution and abundance of different plant and animal communities and species within the area covered by a land and resource management plan (36 CFR 219.3).

Diversity - An attribute of an area which is an expression of both the total number and relative abundance of species, communities, or habitats. Relative abundance can be measured by numbers of individuals, cover, or various other characteristics. - 2. The distribution and abundance of different plants and animals within an area. - Bioenergy Glossary

Division - Is a title/name used in classifications to depict a particular level within a hierarchy (e.g. Section, Division, Group, Class). It usually refers to one of the upper levels of a classification. Its use is not mandatory. (UN)

DJIA - Dow Jones Industrial Average

DL - Degraded Landscapes

DL - Development Land

DL - Disaster Legislation

DL - Disorientation and Lethargy

DLA - Designated Lead Agency

DLC - Democratic Leadership Council

DLEIS - Draft Legislative Environmental Impact Statement

DLG - Digital Line Graph DLG24=1:24000 scale; DLG100=1:100000 scale

DLHA - Diamond Lake Homeowners Association

DLMSHA - Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration

DM - Decision Maker

DM - Decision Memo

DM - Deferred Maintenance

DM - Density Management

DM - Departmental Manual

DM - Desiccated Material

DM - Develop and Manage

DM - Dialectic Materialism

DM - Dolomitic Marl

DMA - Direct Marketing Association

DMAP - Deer Management Assistance Program

DMBM - The Division of Migratory Bird Management (DOI/USFWS) http://migratorybirds.fws.gov

DMG - California Desert Managers Group http://www.dmg.gov/index.html

DMG - Division of Minerals and Geology (Colorado Department of Natural Resources)

DMP - Design Management Plan (Scenic Byways)

DMP - Draft Management Plan

DMRP - Delta Master Rec (Recreational) Plan

DMS - Demand Management Strategy

DN - Decision Notice

DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA - Documentation of Land Use Plan Conformance and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Adequacy

Dname - Distinguished name.

DNAP - Division of Natural Areas and Preservation (EPA)

DNC - Democratic National Committee

DNFMA - The Del Norte Fishermen's Marketing Association (California)

DNLR - Department of Land and Natural Resources DOI/USFWS

DNR - Department of Natural Resources

DNRC - Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (Montana)

DNV - Det Norske Veritas http://www.dnv.com/about_us/  (a partner to the UN in such things as 'greenhouse gas verification,' using its 'experts' in such to help bring many companies into 'compliance' in 'about 100 countries' - they are also 'risk managers worldwide')

DO - Dissolved Oxygen

DO - Disseminated Occurrences

DO - Dietary Overlap

DO - Documented Occurrence

DOA - Definitive Option Agreement

DOA - Department of the Army

DOC - Department of Commerce

DOC - Department of Conservation

Dockage - A factor in the grading of grains and oilseeds; i.e., dockage in wheat is described as 'weed seeds, weed stems, chaff, straw, or grain other than wheat, which can be readily removed from the wheat by the use of appropriate sieves and cleaning devices; also, underdeveloped, shriveled and small pieces of wheat kernels removed in properly separating, properly rescreening, or recleaning.' The term is also used to describe the amount of reduction in price taken because of a deficiency in quality.

Doctrine of Prior Appropriation - Water rights doctrine adopted by most western states, giving the first person to use water from a stream the first right to such water. If the first user does not consume all of the water, then the second and later users can appropriate water for their needs. The water right is not necessarily tied to land ownership.

Documentation of Land Use Plan Conformance and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Adequacy (DNA) - A worksheet for determining and documenting that a new, site-specific proposed action both conforms to the existing land use plan(s) and is adequately analyzed in existing NEPA documents. The signed conclusion in the worksheet is an interim step in BLM's internal analysis process and is not an appealable decision. - BLM

DOD - Department Of Defense

DOD - Department of Development

DODEC - Department Of Defense Environmental Contamination

DOE - Department Of Ecology

DoE - Determination of Effects (archaic)

DOE - Department Of Energy

DOFI - Dependence On Foreign Importation

DOI - Declaration Of Independence

DOI - Department Of Interior

DOL - Department Of Livestock (Montana, etc.)

Dolan v. Tigard (U.S. Supreme Court 1994): "We see no reason why the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, as much a part of the Bill of Rights as the First Amendment or Fourth Amendment, should be relegated to the status of a poor relation on comparable circumstances." (referring to earlier Supreme Court rulings on warrantless searches and commercial free speech) - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

DOLETA (also DOL/ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor Employment & Training Association http://doleta.gov

DOM - Delivery Of Material

DOM - Dissolved Organic Matter

Domain - (1) Complete and absolute ownership of land, land so owned and territory over which domain is exercised; (2) in the definition of elements in the metadata standard, the domain identifies valid values for a data element. - Cadastral Data glossary

Domestic Farm Labor - Individuals (and the family) who receive a substantial portion of their income from the production or handling of agricultural or aquacultural products. Farmers, owners and others may be eligible for Section 514 loans to make housing available for domestic farm labor. For purposes of housing loans, the farm laborers must be U.S. citizens or legally admitted for permanent residence in the United States. The term includes retired or disabled persons who were domestic farm labor at the time of retiring or becoming disabled.

Domestic Price - The price at which a commodity trades within a country, in contrast to the world price. For those commodities not benefiting from some form of price support, the domestic price is determined by supply and demand. For commodities that receive price support, the domestic price is usually set by the loan rate or some comparable support level that serves as a price floor in the marketplace working in conjunction with any import quota that may be in effect.

Domestic Water Supply - Water used for human consumption. (BLM)

Dominant Landscape Character - The overall or predominant nature or identity of the landscape.

Domino Theory - The theory that destabilization from any cause in one country can result in the collapse of order in a neighboring country, starting a chain of events that can affect a series of contiguous states in turn. For example, the Indochina War (1964-1975). North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Like dominoes, one country after another fell to the ravages of war or was threatened.

Donor Control - A predator-prey interaction in which the predator does not control the prey population size. - UNDP/WRI

DORA - Department Of Regulatory Agencies

Dormant - In a state of suspended animation; live but not actively growing. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

DOS - District open space

DOSA - During Or Shortly After

DOT - Department Of Transportation

Double Cropping - The practice of consecutively producing two crops of either like or unlike commodities on the same land within the same year. An example of double cropping might be to harvest a wheat crop by early summer and then plant corn or soybeans on that acreage for harvest in the fall. This practice is only possible in regions with long growing seasons.

Double-mass curve - A plot on arithmetic cross-section paper of the cumulated values of one variable against the cumulated values of another or against the computed values of the same variable for a concurrent period of time. ( See Searcy and Hardison, 1960.) - USGS

DOW - Defenders Of Wildlife

Downzoning - A reduction in the density of housing in a particular zone or area as identified in a distinct plan in order to limit further infill and redevelopment (e.g., increasing the minimum site area and limiting infill development). (UN)

DP - Decision Point

DP - Demographic Profiles

DP - Discharge Petition (water)

DP - Displaced Person

DP - Domestic Policy

DPA - Dayton Peace Accord (1995)

DPA - Deepwater Ports Act

DPA - Designated Protected Area (UN)

DPATMC - Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail Management Committee

DPC - Delta Protection Commission

DPC - Desired Plant Community

DPCE - Department of Pollution Control

DPHI - Department of Public Health and the Environment

DPIP - Draft Public Involvement Policy

DPL - Destocking of Public Lands

DPOD - Discreet Point Of Delivery

DPR - Defenders of Property Rights

DPS - Department of Public Service

DPS - Distinct Population Segment

DPW - Department of Public Works

DQ - Dynamic Quantities

DQA - The Federal Data Quality Act

DQO - Data Quality Objective

DR - Death Rate

DR - Demand Reduction (BOR - pertains to irrigation water usage)

DR - Demonstrated Resources

DR - Depletable Resources

DR - Disaster Reservists (FEMA)

DR - Dispute Resolution

DR - Disturbance Regime

DRA - Disaster Relief Act (1974)

DRA - Dakota Rural Action http://www.worc.org - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)

Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) - The draft version of the Environmental Impact Statement that is released to the public and other agencies for review and comment.

Draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) - A draft statement of environmental effects. Section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act requires a DEIS for all major federal actions. The DEIS is released to the public and other agencies for comment and review. - Bioenergy Glossary

Draft Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (a.k.a. DLEIS) - The draft of a Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. - FS

Drainage - The removal of excess water from the land surface and/or from the soil profile. Improving the productivity of agricultural land by removing excess water from the soil by such means as ditches, drainage wells, or subsurface drainage tiles. A water source, such as a stream.

Drainage Area - A general term for the land area drained by a ditch, creek, stream, or river. When reference is made specifically to a large surface water body like a river, the term Drainage Basin is used.

Drainage Area - An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff. Also known as watershed, catchment area, and drainage basin. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/wgrfc/resources/glossary/d.html

Drainage Basin - A part of the earth's surface which is occupied by a drainage system which consists of a surface stream with all its tributaries and impounded bodies of water. Also known as watershed, catchment area, and drainage area. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/wgrfc/resources/glossary/d.html

Drainage Basin - The land area drained by a river. The area of land that drains water, sediment, and dissolved materials to a common outlet at some point along a stream channel.

Drainage class (natural) - Refers to the frequency and duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation during soil formation, as opposed to altered drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the sudden deepening of channels or the blocking of drainage outlets. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized: Excessively drained-Water is removed from the soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow. Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related to wetness. Somewhat excessively drained-Water is removed from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious. Some are shallow. Some are so steep that much of the water they receive is lost as runoff. All are free of the mottling related to wetness. Well drained-Water is removed from the soil readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants throughout most of the growing season, and the wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for significant periods during most growing seasons. Well drained soils are commonly medium textured. They are mainly free of mottling. Moderately well drained-Water is removed from the soil somewhat slowly during some periods. Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a short time during the growing season, but periodically they are wet long enough that most mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly have a slowly pervious layer within or directly below the solum, or periodically receive high rainfall, or both. Somewhat poorly drained-Water is removed slowly enough that the soil is wet for significant periods during the growing season. Wetness markedly restricts the growth of mesophytic crops unless artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat poorly drained soils commonly have a slowly pervious layer, a high water table, additional water from seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a combination of these. Poorly drained-Water is removed so slowly that the soil is saturated periodically during the growing season or remains wet for long periods. Free water is commonly at or near the surface for long enough during the growing season that most mesophytic crops cannot be grown unless the soil is artificially drained. The soil is not continuously saturated in layers directly below plow depth. Poor drainage results from a high water table, a slowly pervious layer within the profile, seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a combination of these. Very poorly drained-Water is removed from the soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the surface during most of the growing season. Unless the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic crops cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils are commonly level or depressed and are frequently ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and nearly continuous, they can have moderate or high slope gradients. - USDA

Drainage Divide - The boundary line, along a topographic ridge or along a subsurface formation, separating two adjacent drainage basins. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/wgrfc/resources/glossary/d.html

Drainage density - Length of all channels above those of a specified stream order per unit of drainage area. - USGS

Drainage divide - The rim of a drainage basin. (See Watershed.) - USGS

Drainage lakes - Lakes having a defined surface inlet and outlet. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Drainage Wells - Wells drilled to carry excess water off agricultural fields. Because they act as a funnel from the surface to the groundwater below, drainage wells can contribute to groundwater pollution.

Drawdown - The vertical distance between the water level in a well before pumping and the water level in the well during pumping.

DRBC - Delaware River Basin Commission http://www.state.nj.us/drbc/

DRBO - Direct Result By Observation

DRC - Dakota Resource Council http://www.worc.org - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)

Dredging - The use of motorized equipment to clean, deepen, or widen areas inundated with water. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

DR/FONSI - Decision Record/Finding of No Significant Impact. Signed decision of the agency stating that the agency has found that no significant impact to the environment would result from the proposed action. This decision may be appealed to the state director. - Bioenergy Glossary

DRGR - Density Reduction Groundwater Recharge (a zoning 'land use category' in Lee County, Florida)

DRI - Data Resources, Inc. (Standard & Poor's)

DRI - Desert Research Institute (weather modification)

DRI - Development of Regional Impact

Drift - Voluntary or accidental dislodgment of aquatic invertebrates from the stream bottom into the water column, where they move or float with the current. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Drill Seeding - Sowing seeds in rows of drilled holes. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Drip line - The line where water is shed from a surface. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

DRLMP - Draft Rural Landscape Management Program (DOI/NPS)

DRLMPEIS - Draft Rural Landscape Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (DOI/NPS)

DRMP - Draft Resource Managment Plan

DRMP/EIS - Draft Resource Managment Plan/Environmental Impact Statement.

DRO - Directed Recreational Opportunities

Drought - Condition in which an area does not get enough water because of lower than normal precipitation, higher than normal temperatures that increase evaporation, or both. (UNESCO)

Drought - A period of deficient precipitation or runoff extending over an indefinite number of days, but with no set standard by which to determine the amount of deficiency needed to constitute a drought. Thus, there is no universally accepted quantitative definition of drought; generally, each investigator establishes his own definition. The following paragraph (Hoyt, 1936, p. 2) discusses the problem of defining a drought: When in an area that is ordinarily classed as humid, natural vegetation becomes desiccated or defoliates unseasonably and crops fail to mature owing to lack of precipitation, or when precipitation is insufficient to meet the needs of established human activities, drought conditions may be said to prevail. Although water for irrigation or other uses in arid areas is always limited, special shortages in such areas are also regarded as droughts. Unsatisfactory distribution of precipitation throughout the year may be as effective a factor in causing a drought as a shortage in the total amount. Temperature and wind may also play an important part, especially in relation to the damage done. - USGS

Dry deposition - Fine particulate matter and aerosols settling from the atmosphere onto lake and land surfaces during periods with no precipitation. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Dry Farming - A method of farming production is which crops are grown without being irrigated. This is accomplished by planting crops several feet apart in healthy, aerated soil that has enough clay to retain adequate moisture to sustain the plant. Subsequently, the crops develop an extensive root system that allows it to thrive. Tomatoes are often grown in this manner - which condenses their sugars and produces a more flavorful fruit.

Dryland Farming - A system of producing crops in semi-arid regions (usually with less than 20 inches of annual rainfall) without irrigation. Dryland farmers often try to rebuild soil moisture by leaving the land fallow (unplanted) or mulched in alternate years, called summer fallowing.

Dry Meadow - A meadow dominated by grasses, which become moderately dry by mid-summer. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Dry Season - The months associated with a lower incident of rainfall, hydrologically. - EvergladesPlan glossary

DS - Decoding Skills

DS - Development Standards

DS - Dialogue Structure

DS - Direct Sampling

DS - Domestic Soil

DS - Double Standard

DSB - Dispute Settlement Body (UN)

DSBA - Direct Sampling By Aircraft

DSEIS - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

DSGL - Doctors for Sensible Gun Laws

DSHMRA - Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act

DSI - Domestic Steel Industry

DSL - Division of State Lands

DSM - Dual Sport Motorcycle

DSS - Decent, Safe and Sanitary (Comparable Replacement Dwelling, FHWA)

DSS - Decision Support System(s)

DST - Decision Support Tool

DSTRAEI - Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuses of Economic Information

DSW - Division of Surface Water (EPA)

DSWC - Department of Soil, Water, and Climate (University of Minnesota) http://www.soils.umn.edu/

DT - Declaration of Taking

DT - Deep Tillage

DT - Delphi Technique

DT - Demographic Trends

DT - Deviance Theory

DT - Diesel Therapy (prison slang for keeping a prisoner moving between prisons, unable to contact or be contacted by his/her family)

DT - Direct Take

DT - Draft Treaty

DTAS - Developing Trust Among Stakeholders

DTDI - Diagnostics Through Digital Imaging

DTF - Development Task Force

DTG - Donor Technical Group

DTIE - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UN - UNEP)

DTN - Data Transmissions Network

DTP - Draft Trails Plan

DTP - Drug The Population

DU - Ducks Unlimited

Dublin Statement - The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development, adopted at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE). (FAO-UN)

DUD - Duck-Use Days

DUE - Describe and Understand the Earth (USGS)

Due - Where monuments or other deed terms do not limit the calls, "due north" means "astronomical north". "Due north", as originally used, meant "true north" as determined by a declination correction to a magnetic reading. The word has become ambiguous in meaning because of careless usage. If astronomical north is meant in a deed, use "astronomical north", but not "true north". - Cadastral Data glossary

Due Process of Law - the regular administration of the law, in which no citizen may be denied his legal rights, and all laws must conform to fundamental, accepted legal principles.

Duff - An organic surface soil layer below the litter layer in which the original form of plant and animal matter cannot be identified with the unaided eye.

DUI - Ducks Unlimited, Inc.

Dumbarton Oaks Conversations/Proposals - PROPOSALS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GENERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. There should be established an international organization under the title of The United Nations, the Charter of which should contain provisions necessary to give effect to the proposals, which follow. - CHAPTER I - PURPOSES The purposes of the Organization should be: 1. To maintain international peace and security; and to that end to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means adjustment or settlement of international disputes which may lead to a breach of the peace; 2. To develop friendly relations among nations and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; 3. To achieve international co-operation in the solution of international economic, social and other humanitarian problems; and 4. To afford a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the achievement of these common ends. CHAPTER II - PRINCIPLES - In pursuit of the purposes mentioned in Chapter I the Organization and its members should act in accordance with the following principles: 1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states. 2. All members of the Organization undertake, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership in the Organization, to fulfill the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the Charter. 3. All members of the Organization shall settle their disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security are not endangered. 4. All members of the Organization shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the Organization. 5. All members of the Organization shall give every assistance to the Organization in any action undertaken by it in accordance with the provisions of the Charter. 6. All members of the Organization shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which preventive or enforcement action is being undertaken by the Organization. The Organization should ensure that states not members of the Organization act in accordance with these principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security. CHAPTER III - MEMBERSHIP - 1. Membership of the Organization should be open to all peace-loving states. CHAPTER IV - PRINCIPAL ORGANS - 1. The Organization should have as its principal organs: a. A General Assembly; b. A Security Council; c. An International Court of Justice; and d. A Secretariat. 2. The Organization should have such subsidiary agencies as may be found necessary. CHAPTER V - THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY - Section A - Composition - All members of the Organization should be members of the General Assembly and should have a number of representatives to be specified in the Charter. Section B - Functions and Powers - 1. The General Assembly should have the right to consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments; to discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any member or members of the Organization or by the Security Council; and to make recommendations with regard to any such principles or questions. Any such questions on which action is necessary should be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion. The General Assembly should not on its own initiative make recommendations on any matter relating to the maintenance of international peace and security which is being dealt with by the Security Council. 2. The General Assembly should be empowered to admit new members to the Organization upon recommendation of the Security Council. 3. The General Assembly should, upon recommendation of the Security Council, be empowered to suspend from the exercise of any rights or privileges of membership any member of the Organization against which preventive or enforcement action shall have been taken by the Security Council. The exercise of the rights and privileges thus suspended may be restored by decision of the Security Council. The General Assembly should be empowered, upon recommendation of the Security Council, to expel from the Organization any member of the Organization, which persistently violates the principles contained in the Charter. 4. The General Assembly should elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of the Economic and Social Council provided for in Chapter IX. It should be empowered to elect upon recommendation of the Security Council, the Secretary-General of the Organization. It should perform such functions in relation to the election of the Judges of the International Court of Justice as may be conferred upon it by the Statute of the Court. 5. The General Assembly should apportion the expenses among the members of the Organization and should be empowered to approve the budgets of the Organization. 6. The General Assembly should initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of promoting international co-operation in political, economic and social fields and of adjusting situations likely to impair the general welfare. 7. The General Assembly should make recommendations for the co-ordination of the policies of international economic, social and other specialized agencies brought into relation with the Organization in accordance with agreements between such agencies and the Organization. 8. The General Assembly should receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council and reports from other bodies of the Organization. Section C - Voting 1. Each member of the Organization should have one vote in the General Assembly. 2. Important decisions of the General Assembly, including recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security; election of members of the Security Council; election of members of the Economic and Social Council; admission of members, suspension of the exercise of the rights and privileges of members, and expulsion of members; and budgetary questions should be made by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. On other questions, including the determination of additional categories of question to be decided by a two-thirds majority, the decisions of the General Assembly should be made by a simple majority vote. Section D - Procedure - 1. The General Assembly should meet in regular annual session and in such special sessions as occasion may require. 2. The General Assembly should adopt its own rules of procedure and elect its President for each session. 3. The General Assembly should be empowered to set up such bodies and agencies as it may deem necessary for the performance of its functions. CHAPTER VI - THE SECURITY COUNCIL - Section A - Composition - The Security Council should consist of one representative of each of eleven members of the Organization. Representatives of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Republic of China and, in due course, France, should have permanent seats. The General Assembly should elect six states to fill the non-permanent seats. These six states should be elected for a term of two years, three retiring each year. They should not be immediately eligible for re-election. In the first election of the non-permanent members three should be chosen by the General Assembly for one-year terms and three for two-year terms. Section B - Principal Functions and Powers - 1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the Organization, members of the Organization should by the Charter confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and should agree that in carrying out these duties under this responsibility it should act on their behalf. 2. In discharging these duties the Security Council should act in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Organization. 3. The specific powers conferred on the Security Council in order to carry out these duties are laid down in Chapter VIII. 4. All members of the Organization should obligate themselves to accept the decisions of the Security Council and to carry them out in accordance with the provisions of the Charter. 5. In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion of the world's human and economic resources for armaments, the Security Council, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Chapter VIII, Section B, paragraph 9, should have the responsibility for formulating plans for the establishment of a system of regulation of armaments for submission to the members of the Organization. Section C - Voting (Note: The question of voting procedure in the Security Council is still under consideration.) Section D - Procedure 1. The Security Council should be so organized as to be able to function continuously and each state member of the Security Council should be permanently represented at the headquarters of the Organization. It may hold meetings at such other places as in its judgment may best facilitate its work. There should be periodic meetings at which each state member of the Security Council could if it so desired be represented by a member of the government or some other special representative. 2. The Security Council should be empowered to set up such bodies or agencies it may deem necessary for the performance of its functions including regional sub-committees of the Military Staff Committee. 3. The Security Council should adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President. 4. Any member of the Organization should participate in the discussion of any questions brought before the Security Council whenever the Security Council considers that the interests of that member of the Organization are specially affected. 5. Any member of the Organization not having a seat on the Security Council and any state [that is] not a member of the Organization, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, should be invited to participate in the discussion relating to the dispute. CHAPTER VII - AN INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE - 1. There should be an International Court of Justice, which should constitute the principal judicial organ of the Organization. - 2. The Court should be constituted and should function in accordance with a Statute which should be annexed to and be a part of the Charter of the Organization. 3. The Statute of the Court of International Justice should be either (a) the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice continued in force with such modifications as may be desirable, or (b) a new Statute in the preparation of which the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice should be used as a basis. 4. All members of the Organization should ipso facto be parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice. 5. Conditions under which States not Members of the Organization may become parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice should be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council. - CHAPTER VIII - ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY, INCLUDING PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION OF AGGRESSION - Section A - Pacific Settlement of Disputes - 1. The Security Council should be empowered to investigate any dispute, or any situation, which may lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether its continuance is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. 2. Any state, whether member of the Organization or not, may bring any such dispute or situation to the attention of the General Assembly or of the Security Council. 3. The parties to any dispute the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security should obligate themselves, first of all, to seek a solution by negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement, or other peaceful means of their own choice. The Security Council should call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means. 4. If, nevertheless, parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in paragraph 3 above fail to settle it by the means indicated in that paragraph they should obligate themselves to refer it to the Security Council. The Security Council should in each case decide whether or not the continuance of the particular dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, and, accordingly, whether the Security Council should deal with the dispute, and, if so, whether it should take action under paragraph 5. 5. The Security Council should be empowered, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in paragraph 3 above, to recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment. 6. Justiciable disputes should normally be referred to the International Court of Justice. The Security Council should be empowered to refer to the Court, for advice, legal questions connected with other disputes. 7. The provisions of paragraph 1 to 6 of Section A should not apply to situations or disputes arising out of matters which by international law are solely within the domestic jurisdiction of the state concerned. Section B - Determination of Threats to the Peace or Acts of Aggression and Action With Respect Thereto - 1. Should the Security Council deem that a failure to settle a dispute in accordance with procedures indicated in paragraph 3 of Section A, or in accordance with its recommendations made under paragraph 5 of Section A, constitutes a threat to the maintenance of international peace and security, it should take any measures necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Organization. 2. In general the Security Council should determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression and should make recommendations or decide upon the measures to be taken to maintain or restore peace and security. 3. The Security Council should be empowered to determine what diplomatic, economic, or other measures not involving the use of armed force should be employed to give effect to its decisions, and to call upon members of the Organization to apply such measures. Such measures may include complete or partial interruption of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio and other means of communication and the severance of diplomatic and economic relations. 4. Should the Security Council consider such measures to be inadequate, it should be empowered to take such action by air, naval or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade and other operations by air, sea or land forces of members of the Organization. 5. In order that all members of the Organization should contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, they should undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements concluded among themselves, armed forces, facilities and assistance necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. Such agreement or agreements should govern the numbers and types of forces and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be provided. The special agreement or agreements should be negotiated as soon as possible and should in each case be subject to approval by the Security Council and to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their constitutional processes. 6. In order to enable urgent military measures to be taken by the Organization there should be held immediately available by the members of the Organization national air force contingents for combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action should be determined by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in paragraph 5 above. 7. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security should be taken by all the Members of the Organization in co-operation or by some of them as the Security Council may determine. This undertaking should be carried out by the members of the Organization by their own action and through action of the appropriate specialized organizations and agencies of which they are members. 8. Plans for the application of armed force should be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in paragraph 9 below. 9. There should be established a Military Staff Committee the functions of which should be to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, to the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, to the regulation of armaments, and to possible disarmament. It should be responsible under the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security Council. The Committee should be composed of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any member of the Organization not permanently represented on the Committee should be invited by the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge of the Committee's responsibilities requires that such a state should participate in its work. Questions of command of forces should be worked out subsequently. 10. The members of the Organization should join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council. 11. Any state, whether a member of the Organization or not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of measures which have been decided upon by the Security Council should have the right to consult the Security Council in regard to a solution of those problems. Section C - Regional Arrangements - 1. Nothing in the Charter should preclude the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the purposes and principles of the Organization. The Security Council should encourage settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies, either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council. 2. The Security Council should, where appropriate, utilize such arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority, but no enforcement action should be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council. 3. The Security Council should at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security. CHAPTER IX - ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CO-OPERATION - Section A - Purpose and Relationships 1. With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being, which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations, the Organization should facilitate solutions of international economic, social and other humanitarian problems and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Responsibility for the discharge of this function should be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the General Assembly, in an Economic and Social Council. 2. The various specialized economic, social and other organizations and agencies would have responsibilities in their respective fields as defined in their statutes. Each such organization or agency should be brought into relationship with the Organization on terms to be determined by agreement between the Economic and Social Council and the appropriate authorities of the specialized organization or agency, subject to approval by the General Assembly. Section B - Composition and Voting - The Economic and Social Council should consist of representatives of eighteen members of the Organization. The states to be represented for this purpose should be elected by the General Assembly for terms of three years. Each such state should have one representative, who should have one vote. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council should be taken by simple majority vote of those present and voting. Section C - Functions and Powers of the Economic and Social Council - 1. The Economic and Social Council should be empowered: a. to carry out, within the scope of its functions, recommendations of the General Assembly; b. to make recommendations, on its own initiative, with respect to international economic, social and other humanitarian matters; c. to receive and consider reports from the economic, social and other organizations or agencies brought into relationship with the Organization, and to co-ordinate their activities through consultations with, and recommendations to, such organizations or agencies; d. to examine the administrative budgets of such specialized organizations or agencies with a view to making recommendations to the organizations or agencies concerned; e. to enable the Secretary-General to provide information to the Security Council; f. to assist the Security Council upon its request; and g. to perform such other functions within the general scope of its competence as may be assigned to it by the General Assembly. Section D - Organization and Procedure - 1. The Economic and Social Council should set up an economic commission, a social commission, and such other commissions as may be required. These commissions should consist of experts. There should be a permanent staff, which should constitute a part of the Secretariat of the Organization. 2. The Economic and Social Council should make suitable arrangements for representatives of the specialized organizations or agencies to participate without vote in its deliberations and in those of the commissions established by it. 3. The Economic and Social Council should adopt its own rules of procedure and the method of selecting its President. CHAPTER X - THE SECRETARIAT - 1. There should be a Secretariat comprising a Secretary-General and such staff as may be required. The Secretary-General should be the chief administrative officer of the Organization. He should be elected by the General Assembly, on recommendation of the Security Council, for such term and under such conditions as are specified in the Charter. 2. The Secretary-General should act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, and of the Economic and Social Council and should make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization. 3. The Secretary-General should have the right to bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter, which in his opinion may threaten international peace and security. CHAPTER XI - AMENDMENTS - Amendments should come into force for all members of the Organization when they have been adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by the members of the Organization having permanent membership on the Security Council and by a majority of the other members of the Organization. CHAPTER XII - TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS - 1. Pending the coming into force of the special agreement or agreements referred to in Chapter VIII, Section B, paragraph 5, and in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of the Four-Nation Declaration, signed at Moscow, Oct. 30, 1943, the States parties to that Declaration should consult with one another and as occasion arises with other Members of the Organization with a view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 2. No provision of the Charter should preclude action taken or authorized in relation to enemy States as a result of the present war by the Governments having responsibility for such action. (Note: In addition to the question of voting procedure in the Security-Council referred to in Chapter VI, several other questions are still under consideration.) The Dumbarton Oaks Conversations, from which the above proposals emerged, occurred in two stages. The first was between the representatives of the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and the United States from August 21 to September 28, 1944. The second was between the representatives of China, the United Kingdom and the United States from September 29 to October 7, 1944. The United States, the United Kingdom, China and the U.S.S.R. reach a number of agreements during the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations. The proposals concern the purposes, principles and common organs of an international organization that would eventually become the United Nations. Chapter IX refers to the establishment of an Economic and Social Council, the function of which includes the promotion of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Dunal Pocket - Areas of limited extent that have collected eolian deposits of local weathering products, mainly of blowing sand. These are semi-stable and support locally adapted plant species. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Dune- A mound or hill of sand created by dune grasses which trap sand grains being moved across the beach by wind. - Everglades Plan glossary

The Dunsmuir Agreements - Dunsmuir I - In 1988 51 individuals and 34 agencies and public and private interest groups met at Dunsmuir Lodge to draft an agreement on the need for, and key elements of, a provincial land and water use strategy to guide the elected officials of British Columbia. The group achieved, through consensus, a mission statement, a set of objectives and several key implementation points for a land use strategy, which became known as the Dunsmuir Agreement on a Provincial Land Use Strategy. Dunsmuir II - After the signing of Dunsmuir I, the need for an overall strategy to link the growing number of processes established to look at land use (e.g., B.C. Forest Resources Commission; B.C. Round Table on the Environment and the Economy; Parks and Wilderness for the 90s, etc.) became apparent. In May 1991, a larger group of individuals from a wide variety of backgrounds, including those from Dunsmuir I, participated in Dunsmuir II. The specific goals of this second workshop were to revisit and update the findings of Dunsmuir I, to determine and clearly identify "what a land use strategy would look like for B.C...", and "to determine and identify information, resource needs, inventories, etc., that would be required to implement a land use strategy". The consensus-based, Dunsmuir II Agreement provided a framework for the development of a provincial land and water use strategy.

Duration (patent-trademark-copyright-trade secret) - The term or length of time that an intellectual property right lasts. A U.S. patent on an invention, for example, has a duration of 20 years from the date on which the patent application was filed, as does a plant patent. The basic duration of a U.S. copyright is the life of the author plus 70 years. Protection of information as a trade secret lasts as long as the information remains secret.

Duration curve - See Flow-duration curve for one type. - USGS

Durum Wheat - A species of wheat distinct from wheat used to make bread and other bakery products. The hard, flinty kernels of durum wheat are specially ground and refined to obtain semolina, a granular product used in making pasta items such as macaroni and spaghetti. Most durum wheats are grown in Mediterranean countries, the former Soviet Union countries, North America, and Argentina. U.S. durum production is centered in North Dakota with other producing states being South Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, California, and Arizona.

Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail Management Committee (DPATMC)(New York State) - Where practical, the DPATMC supports closing as many access roads to corridor lands as possible. Some of these roads serve for fire fighting and must be closed with gates that can be opened by appropriate authorities. Some are used for management access for mowing or shelter work. Most of the rest should be permanently closed. The access roads and proposed closure methods are listed in detail in the inventories. The closing of roads will be coordinated with local landowners and towns. The ATC "Best" lock system will be used on all gates that may need to be opened for management purposes.

Dutch oven furnace - One of the earliest types of furnaces, having a large, rectangular box lined with firebrick (refractory) on the sides and top. Commonly used for burning wood. Heat is stored in the refractory and radiated to a conical fuel pile in the center of the furnace. - Bioenergy Glossary

DV - Discovery Value

DV - Disparate View

DVC - Deer-Vehicle Collisions

DVD - Draft Vision Document (USFWS - Klamath Basin)

DVEP - Decision-making and Valuation for Environmental Policy

DVPS - Distinct Vertebrate Population Segment (DOI/USFWS)

DW - Defenders of Wildlife

DW - Diversity Week

DW - Drained Wetland

DWA - Designated Wilderness Areas

DWC - Data Warehousing Concept (DOI)

DWI - Drained Wetlands Inventory

DWLE - Del Webb Land Exchange (Nevada)

DWP - Department of Wildlife and Parks

DWPZ - Drinking Water Protection Zone

DWQ - Diminished Water Quality (DOI/BOR)

DWR - Department of Water Resources

DWS - Drinking Water Standards

DWSAP - Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program

DWW - De facto Wilderness Withdrawals

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