C & I - Criteria and Indicators (Santiago Declaration - UN) - Provides a common framework and language that is essential to a dialogue on sustainability. C & I shapes vision and policies. Helps to more deeply and completely explore the concept of sustainability. Helps guide individual behavior and societal policies … think more broadly about applying the C & I to non-Federal … lands. From http://www.fs.fed.us/sustained/atlanta-mar-27.doc

C factor (USLE). See Cover and management factor.

C factor (WEQ). See Climatic factor.

C Factors - Cropping factors - USDA

C unit (CCF) - One hundred cubic feet of solid wood. Used as a log measure or as a measure of solid wood content. 1 CCF contains typically 1.4 BDT. - Bioenergy Glossary

CA - Candidate Accountability

CA - Change Agent

CA - Capability Analysis

CA - Chemical Agent

CA - Charted Airway

CA - Christian Aid

CA - Citizen Act

CA - Citizen Activist

CA - Climate Activist

CA - Civilian Activity

CA - Commercial Availability

CA - ConAgra

CA - The Congressional Act (1803)

CA - Conservation Agency

CA - Conservation Agreement

CA - Consumer Alert

CA - Cooperating Agencies (also known as Partners)

CA - Cooperative Agreement

CA - Common Areas

CA - Community Awareness

CA - Cooperative Agreements

CA - Core Areas

CAA - Center for Advanced Accelerators

CAA - Clean Air Act

CAA - Community Air Act

CAAA - Community Air Act Amendments

CAB - Checks And Balances

CAB - Civil Aeronautics Board

CAB - "We are a leading global not-for-profit organization, specialising in sustainable solutions for agricultural and environmental problems." "CAB International originated from a service established in London in 1913 to support agricultural scientists around the world. CABI Bioscience was formed in 1998 from four existing Institutes covering biological control, mycology, parasitology and entomology." http://www.cabi.org/  and http://www.cabi.org/Corporate/Html/activitiesBioscience.htm  CAB / CABI Links Page: http://www.cabi-bioscience.ch/wwwgisp/gt1links.htm

CABI - "We are a leading global not-for-profit organization, specialising in sustainable solutions for agricultural and environmental problems." "CAB International originated from a service established in London in 1913 to support agricultural scientists around the world. CABI Bioscience was formed in 1998 from four existing Institutes covering biological control, mycology, parasitology and entomology." http://www.cabi.org/  and http://www.cabi.org/Corporate/Html/activitiesBioscience.htm  CAB / CABI Links Page: http://www.cabi-bioscience.ch/wwwgisp/gt1links.htm

Cable Logging - Logging that involves the transport of logs from stump to collection points by means of suspended steel cables. Cable logging reduces the need for the construction of logging roads.

CABPRO - California Association of Business, Property, and Resource Owners

CAC - Clean Air Campaign

CAC - Coastal Advisory Committee

CAC - Custom And Culture

CAD - Cease And Desist

CAD - Computer-Aided Dispatch (GPS)

CAD - Current Account Deficit

Cadastral Cartography - The science and art of making cadastral maps. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastral Map - The base of the assessment cadastre. A map that shows the size, shape and extent of each land parcel in a prescribed geographical area. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastral Surveys - The establishment of land boundaries and subdivisions by running and marking of the lines that are required by the plan of the cadastral surveys of the United States. In general, it is any survey executed to measure the boundaries of land parcels. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre, or Cadaster - A public record, survey, or map of the value, extent, and ownership of land. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre Assessment - The inventory of real property, cadastral maps, map records, appraisal records, ownership lists, assessment roll, statement of value, etc.; used for the purpose of justly apportioning ad valorem taxes on such property. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre (historical) - A detailed register, inventory, statement of public record, of lands, their extent, ownership, locations and value; executed by governments as a base of property tax systems. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre (jurisprudence) - An official statement of the quantity and value of real property in any district, made for the purpose of justly apportioning the taxes on such property. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre (legal) - The land title recording system; i.e., recorded deeds, mortgages, contracts, indexes, etc. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre (modern) - A comprehensive, modern land data system, composed of interrelated subsystems such as the assessment cadastre, legal cadastre, survey cadastre, demographic cadastre, etc. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cadastre (survey) - The record of cadastral surveys; land boundary or parcel boundary surveys. - Cadastral Data glossary

CADPR - California Department of Pesticide Regulation

Cadmium - A chemical element and a soft, silvery white metal. Causes severe illness and even death if inhaled. Used in plating and in making alloys. - UNEP Children's Glossary

CAE - Center of the American Experiment

CAE - Centers of Academic Excellence

CAFE - Canadian Association of Fish Exporters

CAFE - Conservatives Against a Federal Europe (UK)

CAFE - Corporate Average Fuel Economy

Café - Corporate Average Fuel Economy

CAFF - Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna

CAFO - Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

CAFO - See Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

CAFR - Comprehensive Annual Financial Report

CA4WDC - California Association of Four Wheel Drive Clubs

CAG - Community Advisory Group

CAG - Concerned About Grizzlies, Inc.

CaGIS - Cartography and Geographic Information Society

CAGW - Citizens Against Government Waste http://www.cagw.org

CAISG - Citizen Activist Industry Support Groups

CAL - Class Action Lawsuit

Calcareous - Soils or an area with soils containing large amounts of calcium carbonate, usually derived from limestone sediment; limestone or calcium-rich soils. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Calcic Horizon - A diagnostic mineral horizon of carbonate accumulation. Indicated by the letter k.

CalEPA - California Environmental Protection Agency

CALFED - A cooperative effort involving several state and federal agencies with management and regulatory responsibilities in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta estuary (the Bay-Delta). State agencies include the Department of Water Resources, the Department of Fish and Game, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and the State Water Resources Control Board. Federal agencies include Reclamation, the Service, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Marine Fisheries Service. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Caliche - Carbonate-rich horizons developed in soils of semiarid and arid regions. Pedologists call these soil accumulations Bk and K horizons, and these are preferable to the terms caliche or calcrete. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. A layer in the soil more or less cemented by calcium carbonates (CaCo3), commonly found in arid and semiarid regions. - BLM

California ReLeaf - California ReLeaf is a statewide campaign to expand, enhance, and preserve urban and community forests -- making our cities more livable, improving the global environment, and connecting people to the land and to each other. ReLeaf's Capacity-Building Grants Program assists new and emerging grassroots groups with tree-related projects and provides more extensive capacity-building support for established community-based organizations with a proven track record in urban forestry.

Call - The designation of visible natural objects, monuments, courses, distances, or other matters of description as limits of boundaries. "Locative calls" are particular or specific, and locate a point or line. "Descriptive calls" are general and merely direct attention to the neighborhood in which more specific calls are to be found. - Cadastral Data glossary

CALM - Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology

CALTRAIN - Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board

CAM - Certificates of Advanced Mastery

CAM - Coastal Area Management (UN)

CAM - Cross-Allocation Methodology

CAMA - The Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas

CAMA - Computer Assisted Mass Appraisals

Cambic Horizon - A weakly developed diagnostic subsoil horizon. Indicated by the letter w.

CAMAC - Computer Automated Measurement and Control

CAME - Council for the Advancement of Minorities

Campsite - A cultural site type representative of all periods consisting of temporary habitation areas which usually contain a lithic scatter, evidence of fire use, ground stone, and pottery scatter. - BLM

CAN - California Association of Nurserymen

CAN - Climate Action Network

CAN - Community Action Network (the Ad Council)

Can (in place of Will) - To have the ability to do something, rather than actually doing it; also used to remove accountability from a proposal.

Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) - A quasi-governmental self- financed agency, established in 1935, that markets Canadian wheat, oats, and barley on behalf of producers. Commercial grain is put into annual marketing pools by grade, with the pool period lasting 12 months and ending July 31. The CWB markets the grain to domestic and foreign buyers, with unsold grain transferred to the pool established for the next year. The overall procedure ensures a uniform per-bushel return, excluding storage costs, to all producers for each grade, regardless of the time they deliver their grain to elevators. The flow of grain from farm to terminal is closely regulated. The CWB also works to develop new markets for Canadian wheat and has authority to enter into long-term supply contracts with foreign countries.

Canal - A human-made waterway that is used for draining or irrigating land or for navigation by boat. - Everglades Plan glossary

Canal - In September 1994 a meeting on "Heritage Canals" was held at Chaffeys Lock, Ontario, Canada. The expert meeting defined a canal as: ... a human-engineered waterway. It may be of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history or technology, either intrinsically or as an exceptional example representative of this category of cultural property. The canal may be a monumental work, the defining features of a linear cultural landscape, or an integral component of a complex cultural landscape (von Droste et al 1995: 433, Annex III). See Cultural landscape

CANAMEX - The CANAMEX Trade Corridor as defined by Congress in the 1995 National Highway Systems Designation Act is a High Priority Corridor. The Corridor follows I-19 from Nogales to Tucson, I-10 from Tucson to Phoenix, US 93 in the vicinity of Phoenix to the Nevada Border, US 93 from Arizona to Las Vegas and I-15 from Las Vegas through Montana to the Canadian Border. However, CANAMEX is also a broad economic development concept that fosters trade and provides an opportunity for accelerated economic growth throughout the region. For several years there has been an interest in developing this Corridor, chiefly to facilitate transportation distribution, commerce and tourism. The region consists of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Idaho and Montana in the United States; the Mexican states of Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Guanajuato, Queretero, Estado de Mexico, and the Federal District; and the Canadian province of Alberta. CANAMEX focuses on opportunities for innovation in the following areas: · Development of safe and efficient multi-modal transportation networks. · Enhancement of global competitiveness (quality of education, accessible telecommunications infrastructure, appropriate regulatory environment). · Shared Commitment to the region's quality of life. The CANAMEX Trade Corridor will be distinguished by the development of five distinct elements: · Physical Infrastructure - The key goal of CANAMEX is the development of a continuous four lane highway from Mexico City to Edmonton, Canada following the route established by Congress. The highway requires multi-modal enhancements as well as efficient ports of entry. This includes roads and telecommunications infrastructure · Commercial Infrastructure - This includes transportation entities and distribution warehouses as well as regionally integrated technological infrastructure such as corridor wide trade databases ad electronic transportation information systems. The transportation and distribution industries are being impacted by e-commerce. The ability to access multiple markets is essential. · Business and Professional Services - Efficient trade movement requires the availability of various professional services including internal finance and legal expertise, customs brokers, consultants, as well as the support of academia. . Social, Political and Business Linkages - Preservation and sustainability of the CANAMEX region is important to all sectors. By investing in linkages between the relevant governmental institutions, business sectors and social organizations, entities, CANAMEX can channel growth and development in a way that is consistent with local development values and planning policies. Generally, the Canada to Mexico transportation corridor as specified by NAFTA: The CANAMEX Corridor from Nogales, Arizona, through Las Vegas, Nevada, to Salt Lake City, Utah, to Idaho Falls, Idaho, to Montana, to the Canadian Border as follows: ``(A) In the State of Arizona, the CANAMEX Corridor shall generally follow-- ``(i) I-19 from Nogales to Tucson; ``(ii) I-10 from Tucson to Phoenix; and ``(iii) Generally, the Canada to Mexico transportation corridor as specified by NAFTA of Phoenix to the Nevada Border. ``(B) In the State of Nevada, the CANAMEX Corridor shall follow-- ``(i) United States Route 93 from the Arizona Border to Las Vegas; and ``(ii) I-15 from Las Vegas to the Utah Border. ``(C) From the Utah Border through Montana to the Canadian Border, the CANAMEX Corridor shall follow I-15. ``(27) The Camino Real Corridor from El Paso, Texas, to Denver, Colorado, as follows: ``(A) In the State of Texas, the Camino Real Corridor shall generally follow-- ``(i) arterials from the international ports of entry to I-10 in El Paso County; and ``(ii) I-10 from El Paso County to the New Mexico border. ``(B) In the State of New Mexico, the Camino Real Corridor shall generally follow-- ``(i) I-10 from the Texas Border to Las Cruces; and ``(ii) I-25 from Las Cruces to the Colorado Border. ``(C) In the State of Colorado, the Camino Real Corridor shall generally follow I-25 from the New Mexico border to Denver continuing to the Wyoming border. ``(D) In the State of Wyoming, the Camino Real Corridor shall generally follow-- ``(i) I-25 north to join with I-90 at Buffalo; and I-90 to the Montana border. In the State of Montana, the Camino Real Corridor shall generally follow--I-90 to Billings; and Montana Route 3, United States Route 12, United States Route 191, United States Route 87, to I-15 at Great Falls; and I-15 from Great Falls to the Canadian border.

CANARI - Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

Candidate Species - A species for which there is on file (by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service) sufficient information on biological vulnerability and threats to support a proposal to list as a threatened or endangered species.

Candidate Species - Any species of plant or animal listed in the for consideration to be listed as threatened or endangered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) under the Endangered Species Act. Definitions for Categories 1 and 2 candidate species, excerpted from the Federal Register, are as follows: Category 1: Taxa for which the USFWS currently has on file substantial information on biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support the appropriateness of proposing to list them as endangered or threatened species. Presently, data are being gathered concerning precise habitat needs, and for some of the taxa, concerning the precise boundaries for critical habitat designations. Development and publication of proposed rules on these taxa are anticipated, but, because of the large number of such taxa, could take some years. Also included in category 1 are taxa whose status in the recent past is known, but that may already have become extinct. Category 2: Taxa for which information now in possession of the USFWS indicates that proposing to list them as endangered or threatened species is possibly appropriate, but for which substantial data on biological vulnerability and threat(s) are not currently known or on file to support the immediate preparation of rules. Further biological research and field study usually will be necessary to ascertain the status of the taxa in Category 2, and some of the taxa are of uncertain taxonomic validity. It is likely that some of the taxa will not warrant listing, while others will be found to be in greater danger of extinction than some taxa in category 1.

Canopy - The part of any stand of trees represented by the tree crowns and other woody growth. Described as layers to the uppermost layer of foliage, but it can be used to describe lower layers in a multi-storied forest.

CANPRRI - Canadian Property Rights Research Institute

CANPSA - Community Action Network Public Service Award (the Ad Council)

Cantilever - To project horizontally with one end of the structure (beam or slab) anchored into a pier or wall; also, the term for such an extension or for a projecting bracket. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CAO - Chief Academic Officer

CAP - Central Arizona Project

CAP - Central Artery Project (FHWA)

CAP - Civil Air Patrol

CAP - Clean Air Plan

CAP - Coordinated Activity Plan

CAP - Common Agricultural Policy (UN/European Union)

CAP - Community Air Project http://www.stlcap.org

CAP - Concessioners And Permittees

CAP - Conservation Advocacy Program

CAP - Consumers Association of Penang

CAP - Continuing Authorities Program

CAP - Corrective Action Plan

CAP - Criteria Air Pollutants

CAP - Critical Area Planting

Capable - Capable of Self-renewal With the Cumulative Effects of Human & Natural Disturbances

Capability - The potential of an area of land to produce resources, supply goods and services, and allow resource uses under an assumed set of management practices and at a given level of management intensity. Capability depends upon current conditions and site conditions such as climate, silviculture or protection from fire, insects or disease (36 CFR 219.3).

Capacity - The maximum power that a machine or system can produce or carry safely. The maximum instantaneous output of a resource under specified conditions. The capacity of generating equipment is generally expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. - Bioenergy Glossary

Capacity Building - The process of building organizations, human resources and the legal and regulatory framework needed for effective and efficient water resources management. (FAO-UN)

Capability Class - Categories used by the USDA, NRCS, to designate the suitability of soil phases for most farming practices. There are eight capacity classes. Capability Class I soils have the fewest limitations for agriculture and the widest range of use while Capability Class VIII soils have the most limitations to agricultural use. The capability class designations are found in the County soil surveys published by the USDA.

Capacity Analysis - Determination of the limiting factor in an area's ability to grow and detailed evaluation of the capacity of that limiting factor, usually some element of infrastructure (existing or planned) or natural resources.

Capacity Building - Not just the creation of and participation in new structures; above all it is the creation and development of new cultures.

Capacity factor - (1) The ratio of the average load on a generating resource to its capacity rating during a specified period of time. (2) The amount of energy that the system produces at a particular site as a percentage of the total amount that it would produce if it operated at rated capacity during the entire year. - Bioenergy Glossary Cape Lookout National Seashore (CLNS) - Five-Year Strategic Plan (March 2000) Park Significance: Cape Lookout National Seashore is nationally recognized as an outstanding example of a dynamic natural coastal barrier island system. Cape Lookout is designated as a unit of the Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) Man and the Biosphere Reserve Program. The park contains cultural resources rich in the maritime history of humankind's attempt to survive at the edge of the sea. Cape Lookout provides critical habitat for endangered and threatened species and other unique wildlife including the legislatively protected wild horses of Shackleford Banks. The park represents a conscious change/control in the human use/development of the island. In 1995, the National Park Service (NPS) began actively working to comply with the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) to develop a performance management system that will be useful and used. This act requires both strategic planning and performance measurement -- setting goals and reporting results. The law also sets various deadlines. Most important, the Government Performance and Results Act seeks to make the Federal Government more accountable to the American people in its actions and expenditures. The National Park Service, with its mandate to preserve the nation's parks and treasures, can and must demonstrate its value to the American people. The National Park Service (NPS) Strategic Plan follows the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. It reflects the NPS 1991 Vail Agenda, the 1994 Vision Document, the 1997 NPS Strategic Plan and 84 years of experience.

Capital - The money or wealth needed to produce goods and services. See also human capital and physical capital. (UNESCO)

Capital cost - The total investment needed to complete a project and bring it to a commercially operable status. The cost of construction of a new plant. The expenditures for the purchase or acquisition of existing facilities. - Bioenergy Glossary

Capital Facilities - The land, building and other physical facilities under public ownership, or operated or maintained for public benefit, that are necessary to support development and redevelopment and to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. Capital facilities include the physical elements of infrastructure systems such as transportation, energy, telecommunications, water supply, wastewater disposal, storm water management, shore protection, solid waste management, public health care, public education, higher education, arts, historic resources, public safety, justice, public administration, and public housing.

Capital Property - This includes depreciable property, and any property that, if sold, would result in a capital gain or a capital loss. You usually buy it for investment purposes or to earn income. Some common types of capital property include cottages, securities such as stocks, bonds, and units of a mutual fund trust, and land, buildings, and equipment used in a business or rental operation.

Capitalism/Market Economy - An economy where economic resources are privately owned and economic decisions are answered by the marketplace with a limited role for government.

Capitation - An assessment (tax) on each person (or head).

Capper-Volstead Act - P.L. 67-146 (February 18, 1922), with a bit of exaggeration, is sometimes called the Magna Carta of Cooperation. The law was passed in response to challenges made against cooperatives using the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act. It gave 'associations' of persons producing agricultural products certain exemptions from antitrust laws. The law carries the names of its sponsors, Senator Arthur Capper of Kansas and Congressman Andrew Volstead of Minnesota.

CAPTA - Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1973)

Captured cluster - A cluster that does not support its own group of red-cockaded woodpeckers, but contains active cavity trees in use or kept active by birds from a neighboring cluster. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

CAR - Control And Restriction

CARA - Conservation and Reinvestment Act

CARA - Confiscation and Relocation Act

CARB - California Air Resources Board

Carbon Dioxide - A minor constituent of the air, comprising about 0.4% of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is essential to living systems, released by respiration and removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis in green plants and by dissolving in sea water. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased since the burning of coal and oil began on a large scale and is a significant greenhouse gas. (UNESCO)

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita - The amount of carbon dioxide a country releases into the atmosphere during a certain period- usually one year- divided by the total population of that country. Large amounts of carbon dioxide are released when people burn fossil fuels and biomass- fuelwood, charcoal, dung- to produce energy. - World Bank Glossary

Carcinogen - Any substance that produces or promotes cancer. This is a key consideration in evaluating the safety of pesticides and other chemicals. 2. Chemicals, ionizing radiation and viruses that cause or promote the development of cancer. Substances of this type are said to be 'carcinogenic'. (UNESCO)

Carcinogenic - Ability to cause cancer. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Cardinality - a description of the association between data entities as either mandatory or optional. - Cadastral Data glossary

CARE - Christian Action Research and Education (UK)

CARE - Citizens for Accountability of Resources in Education

CARE - Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Inc.

CARE - Carrier Account Record Exchange (Sprint)

CARE - Child Abuse Resource Enhancement

CARE - Clinical Assessment of the Reliability of the Examination

CARE - Closure And Realignment Effort/Execution

CARE - Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics

CARE - Combined Accident Reduction Effort (Illinois State Police)

CARE - Computed-Aided Risk Evaluation

CARE - Computer Assistance Resource Exchange

CARE - Consolidated Assistance & Relocation Effort

CARE - Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe

CARE - Cooperative Alliance for Refuge Enhancement (CARE is a diverse group of 17 national non-governmental conservation and recreation organizations that has formed to focus attention on the National Wildlife Refuge System's funding needs. CARE members include: American Fisheries Society, American Sportfishing Association, Congressional Sportsman's Foundation, Defenders of Wildlife, Ducks Unlimited, Izaak Walton League of America, InternationalAssociation of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, National Audubon Society, National Wildlife Federation, National Rifle Association of America, National Wildlife Refuge Association, Safari Club International, Trout Unlimited, The Wilderness Society, Wildlife Forever, The Wildlife Legislative Fund of America, and The Wildlife Management Institute. The Audubon Society appears to be the organizer of this alliance.)

CARE - Cost Accumulating, Reporting & Evaluation

CARE - Cost and Return Estimator

CARE - Cottage And Rural Enterprises

CARE - Curtailing Abuse Related to the Elderly

CARE - Customer Account Record Exchange

CARE - Customer Assistance Research & Education

CARE - Customer Automation and Reporting Environment

CARE - Customers for Access Rate Equity

CARE - Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act

CAREE - County Alliance to Restore Economy and Environment

CARES - The Center for Agricultural, Resource and Environmental Systems at the University of Missouri - Columbia. Very involved in sustainable issues.

Cargo Preference - The Cargo Preference Act (P.L. 83-664) requires that whenever the federal government pays for equipment, material, or commodities shipped to other countries, a minimum percentage of the gross tonnage shipped by sea must go by U.S. flag vessels. Cargo preference requirements have been an issue in U.S. international food aid and export subsidy programs.

Cargo Preference Act - P.L. 83-644, as amended, contains permanent legislation concerning the transportation of waterborne cargoes in U.S.-flag vessels. The Act requires that 75% of the volume of U.S. agricultural commodities financed under P.L. 480 and other concessional financing arrangements be shipped on privately owned U.S.-registered vessels. Maritime interests generally support cargo preference, but proponents of P.L. 480 argue that it increases the costs of shipping U.S. commodities to poor countries and potentially reduces the volume of food aid that is provided.

Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983 (CBERA) - P.L. 98-67 (August 5, 1983), Title II, authorized unilateral preferential trade and tax benefits for eligible Caribbean countries, including duty-free treatment of eligible products. This law is commonly referred to as the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). Amended several times, the last substantive revisions were made in the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Expansion Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-382, Title II, August 20, 1990). This made trade benefits permanent (repealing the September 30, 1995 termination date).

Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) - A permanent program designed to increase private investment, trade, and tourism in Caribbean countries, initially created by the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983 and amended several times. It gives preferential trade and tax benefits for eligible Caribbean countries, including duty-free entry of eligible products. To be eligible, an article must be a 'product' of (as defined in the U.S. general rules of origin) a beneficiary country and imported directly from it, and at least 35% of its import value must have originated in one or more CBERA beneficiaries. Slightly different import value rules apply to articles entering from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The duty-free import of sugar and beef products is subject to a special eligibility requirement that a beneficiary country submit and carry out a stable food production plan ensuring that increased production of sugar and beef will not adversely affect overall food production. Preferential tariff treatment, though, does not extend to imports of: textiles and apparel subject to textile agreements, specified footwear, canned tuna, petroleum and its products, and watches and watch parts containing any material originating in countries denied most-favored-nation trade status. Special criteria apply to the duty-free import of ethanol through FY2000. Import- sensitive products, not accorded duty-free tariff treatment, are eligible to enter at lower than most-favored-nation tariff rates. These products include handbags, luggage, flat goods (such as wallets, change purses, and key and eyeglass cases), work gloves, and certain leather wearing apparel.

CARICOM - The Caribbean Community

CARICOM - Caribbean Community and Common Market

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) - A 20-year-old customers union of former British colonies who sought to expand by building ties to nearby Spanish-speaking countries.

CARIS - CILHI [Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii (US Army) ] Automated Recovery Identification System

CARIS - Current Agricultural Research Information System

CARL - Conservation and Recreation Lands

Carlin Trend - An area 25 miles west of Elko in northeast Nevada that has become the most productive gold district in the United States. In this 5- by 40-mile area gold production over the past several years has exceeded 4 million ounces a year. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

The Carlyle Group - A private equity, which involves buying up companies in private deals and reselling them.

CARNIVORE - DCS1000 (Digital Collection System)(Definitive Codification)

CARODSAC - Citizens Aware of and Rallying in Opposition to the Deliberate Sickening of American Citizens

CARP - Citizens Against the Refuge Proposal

Carr - A wetland willow thicket. (NPS)

Carrying Capacity - The maximum stocking rate for livestock possible without damaging vegetation or related resources. Carrying capacity may vary from year to year on the same area, due to fluctuating forage production. Used by the government in decisions about how much livestock will be allowed on an allotment on public lands. The maximum density of an animal species which a given environment or range is capable of sustaining, without deteriorating that environment or range. 2. Conventionally defined as the maximum population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future. In the human context, it is sometimes defined as the maximum "load" (population x per capita impact) that can safely and persistently be imposed on the environment by people. See also ecological footprint. (UNESCO)

Carryover - The supply of a farm commodity not yet used at the end of a marketing year and carried over into the next year. An excessively large carryover is typically described as a surplus condition that causes prices to fall. When the carryover falls below normal, there may be concerns of a shortage contributing to price escalation.

Cartel - An alliance or arrangement among industrial or commercial enterprises or nations aimed at limiting competition or exercising monopoly power in a market.

CARTERRA - The name CARTERRA is derived from "carta" (Latin for "map") and "terra" (Latin for "Earth"). CARTERRA is a grid of elevation points, similar to an image, representing the topography and terrain of an area. DEMs are digital elevation models. CARTERRA DEMs come in three varieties. CONUS-1, short for 1 arc-second (30 meter) DEM of the Continental United States; CONUS-3, 3 arc-second (90 meter); and GlobalDEM, seamless 30 arc-second, Aerial Images Collected by Space Imaging's DAIS-1 Sensor.

CAS - California Academy of Sciences

CAS - Chemical Abstracts Service

CAS - Community Assessment Systems (DOI)

CAS - Country Assistance Strategy (World Bank)

CASBDC - California Academy of Sciences Biodiversity Research Center

Cascade aeration - Aeration of an effluent stream through the action of falling water. - Bioenergy Glossary

CASE - Citizens for A Sound Economy

CASE - Council for Advancement and Support of Education

Case or Controversy - The provisions of the U.S. Constitution setting out the powers of the Federal judiciary, define those powers in using two different but related words "cases" and "controversies". See U.S Constitution, Article III, section 2. In framing judicial authority these words also represent limits. The Federal Courts do not, under Article III, have the power to resolve legal questions that do not arise out of an actual dispute between real parties. In some states, by contrast, the highest courts have jurisdiction to hear and provide advisory opinions on questions submitted by the state legislature. A statute attempting to give such jurisdiction to the Federal courts would run into the Constitutionally based requirement of a "case" or "controversy". For examples of cases in which the Supreme Court has found this critical element lacking, see, e.g., Arizonans for Official English v. Arizona, No. 95-974 (March 3, 1997) and Renne v. Geary, U.S. (1991). This basic limit on judicial power has led to more specific limiting doctrines, including: mootness, ripeness, and standing. - Supreme Court glossary

Casein - The major portion of milk protein, manufactured from skim milk and used in processed foods (such as dessert toppings and coffee whiteners) and in industrial products such as glue, paint and plastics.

Case Law - Precedents established in previously decided court cases that may influence future interpretations of law or the disposition of future court cases. (BIS)

Casemate - A chamber within a fortification built with overhead cover, and therefore resistant to bombs or high-angled shell fire. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CASI - Christian Agricultural Stewardship Institute

CASPIAN - Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering http://www.nocards.org  and http://www.spychips.com

CAST - Council on Agricultural Science and Technology

Caste System - The strict social segregation of people on the basis of ancestry and occupation.

Casual Use - Activities ordinarily resulting in negligible disturbance of federal lands and resources. (BLM)

Casual Use - Mining activities that only negligibly disturb federal lands and resources. Casual use does not include the use of mechanized earth moving equipment or explosives or the use of motorized equipment in areas closed to off-road vehicles. Under casual use, operators do not have to notify BLM, and operations do not need to be approved. But operations are subject to monitoring by BLM to ensure that federal lands do not undergo unnecessary or undue degradation. Casual use operations must be reclaimed. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

CAT - Carrier-Aided Tracking (GPS)

CAT - Clean Air Trust

CAT - Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Catalytic Converter - A device that is fitted to the exhaust system of a motor vehicle (or larger versions can be fitted to the smoke stack of industrial plants) that is able to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants that are released into the air while the vehicle (or industrial plant) is operating. (UNESCO)

Catastrophe - A random environmental event of great consequence. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Catchment - A surface from which runoff is collected. Examples include roofs, paved surfaces, or constructed surfaces covered with plastic.

Catchment Area - An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff (also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed). http://www.crh.noaa.gov/hsd/hydefa-c.html

Catchment area - The area from which rainfall flows into a river, reservoir, etc. (FAO-UN)

Categorical Exclusion - A category of action not presently applicable to timber sales (Forest Service, USDA), used extensively in the past to put smaller timber sales on the fast track and avoid public participation. Under the USFS definition of a categorical exclusion, no extraordinary circumstances exist which might cause a significant impact in the specific case, some actions can be "categorically excluded" from documentation in an EA or EIS. Unlike an EA or EIS, there is no formal pre-decision comment period with a categorical exclusion (except for scoping).

Categorical exclusion (CE or CX) - A CE/CX excludes certain categories of Federal actions from further NEPA documentation because these categories of actions have been determined in a public process to have no significant affect on the environment nor do they involve unresolved conflicts concerning alternative uses of available resources. There are 11 of these CEs for the Department of Interior and 30 CEs specific for Reclamation. Reclamation prepares a Categorical Exclusion Checklist (CEC.) to document if a proposed action meets the criteria for being categorically excluded from further NEPA documentation. An action may fall under a particular CE but may not meet the checklist criteria. Examples of actions that can qualify for a CE include: ~ Nondestructive data collection, inventory, study, research, monitoring. ~ Maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement of existing facilities which may involve a minor change in size, location and/or operation. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary 2. A category of actions (identified in agency guidance) that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment, and for which neither an environmental assessment nor an EIS is required (40 CFR 1508.4). - BLM 2. A management decision to exclude a particular action from certain NEPA processes (i.e., no scoping, no EA). - Bioenergy Glossary

Categorical Exclusion Evaluation (CEE) - An environmental document required by NEPA for Federal projects that do not have a significant effect on the environment.

Category - Is the generic term for items at any level within a classification, typically tabulation categories, sections, subsections, divisions, subdivisions, groups, subgroups, classes and subclasses. Classification categories are usually identified by codes (alphabetical or numerical) which provide both a unique identifier for each category and denote their place within the hierarchy. They contain elements which are subsets of the classification to which they belong, such as activities, products, types of occupations, types of education, etc. Refer also to Item. (UN)

Category 1 Species - Species for which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has enough information on biological vulnerability and threats to support their listing as endangered or threatened species.

Category 2 Species - Species for which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has information suggesting the possible appropriateness for listing as endangered or threatened.

Catellus Development Corporation - Headquartered in San Francisco, California. Catellus Development Corporation is a diversified real estate operating company with a portfolio of rental properties and developable land. Operations consist primarily of the management, acquisition, development and sale of real estate. The Company has four primary lines of business: Asset Management Group, which provides management and leasing services for Catellus' rental portfolio; Commercial Group, which acquires and develops suburban commercial business parks for the Company's own rental portfolio or for sale to third parties; Residential Group, which acquires and develops suburban residential communities and sells finished lots to homebuilders, and Urban Group, which develops large urban mixed-use sites for Catellus' own rental portfolio or for sale to third parties. The following is excerpted from: http://www.senate.gov/~feinstein/desert_protection_act_5th_anniv.html  The California Desert Protection Act, sponsored by Senator Dianne Feinstein, was signed into law on October 31, 1994, eight years after former California Senator Alan Cranston introduced the effort. This landmark legislation designates two national parks Death Valley and Joshua Tree and one national preserve the Mojave. Celebrating its fifth anniversary, the measure has been a wonderful success. Recently, Senator Feinstein was successful in protecting even more of this magnificent natural resource. For the year 2000 budget, Senator Feinstein requested that Congress provide funding under the Land and Water Conservation Fund to purchase environmentally sensitive private properties now owned by the Catellus Development Corporation in the desert. To encourage our nation's westward expansion, in 1864 Congress gave the railroad industry every other section of land in a 50 mile swath in what is now the Mojave National Preserve and Joshua Tree National Park. Most of this remaining checkerboard arrangement of land is now owned by Catellus. Because of an agreement by the Wildlands Conservancy to provide $26.1 million toward this important goal, Catellus agreed to sell these lands at well below market value. Catellus provided a significant in-kind contribution to allow the purchase of 437,000 acres of California desert in and around the Mojave National Preserve. The new agreement will protect 200,000 acres of habitat critical for the endangered desert tortoise, 150,000 acres for bighorn sheep and the largest cactus gardens in the world at Bigelow Cholla Gardens. The land also includes rights-of-way for 165 jeep trails and dirt access roads leading to 3.7 million acres of land used for hunting, hiking and camping. The FY 2000 Interior Department appropriations bill includes $15 million for this purchase with a pledge of an additional $15 million to complete the deal in 2001. The transaction is already one of the biggest land acquisitions in California history and one of the most substantial gifts ever to the American people. The California Desert Protection Act protects 7.7 million acres now managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the National Park Service. The legislation: Designated nearly 3.5 million acres of BLM land in the California desert as wilderness; Added 1.2 million acres of land to Death Valley National Monument and redesignated the monument a National Park; Adds 234,000 acres to Joshua Tree National Monument and redesignated the area a National Park; Established a new 1.4 million-acre Mojave National Preserve; Created the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve; Transferred 20,500 acres of Bureau of Land Management land to the State of California to expand the Red Rock Canyon State Park. The Mojave National Preserve has been called the "crown jewel" of the California Desert Protection Act. This 1.4 million-acre area lies at the confluence of three great deserts: the Mojave, Sonoran, and Great Basin deserts. Because it is at the junction of three major desert ecosystems its biological resources are extremely varied. The area contains 11 mountain ranges, four dry lakes, cindercones, badlands, innumerable washes, mesas, buttes, lave beds, caves, alluvial fans, and one of California's most complex sand dune systems. The geographic diversity is rivaled by the diversity in the park's plant life that ranges from creosote bush to pinyon pines and juniper woodlands in the higher elevations. Death Valley National Park has more than 3.3 million acres of spectacular desert scenery, interesting and rare desert wildlife, complex geology, undisturbed wilderness, and sites of historical and cultural interest. Bounded on the west by 11,049 foot Telescope Peak and on the east by 5,475 foot Dante's View, Death Valley's Badwater is the lowest point (-282 feet) in the Western Hemisphere. For more information, visit the Death Valley National Park website. The Joshua Tree National Park is comprised of two deserts and two large ecosystems primarily determined by differences in elevation. Few areas in the world more vividly illustrate the contrast between high and low desert. Below 3000 feet (910 meters), the Colorado Desert, occupying the eastern half of the park, is dominated by the abundant creosote bush. Adding interest to this arid land are small stands of spidery ocotillo and cholla cactus. The higher, slightly cooler, and wetter Mojave Desert is the special habitat of the undisciplined Joshua tree, extensive stands of which occur throughout the western half of the park. The park also contains some of the most interesting geologic terrain found in California's deserts.

CATEX - Categorical Exclusion

Cation - An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity. The common soil cations are calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen. - USDA

Cation Exchange - Replacement by a cation in solution for an absorbed cation of negatively charged sites of a solid.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) - The sum total of exchangeable cations that a soil can absorb, expressed in centimolesc per kg of soil or colloid.

Cation-exchange capacity - The total amount of exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil, expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity but is more precise in meaning. - USDA

CATO - Civilian Automated Training Office

CATO - Combat Arms Training Organization (Army)

CATO Institute - Founded in 1977, the Cato Institute is a nonpartisan public policy research foundation headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institute is named for Cato's Letters, libertarian pamphlets that helped lay the philosophical foundation for the American Revolution.

CATX - Categorical Exclusion

CAUSA - Confederation of Associations for the Unification of the Societies of the Americas

CAUV - Current Agricultural Use Value

CAV - Canadian Environment Voters

Cave - Any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnected passages which occurs beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge (including any cave resource therein, but not including any vug, mine, tunnel, aqueduct, or other manmade excavation) and which is large enough to permit an individual to enter, whether or not the entrance is naturally formed or manmade. Such term shall include any natural pit, sinkhole, or other feature, which is an extension of the entrance. - BLM

Cave Resource - Any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnected passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge, including any cave resource therein, and which is large enough to permit a person to enter, whether the entrance is excavated or naturally formed. Also included is any natural pit or sinkhole. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Cavity - A hole or excavated hollow in a tree often used by natural phenomena, wildlife species, usually birds, for nesting, roosting and reproduction.

Cavity Excavator - An animal that constructs cavities in trees for nesting or roosting.

CB - Caribbean Basin

CB - Catchment Basin

CB - The College Board

CB - Community-Based

CB - Consensus-Building

CB - Conservation Buffers

CB - Controlled Burn

CBA - Central Business Area

CBA - cost-benefit analysis

CBB - Cattlemen's Beef Board

CBC - Children's Book Council

CBC - Clean-Burning Coal (Utah)

CBC - Communities By Choice (United Nations)

CBC - Coors Brewing Company

CBC - Customs Brokers Council

CBCT - Cross border chemical traffic (economic)

CBD - Center for Biological Diversity

CBD - Center for Biological Diversity (formerly the Southwest Center for Biological Diversity; the name change reflects its expansion into California and Oregon)

CBD - Conservation Biology Division

CBD - Convention on Biological Diversity (UN)

CBD - Conservation by Design (The Nature Conservancy - TNC) http://nature.org/tncscience/

CBE - Columbia Basin Ecosystem

CBEC - Columbia Basin Environmental Council

CBED - Centers for Border Economic Development

CBEP - Community-Based Environmental Protection

CBEP - Also known as Community Based Environmental Protection (CBEP), the Office of Sustainable Ecosystems and Communities (OSEC) fosters the implementation of integrated, geographic approaches to environmental protection with an emphasis on ecological integrity, economic sustainability, and quality of life. OSEC is involved in developing and supporting demonstration projects, tools, and policies that support CBEP activities.

CBF - Chesapeake Bay Foundation

CBFA - California Beach Fishermen Association

CBFWA - Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Authority

CBGP - Capacity-Building Grants Program (California ReLeaf)

CBGS - Columbia Basin Geological Society

CBHD - Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity

CBHH - Contiguous Bottomland Hardwood Habitat

CBI - Consensus Building Institute

CBIA - The Coastal Barrier Improvements Act

CBMP - Citizen-Based Groundwater Monitoring Program

CBNRM - Community-Based Natural Resource Management (UN)

CBO - Community Based Organization

CBO - Community-Building Organization (Earth Charter - UN)

CBO - Congressional Budget Office

CBP - Common Business Practice

CBP - Common Business Process

CBP - Community-Based Planning

CBP - County Business Patterns

CBPP - contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

CBR - California Business Roundtable

CBRA - Coastal Barrier Resources Act

CBRA - The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982

CBRFD - Community-Based Recreation Facility Development

CBRS - Coastal Barrier Resources System

CBS - Contour Buffer Strips

CBTP - The Caltrans Community Based Transportation Planning grant program

CBU - Core Business Unit

CBWR - Coos Bay Wagon Road

CC - Cadmium Council

CC - Capitulation Counseling

CC - Catchment Committees

CC - Catellus Corporation

CC - Champion Communities (EZEC)

CC - City Council

CC - Civil Conflict

CC - Civilian Code (GPS)

CC - Clear-Cut

CC - Closed Circuit

CC - Coalition of Counties

CC - The Coalfield Coalition (southwest Virginia, located in the Tennessee Valley Authority - TVA) http://arc.gov/infopubs/appalach/

CC - Commerce Clause

CC - Common Cause

CC - Common Conclusion

CC - Communications Channels

CC - Community Coalition

CC - Concealed Carry

CC - Concentration Compromise

CC - Concerned Citizen

CC - Connecting Corridors

CC - Consensus Council

CC - Conservation Council (predecessor to the Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources)

CC - Conservation Covenant

CC - Conservation Cover

CC - Consumer Confidence

CC - Contract Compliance

CC - Convergence Criteria

CC - Cooperating Collection

CC - Corporate Communities

CC - Counter Culture

CC - Cover Crop

CC - Cross Country

CC - Cultural Council

CCA - Candidate Conservation Agreement (DOI/USFWS)

CCA - Candidate Conservation Agreements

CCA - Certified Crop Advisor http://caheinfo.wsu.edu/focus/2002spring/crop.html

CCA - Children's Charities of America

CCA - Chromated copper arsenate

CCA - Climate Change and Agriculture

CCA - Climate Crisis Action

CCAA - Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances (DOI/USFWS)

CCAMLR - Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCAPA - California Chapter of the American Planning Association

CCAPD - The Commission on Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain (1929, Herbert Hoover's administration)

CCAR - Coordinating Committee for Automotive Repair

CCATT - Citizens Caring About Their Town

CCB - County Conservation Board

CCC - California Coastal Commission aka The Coastal Commission

CCC - Cancer-Causing Chemicals

CCC - Catastrophic Climate Change

CCC - Christians Caring for Creation ('environmental' group)

CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps

CCC - Commodity Credit Corporation

CCC - Communication Conflict Change

CCC - Consultation, Cooperation and Coordination (BLM-DOI)

CCC - Consumers Choice Counsel

CCC - Cooperative Christian Civilization

CCC - Cultural Carrying Capacity

CCCARP - Concerned Citizens Coalition for American Resource Providers

CCCEF - The Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting (U.S. Dept. of Transportation)

CCCL - Coastal Construction Control Line

CCCP-CP - The China-Canada Cooperation Project in Cleaner Production

CCCPLNRA - The Clark County Conservation of Public Land and Natural Resources Act of 2002 (Nevada)

CCCU - Council for Christian Colleges & Universities

CCD - Charge Coupled Device

CCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

CCD - Cross-Cultural Dialogue

CCDMT - Casper College, Department of Mining Technology (Wyoming)

CCE - Climate Change Economics

CCE - The Center for Civic Education. This NGO has developed 'national standards' in 13 individual areas - such as history, civics, economics, and social studies with funding and guidance from the federal Department of Education. The CCE is developing text books and teaching aids which extol the virtues of 'the world view' with an almost complete ignorance of the traditional values of anything dealing with the United States of America. One current civics textbook developed by the CCE: We The People: The Citizen and the Constitution -- is sold to schools by the Federal Government for $10.00, compared to the normal $67-87.00 for other civics texts -- teaches that the US Constitution and Bill of Rights are 18th Century documents and [that they] show the guarantees which have been, reflecting the age in which they were written and have no validity in the modern age. [pg. 206] This textbook teaches that the United Nations "Declaration of Human Rights" are the correct status of human rights, and which ends with "These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations." http://www.civiced.org/

CCE - Community Culture and the Environment (EPA)

CCEBSS - Center for the Conservation and Eco-development of the Bay of Samana and its Surroundings

CCF - Council on Contemporary Families

CCF - Hundred cubic feet

CCFA - The Central Coast Forest Association (California)

CCFAS - Coalition for a Competitive Food and Agriculture System

CCFRKBA - Citizen's Committee For the Right to Keep and Bear Arms

CCG - Climate Change Government (Kyoto Protocol, FCCC)

CCG - Council on Compulsive Gambling

CCGAUS - Consolidated Cattle Growers Association of the United States

CCHE - California Cultural and Historical Endowment

CCHW - Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes

CCI - Colorado Counties, Inc.

CCI - Cooperative Conservation Initiative

CCIC - Caw Caw Interpretive Center (South Carolina)

CCICF - Chemtrail Concentration Into Cloud Formations


CCIW - Canadian Center for Inland Waters

CCL - Construction Completion List - EPA has developed a construction completion list (CCL) to simplify its system of categorizing sites and to better communicate about the successful completion of cleanup activities. Inclusion of a site on the CCL has no legal significance.

CCLG - The Consortium of Centers for Local Governance, Inc.

CCMA - The Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment http://ccmaserver.nos.noaa.gov/welcome.html

CCMS - The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society

CCO - Community Conservation Objectives

CCOPS - Concerned Citizens Opposed to Police States

CCOR - Central Conference of American Rabbis

CCP - Central City Pattern

CCP - Community Cultural Profiling

CCP - Comprehensive Conservation Plan

CCP - Comprehensive Conservation Planning

CCPR - Citizens for Constitutional Property Rights

CCPREF - Citizens for Constitutional Property Rights Educational Foundation

CCR - Conservation Crop Rotation

CCR - Consumer Confidence Report

CCRKBA - Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms

CCRP - Continuous Conservation Reserve Program

CCRWQCB - The Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (California) http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb3/

CCS - CLEAR Consulting Service

CCS - Commonly Consumed Species (plant or animal)

CCS - Comparative Case Study

CCS - Comprehensive Conservation System

CCSA - Connecticut Crushed Stone Association

CCSAS - Custer County Sustainable Agriculture Society

CCSP - Challenge Cost-Share Program (DOI/USFWS)

CCSSO - Council of Chief State School Officers

CCT - The old Central California Traction Line

CCT - Colville Confederated Tribes (Washington State)

CCT - Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow

CCTU - California Council of Trout Unlimited

CCTV - Closed Circuit Television

CCWA - Columbus (OH) Council on World Affairs

CCWCASNPCPA - The California Clean Water, Clean Air, Safe Neighborhood Parks and Coastal Protection Act of 2002

CD - California Desert

CD - Civil Defense

CD - Cloud Deck

CD - Collateral Damage

CD - Compact Development

CD - Compact Disc

CD - Congressional Delegation

CD - Conservancy District

CD - Consumer Demand

CD - Consumer Dollar

CD - Controlled Drainage

CD - Cornwall Declaration

CD - Corporate Devastation

CD - Cross-Discipline

CD - Cross-Dock

CD - Cultural Diversity

CDA - Capability Demonstration Assessments (DOI)

CDA - Copper Development Association

CDAAA - Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

C/DB - Connectivity/Diversity Blocks

CDB - Central Data Base

CDB - County Development Board

CDBG - Community Development Block Grant

CDBR - The Chihuahuan Desert Biosphere Reserve (DOI/NPS/United Nations - http://www.nps.gov/bibe/mab.htm)

CDC - California Department of Conservation

CDC - Center(s) for Disease Control

CDC - Conservation Data Centers (TNC)

CDC - Conservation and Development Commission

CDC - Constitution Defense Council

CDCA - California Desert Conservation Area

CDCP - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDD - Character Deficit Disorder

CDDO - California Desert District Office (BLM)

CDF - Children's Defense Fund

CDETS - Consent Decree Tracking System

CDFE - Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise

CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

CDMG - California Division of Mines and Geology

CDP - Census Designated Places

CDPR - Confidential Doctor-Patient Relationship

CD-ROM - Compact Disc-Read Only Memory

CDS - Closed Door Session

CDS - Compliance Data System

CDT - Center for Democracy and Technology

CDT - Conservation and Development Trust

CDTC - Community Development Training Conference

CDW - Cultural Diversity Workshop

CE - Categorical Exclusion

CE - Citizens for the Environment

CE - City Environment

CE - Clean Energy

CE - Conservation Easement

CE - Cooperative Extension

CE - Corps of Engineers

CE - Cost Externalization

CE - Country Edge

CEA - Canadian Exporters' Association

CEA - Cooperative Enforcement Agreement

CEA - cost-effectiveness analysis

CEA - Council of Economic Advisors

CEA - Critical Environment Area

CEBAF - Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility

CE - Caloosahatchee Ecoscape (Florida) (DOI/USFWS)

CEC - California Energy Commission

CEC - CERCLA Education Center (EPA)

CEC - Colorado Environmental Coalition

CEC - Commission for Environmental Cooperation http://www.cec.org/  'Beware' of this group.

CEC - Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America

CEC - (The North American) Commission for Environmental Cooperation

CEC - Commission of European Communities

CEC - Conservation Education Campaign

CECNA - Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America (little used; CEC is the more often used and more recognized acronym for this "Commission")

CECWO - Corps of Engineers, Civil Works Directorate, Operations Division http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/functions/cw/cecwo/

CECWO - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Directorate of Civil Works Operations http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/functions/cw/cecwo/

CED - Committee for Economic Development

CED - Community Economic Development

CED - Concept Exploration and Definition

CEDP - Community and Economic Development Program (Michigan State University)

CEE - Center for Environmental Education, Inc.

CEE - Center for Environmental Education

CEE - Council for Environmental Education (Project WILD) http://www.projectwild.org

CEED - Center for Energy and Economic Development

CEELI - The Central and Eastern European Law Initiative, a project of the American Bar Association

CEEM - Center for Energy and Environmental Management

CEF - Citizen Education Fund

CEF - Citizenship Education Fund (Jesse Jackson)

CEG - Council for Excellence in Government

CEHP - Centre for Environmental History and Policy

CEI - Character Education Institute

CEI - Competitive Enterprise Incorporated

CEI - Competitive Enterprise Institute

Ceiling trolley - A wheeled carriage running on, or in, tracks fastened to the ceiling, from which a projectile was suspended for movement. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CEIP - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

CEL - Center for Environmental Living

CELC - Coastal Ecosystem Learning Centers http://www.coastalamerica.gov/text/learning.html

CELB - Center for Environmental Leadership in Business (founded by the Ford Motor Company Fund with $25M)

CELDF - Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund

CELL - California Early Literacy Learning

CELM - Conceptual Ecological Landscape Models http://www.sfrestore.org/crogee/ra13/ra13full.pdf

CEM - the Canadian Environmental Monitor (a twice-yearly survey of Canadians on environmental attitudes and behavior)

CEM - Change Enablement Methodologies

CEM - Continuous Emissions Monitoring

Cement-stabilization - To stay chemical activity in cement; to prevent further deterioration. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CENADE - The Center for Action and Support of Rural Development

Cenomanian-Santonian Ages - Span of geologic ages including Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, and Santonian during Late Cretaceous time, 98 to 84 million years ago. - BLM

Census of Agriculture - A comprehensive set of quantitative information on the agricultural sector of the U.S. economy, broken down to the state and county levels (i.e., number of farms, land in farms, crop acreage and production, livestock numbers and production, production expenses, farm facilities and equipment, farm tenure, value of farm products sold, farm size, type of farm, among other data). The Census, conducted every 5 years and last published for 1992, was the responsibility of the Commerce Department's Bureau of the Census. However, the FY1997 USDA appropriations act transferred funding for the Census of Agriculture to USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), which intends to start data collection for the 1997 Census in January 1998.

Census Water - Streams, sloughs, estuaries, canals, and other moving bodies of water 200 feet wide and greater, and lakes, reservoirs, ponds, and other permanent bodies of water 4.5 acres in area and greater. - USDA/FS 2. Includes water bodies of at least 40 acres and perennial streams at least 1/8 mile wide. Also referred to as Large water bodies and Large streams. - National Resources Inventory

Center - A compact form of development with a Core, a significant residential component in neighborhoods around the Core within a Community Development Area. Centers range in scale from an Urban Center, to a Regional Center, Town Center, Village, and Hamlet. There is a Community Development Boundary separating the Center from its Environs.

Center of Diversity - Geographic region with high levels of genetic or species diversity. - UNDP/WRI

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) - The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for regulating the food processing industry. Legislation in this area normally is handled by the House Commerce Committee, except for seafood, which is under the jurisdiction of the House Agriculture Committee.

Center of Endemism - Geographic region with numerous locally endemic species. - UNDP/WRI

Centre - See UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Secretariat - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Center Pivot Irrigation - A self-propelled irrigation system in which a single pipeline supported on towers rotates around a central point. These systems are typically about one- quarter mile long and serve 128 to 132 acre circular fields.

Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) - A term for the group of countries including Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and the three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania).

Central Angle - An angle with the vertex at the center of the Earth, with one ray passing through the hypocenter (and also the epicenter) and the other ray passing through the recording station. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Central America - Actually a region within Middle America. Central America comprises the republics that occupy the strip of mainland between Mexico and Panama: Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

Central Planning/Planned Economy - An economic system where economic resources are owned by the government and the government makes all economic decisions.

Central and Southern Florida Project - A multi-purpose project, first authorized by Congress in 1948, which provides flood control, water supply protection, water quality protection and natural resource protection. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Central Valley Project (CVP) - The Federal water storage and transportation system in California, providing 20 percent of delivered water in the state, a percentage of which is dedicated to agriculture and to fish and wildlife purposes. The project also provides power generation and flood control. "The nation's largest water project." - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Central Valley Project Improvement Act (CVPIA) - In one of its last actions of the session, the 102nd Congress passed multipurpose water legislation which was signed into law October 30, 1992. Previously referred to as H.R. 429, Public Law 102-575 contains 40 separate titles providing for water resource projects throughout the West. Title 34, the Central Valley Project Improvement Act, mandates changes in management of the Central Valley Project, particularly for the protection, restoration, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Ten major areas of change include: 800,000 acre-feet of water dedicated to fish and wildlife annually; tiered water pricing applicable to new and renewed contracts; water transfers provision, including sale of water to users outside the CVP service area; special efforts to restore anadromous fish population by 2002; restoration fund financed by water and power users for habitat restoration and enhancement and water and land acquisitions; no new water contracts until fish and wildlife goals achieve; no contract renewals until completion of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement; terms of contracts reduced from 40 to 25 years with renewal at the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior; installation of the temperature control device at Shasta Dam; implementation of fish passage measures at Red Bluff Diversion Dam; firm water supplies for Central Valley wildlife refuges; and development of a plan to increase CVP yield.

Centrifugal Force - Forces from within a State that tend to divide it. Causes of conflicts within a State.

Centripetal force - Forces from within a State that unite it. Forces that keep a country together.

CENYC - The Council on the Environment of New York City http://www.cenyc.org

CEO - Code Enforcement Officer

CEO - European Commission Center for Earth Observation Project (UN)

CEOI - Chief Executive Officer Institute

CEOR - Center on Exempt Organization Responsibility

CEOS - Committee on Earth Observation Satellites

CEP - Council on Economic Priorities

CEPA - Classification of Environmental Protection Activities (UN)

CEPA - Commonwealth Environmental Protection Agency (IUCN)

CEPD - Conservation and Environmental Programs Division (USDA)

CEPF - The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. CEPF is a $150 million fund designed to better safeguard the world's threatened biodiversity hotspots in developing countries. It is a joint initiative of Conservation International (CI), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank.

Cephalopod - A member of the most highly developed class of mollusks that swim by ejecting a jet of water from the mantle cavity through a muscular funnel. Most of those preserved as fossils had straight to symmetrically coiled shells divided into chambers by transverse septa. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

CEPPO - The Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) provides leadership, advocacy and assistance to prevent and prepare for chemical emergencies; respond to environmental crises; and, inform the public about chemical hazards in their community. To protect human health and the environment, CEPPO develops, implements, and coordinates regulatory and non-regulatory programs.

CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality

CEQA - California Environmental Quality Act

CEQR - City Environmental Quality Review

CERA - Citizens Equal Rights Alliance

CERB - Coastal Engineering Research Board

CERC - Coastal Engineering Research Center

CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund)

CERCLA - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress in 1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment.

CERCLIS - Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act

CERCLIS - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Information System (CERCLIS) is an EPA database of information about Superfund sites. This information is intended for EPA employees to use for management of the Superfund program.

CERD - Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination

CERES - California Environmental Resources Evaluation System

CERES - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA)

CERES - Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics

CERES - The Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies http://www.ceres.org/

CERES - Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (A coalition of businesses, advocacy groups, unions, accountants, academics, and government representatives, and include more than 90 indicators of environmental, social, and economic performance - from greenhouse gas emissions and waste management to human rights and child labor records. The GRI standards could meet the growing demand from investors, activists, accounting bodies, and governments for thorough information about business practices, while streamlining the reporting process for companies.

CERL - Construction Engineering Research Library

CERN - The European Particle Physics Laboratory (Geneva, Switzerland)

CERP - The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (Florida)

CERP - Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (Wildlands Project)

CERTAIN - Coalition to End Racial Targeting of American Indian Nations

Certificate of water right - An official document that serves as court evidence of a perfected water right. - USGS

Certified Applicator - A person who is authorized to apply "restricted-use" pesticides as result of meeting requirements for certification under FIFRA-mandated programs. Applicator certification programs are conducted by states, territories and tribes in accordance with national standards set by EPA. "Restricted use pesticides" may be used only by or under the direct supervision of specially trained and certified applicators. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Certiorari (cert.) - The U.S. Supreme Court gives full consideration to but a small fraction of the cases it has authority to review. With many important categories of cases, the party seeking Supreme Court review does so by "petitioning" the Court to issue a "writ of certiorari." (See, e.g., 28 U.S.C. 1254, 1257, 2350.) (Some state appeals courts -- e.g., Ala., Ark., Colo., Conn., Fla., Ga., La., N.J. -- employ the same terminology.) If the Court decides to review one or more issues in such a case it grants "certiorari" (often abbreviated as "cert."). If the Court decides not to review the case it denies "cert." While a decision to deny cert. lets the lower court's ruling stand, it does not constitute a decision by the Supreme Court on any of the legal issues raised by the case. Rule 10 of the Supreme Court Rules lists some of the considerations that may lead the Court to grant certiorari. But the decision to grant or deny cert. is discretionary. Under long-standing internal Court practice if four justices favor granting a petition for cert. it will be granted. Originally, the writ of certiorari was a proceeding through which a superior court required a lower court to submit the full record of a case for review. Under the current rules and practice of the Supreme Court, however, key elements of the proceedings below are submitted along with a petition for certiorari. (See Supreme Court Rules, Rule 14.) And in some states the old terminology has been replaced. In Arizona, for example, relief formerly obtained by the writs of prohibition, mandamus and certiorari is now obtained through a "special action." The Court's orders granting or denying cert. are issued as simple statements of actions taken, without explanation. During each Supreme Court term, the LII's Supreme Court collection includes a running list linking to these and other orders or actions taken without full opinion by the Court. - Supreme Court Glossary

CERTs - Community Economic Revitalization Teams

CES - Center for Energy Studies (Louisiana State University)

CES - Center for Environmental Science (University of Maryland)

CES - The Centre for Environmental Strategy (England)

CES - Commission on Environment and Sustainability (Canada)

CES - Coastal Ecosystem Science. Coastal ecosystem science is the study of inter-relationships among the living organisms, physical features, bio-chemical processes, natural phenomena, and human activities in coastal ecological communities. At NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), coastal ecosystem science centers on the study of five categories of ecosystem stressors: Climate change, such as increases in sea level and ocean temperature; Extreme natural events, such as hurricanes, droughts, and harmful algal blooms; Pollution, such as excess nitrogen from agricultural and urban runoff; Invasive species, such as the lionfish and zebra mussel; and Land and resource use, such as over-harvested fisheries. Authorizing Mandates: Six laws and one executive order authorize most of NOS coastal ecosystem science activities. They are the (1) Estuary Restoration Act; (2) Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998; (3) Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990; (4) National Invasive Species Act of 1996; (5) National Coastal Monitoring Act; (6) National Marine Sanctuaries Act; and (7) Coral Reef Protection Executive Order. NOS uses research, monitoring and assessments to better understand and apply its knowledge of stress factors on coastal ecosystems. The programs and projects that support this effort are lengthy. They span from broad ecosystem-wide and watershed-scale to microbiological and analytical chemistry projects that delve into DNA analysis and bio-chemical reactions. To synthesize the array of many science investigations on an ecosystem scale, NOS develops integrated assessments. These describe the ecosystem, assess its current condition or health, forecast future ecological health based on current management, and evaluate alternative management options and their consequences. For NOS, understanding the ecological effects of environmental stressors is a priority in those ecosystems and those areas where responsibilities are mandated by legislation or executive order. These include coral reef ecosystems, the nation's estuaries, 13 national marine sanctuaries, 25 national estuarine research reserves (NERRS), and ocean ecosystems. The focus of NOS coastal ecosystem science is summarized below. Coral Reefs: NOS coastal ecosystem science works to understand the extent of and reasons for the decline of coral reefs and to provide managers with more effective ways to protect them. Research projects examine interactions between natural factors, human activities and coral health. Some specific projects include: Regional watershed assessment of the causes and impacts of multiple stresses on Florida Bay and the Florida Keys; Characterization and assessment of the distribution of coral reef habitats and the strength of species affinities for those habitats; and Remote sensing analysis to assess habitat changes in and around coral reefs. Estuaries: The NOS approach to estuary research is to produce information that increases understanding of these complex coastal systems and improves the ability to protect and restore habitats within them. Estuary research is grouped into four categories: ecosystem structure and function, human health, habitat mapping, and large-scale trend analysis and indicators. Work in estuaries includes the national estuarine research reserves (discussed below). Examples of estuary research include: Regional watershed assessment of the causes and impacts of multiple stresses on Chesapeake Bay; Monitoring for contaminant concentrations in mussels, oysters, and sediments at over 350 estuarine and coastal sites nationwide; Toxicology research to establish links between land use and the presence of chemical contaminants in marine and estuarine ecosystems nationwide; and Developing distribution, relative abundance, and life history characteristics of ecologically and economically important fishes and invertebrates in the nation's estuaries. National Marine Sanctuaries: Within the nation's marine sanctuaries, NOS coastal ecosystem science aims to develop integrated assessments in support of the national marine sanctuary science plan. Top priorities of the plan are the need to understand (1) the status and trends of sanctuary resources on local, regional, and national scales; (2) the nature, level, and trends of human uses within each sanctuary; and (3) the nationally significant themes at the sanctuary level such as essential habitat identification, biodiversity, and conservation. Some projects include: Documenting ecological links, components, and processes that dominate sanctuary waters in California; and Predicting fish larvae transport to and from Grays Reef National Marine Sanctuary to determine areas most in need of protection. National Estuarine Research Reserves: The goal of NOS ecosystem science at NERRS sites is to support research and management efforts at each reserve. Some projects include: Compiling environmental contaminant data at various NERRS sites and assessing the environmental conditions at those sites; Developing citizen monitoring protocols for salt marsh restoration in North Carolina and California NERRS sites; Conducting research on macroalgae biomass on mudflats at the Kachemak Bay Reserve in Alaska. Oceans and Coastal Waters: Throughout the U.S. coastal and ocean regions, NOS studies how to improve ecological and oceanographic predictions for fisheries management. It also supports research on the effects of climate change on the abundance of fishery resources. Example projects include: Predicting fishery populations for pollock in the Bering Sea, cod and haddock on Georges Bank in the North Atlantic, and salmon in the Pacific Northwest; Stock assessments of recreational and commercial fish stocks-menhaden, spotted sea trout, weakfish, and red drum-in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; and Forensic analysis for enforcing illegal sale of game fish and taking managed fish during periods of fishery closure. http://www.nos.noaa.gov/topics/coasts/ecoscience/welcome.html

CESA - Cooperative Educational Service Agency

CESB - Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards

CESCF - The Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund (DOI/USFWS)

CESCF - Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund (DOI) http://endangered.fws.gov/landowner/grants.pdf

CESI - Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative

CESP - Commission on Environmental Strategy and Planning

CESSE - Council of Engineering and Scientific Society Executives

CET - Center for Transportation and the Environment http://itre.ncsu.edu/cte/cte.html

CETA - Cleaning Equipment Trade Association

CETAP - Community & Environmental Transportation Acceptability Process (Riverside County, California, is the first publicly-published location for this 'plan')

CETOS - Center for Ethics and Toxics

CEU - Coastal Exclusion Unit (DOI/NPS)

CF - Commercial Fishponds

CF - Community Facilities

CF - Community Foundation

CF - Community Fund

CF - Composting Facility

CF - Conservation Financing

CF - Conservation Force (an international sustainable use conservation organization located in Louisiana)

CF - Conservation Foundation

CF -The Conservation Fund

CF - Continuous Fuels (relating to wildfires/forest fires)

CF - Contour Farming

CF - Copy For

CF - Copy Furnished

CF - Corporate Foundation

CF - Creature Features

CF - Crown Fires

CFA - California Forestry Association

CFA - Cascadia Forest Alliance

CFA - Coastal Focus Areas

CFA - Conservation Finance Alliance

C-FACT - The Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow

C-FAM - Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute

CFAT - The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

CFC - Citizens For Change

CFC - Clark Fork Coalition

CFC - Common Fund for Commodities

CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons

CFER - Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research program, Corvallis, Oregon (DOI/BLM) http://www.fsl.orst.edu/cfer

CFF - Campaign for Family Farms

CFG - Corporate Front Groups

CFLI - Coalition for Fair Lumber Imports (Georgia)

CFMP - Cooperative Forest Management Program (Westvaco)

CFO - Chief Financial Officer

CFOL - Creature Features Of Landscapes

CFP - Corporate and Foundation Partners

CFR - Campaign Finance Reform

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations

CFR - Committee on Foreign Relations

CFR - Comprehensive Facility Review

CFRA - Center For Reclaiming America

CFRAMP - CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Program (UN)

CFS - Council of Fleet Specialists

Cfs - Abbreviation of cubic feet per second. - USGS

Cfs-day - The volume of water represented by a flow of 1 cubic foot per second for 24 hours. It equals 86,400 cubic feet, 1.983471 acre-feet, or 646,317 gallons. - USGS

Cfsm (cubic feet per second per square mile) - The average number of cubic feet of water per second flowing from each square mile of area drained by a stream, assuming that the runoff is distributed uniformly in time and area. - USGS

CFT - Coalition Focus Team

CFTA - Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association

CFTB - California Franchise Tax Board

CFTC - Commodity Futures Trading Commission

CFU - Colony Forming Units (was couched in a water glossary with no further explanation or definition)

CFVC - Citizens for a Fair Vote Count

CFWRU - Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (funded by the DOI, U.S. Department of Agriculture, EPA, Department of Defense, NOAA, and other Federal and State agencies)

CG - Challenge Grant, Community Groups

CG - Coordinating Group

CGA - Contrail-Generating Application

CGAA - Citizen-based Global Affairs agendas

CGB - Corporate Governmental Boundaries

CGEE - Center for Global Environmental Education http://cgee.hamline.edu/waters2thesea/concepts.htm

CGF - Committee for Green Foothills http://www.greenfoothills.org/ and http://www.greenfoothills.org/glossary/

CGFS - Committee on the Global Financial System (BIS)

CGG - Commission on Global Governance (UN)

CGG - The Commission on Global Governance (United Nations)

CGLG - Council of Great Lakes Governors (Ohio's Governor Bob Taft is Chairman)

CGNW - Communities for a Great Northwest

CGP - Central Government Planning

CGP - Corporate Giving Program

CGP - Common Good Properties

CGS - Carolina Geological Society

CGS - Contour Grass Strips

CGS - Contracting and General Services

CGSDYSP - The Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply Program

CGT - Canadian Grain Trade

CGWA - Controlled Ground Water Area

CH - Carbonate Habitat

CH - Commission for the Humanities

CHAE - Choi Kyu Chae, an environmentalist, is the president of Tumil Li Nature School. Early on, he became interested in a nature-friendly life and because of this went to Seoul Municipal College of Agriculture. Thinking he should acquire a more specialized education in the environment to enlighten people on a nature-friendly lifestyle, he went to Denmark to study at Haslev University. In 1986, he set out to realize his life long dream: the establishment of a nature school. He found a site for the school in Hasec Li, Kapyung Kun, Kyunggi Do. His conducting of environmental education has been in high gear since 1989. The motto of his education is, let the children feel the importance of their environment through actual activities in the field, rather than cram into their heads all those principles and suggestions. He carefully devised his curriculum against the demand for studying the environment by means of memorization. After they plant seeds under the guidance of teachers, the kids are supposed to come and see every turn of the seasons, witnessing how their plants are growing. The children who came here 10 years ago as elementary students are now college students and occasionally come to serve as environmental teachers. There's nothing special in this school, it's just surrounded by nature. Children sow seeds here, see their efforts bear fruit, catch crayfish in the valley and look at the stars in the night sky, learning to cherish the value of the beauty of nature. People who need advice for starting a school of this kind find great hope here. They get to realize the true meaning of environmental education, which can be successfully performed without expensive or advanced equipment. Many people have the same idea, of teaching and spreading this kind of message in every corner of the country. The life of Choi Kyu Cheol tells us a mans will can be as great as that of nature. He received the First Grassroots Environment Prize offered by UNEP Global 500 Korean Associations, an organization of 10 members who had been given the Global 500 Prize by UNEP which has offered the prize to people all over the world recognized for their contribution to preserving nature. Needless to say, it's very honorable to receive this prize. Surprisingly, he refused to accept it at first, saying he did what he thought should be done and it wasn't meant for any kind of reward. His dream is to make the whole country a kind of teaching place for the environment; bee schools in the bee-keeping places, orchard schools in the orchards, etc. He wants to make the best use of small spaces here and there. Thousands of children have been students at the environment school and they return to their homes to live nature-friendly lives. Severely handicapped as he is, Mr. Choi shows us the meaning of a healthy and beautiful environment in its real sense through his life dedicated to loving and preserving nature.

Chain - (1) A land surveyor's measure - 66 feet or 100 links; (2) a directed non-branching sequence of non-intersecting line segments and/or arcs bounded by nodes, not necessarily distinct, at each end. Area chain, complete chain, and network chain are special cases of chain, and share all characteristics of the general case as defined above. - Cadastral Data glossary

Chain of Title - A chronological list of documents, which comprise the recorded history of title of a specific piece of real estate. - Cadastral Data glossary

Chaining - The use of a large ship-anchor chain pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Chaining (with regard to transportation) - Combining trips, for instance, stopping at the grocery store on the way home from work instead of going home and then going out again. Chaining reduces the number of cold starts for automobiles and enhances the possibilities for retail development around transit stops, as well as for shared parking in many cases and Center-like development generally.

Chamfer - An oblique surface cut on the edge or corner of a board, usually sloping at forty-five degrees. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Change Agent - A change agent is someone who is willing to take the lead when it comes to changing things; is visionary enough to see ahead of the curve and be guided by what is not changing; and has the ability to motivate others to embrace change. Being a change agent means you can make your own list and add or subtract to any list as things change. Being an instructional leader; taking the time to get to know the people one hopes to change, as well as the situation they are in. It doesn't mean being their "fake" friend either, but it does mean empathizing and earning credibility first, and structuring change to fit the situation. Being a change agent means taking the long view. Whether we want to change or not and whether we like change or not are no longer the issues. For the change agent, the focus is learning how to hang in on the edge of chaos. That's where change happens.

Change Insurgent - The natural progression of change agent, which is fast becoming obsolete.

Change Management - Activities involved in (1) defining and instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an organization that support new ways of doing work and overcome resistance to change; (2) building consensus among customers and stakeholders on specific changes designed to better meet their needs; and (3) planning, testing, and implementing all aspects of the transition from one organizational structure or business process to another. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Channel - A natural or artificial watercourse with a definite bed and banks to confine and conduct continuously or periodically flowing water. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Channel (watercourse) - An open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically or continuously contains moving water, or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided (see Braiding of river channels) . Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. - USGS

Channel - A natural or artificial watercourse, with a definite bed and banks, to confine and conduct continuously or periodically flowing water. - Everglades Plan glossary

Channel - The bed of a river, stream, drainage ditch, or other waterway that transports a concentrated flow of water.

Channel Morphology - The structure and form of a stream channel. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Channel storage - The volume of water at a given time in the channel or over the flood plain of the streams in a drainage basin or river reach. Channel storage is great during the progress of a flood event. (See Horton, 1935, p. 3.) - USGS

Channel Types - The following are the channel types, as defined by Rosgen, 1985. A Type - in well confined and moderate sinuosity. B Type - is moderately confined and moderate sinuosity. C Type - in unconfined and moderate to high sinuosity. D Type - is multiple channels and very high sinuosity

Channelization - Engineering watercourses by straightening, widening, or deepening them so water will move faster. While improving drainage, this process can interfere with waste assimilation capacity, disturb fish and wildlife habitats, and aggravate flooding.

Channelization - The straightening and deepening of streams to permit water to move faster, reducing the area subject to flooding. Channelization, particularly concrete channels, may impair or destroy the stream's natural functions. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Channery soil - A soil that is, by volume, more than 15 percent thin, flat fragments of sandstone, shale, slate, limestone, or schist as much as 6 inches along the longest axis. A single piece is called a channer. - USDA

Chaparral - Areas with broad-leaved evergreen shrubs found in climates with hot dry summers and mild wet winters. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Char - The remains of solid biomass that has been incompletely combusted, such as charcoal if wood is incompletely burned. - Bioenergy Glossary

Character-defining / distinctive feature - Features particular to a historic structure that distinguish and/or typify its character in terms of its original visual and structural design (and engineering), and in terms of its historic function or use. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary 2. A prominent or distinctive aspect, quality, or characteristic of a cultural landscape or historic structure that contributes significantly to its physical character. (See also: Cultural Landscape.) - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Characteristic - Qualities that constitute a character, that characterize a landscape; a distinguishing trait, feature, or quality; uniqueness; attribute. - FS

Characteristic Diversity - The pattern of distribution and abundance of populations, species, and habitats under conditions where humanity's influence on the ecosystem is no greater than that of any other biotic factor. - UNDP/WRI

Characteristic Landscape - The established landscape within an area being viewed. This does not necessarily mean a naturalistic character. It could refer to an agricultural setting, an urban landscape, a primarily natural environment, or a combination of these types. (BLM)

Characteristic Species - Species that are localized within a group and provide the most typical expression of the group's ecology.

Characteristicity - The property whereby the sample of prices or quantities and the weights used in an international comparison conform closely to a representative sample of items and to the weights of each of the countries included in the comparison. (UN)

Charette - A French term for a small, two-wheeled cart; at the Ecole Nationale et Spéciale des Beaux-Arts instructors collected students' drawings for assigned projects in a charette and the term came to be associated with the process of designing, and in particular with a work in progress by a group of architectural professionals. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Charter - The "contract" between jurisdictions within a COI (Community Of Interest) that defines the Purpose, Objectives, Roles and Responsibilities, and other necessary agreements and conditions needed to work within the COI. - GWOB

Charters - The term "charter" is used for particularly formal and solemn instruments, such as the constituent treaty of an international organization. The term itself has an emotive content that goes back to the Magna Charta of 1215. Well-known recent examples are the Charter of the United Nations of 1945 and the Charter of the Organization of American States of 1952. (UN)

CHC - Critical Habitat Corridor

CHD - Critical Habitat Designation

CHD - Combined Health District

CHE - The Collaborative on Health and the Environment (umbrella group of virtually every extreme environmental group)

CHE - Cultural and Historical Endowment

CHEA - Council for Higher Education Accreditation

Check dam - A small dam constructed in a gully or other small water course to decrease the streamflow velocity, minimize channel erosion, promote deposition of sediment and to divert water from a channel. - USGS

Checking - Separations of the wood that normally occur across or through the annual rings, usually as a result of seasoning. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Chelation - The formation of strong bonds between metals and organic compounds. Some chelates are insoluble, such as in soil humus.

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number - A unique identifier assigned to each chemical and to some mixtures of chemicals by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of the American Chemical Society. This number is used worldwide. The CAS registry number includes up to 9 digits, which are separated into 3 groups by hyphens (xxxxxx-xx-x). The first part of the number, starting from the left, has up to 6 digits; the second part has 2 digits. The final part consists of a single check digit or checksum that makes it easy to determine whether a CAS number is valid or not.

Chemical Control - The use of pesticides and herbicides to control pests and other undesirable plant species.

Chemical weathering - Attack and dissolving of parent rock by exposure to rainwater, surface water, oxygen, and other gases in the atmosphere, and compounds secreted by organisms. Contrast physical weathering. - USGS

Chemigation - The application of a pesticide and/or fertilizer through any irrigation system. This delivery technique raises some concern that it may cause increased pollution.

Chemocline - Sharp gradient in chemical concentration; the boundary in a meromictic lake separating an upper layer of less-saline water that can mix completely at least once a year (mixolimnion) from a deeper, more saline (dense) layer (monimolimnion) that never is mixed into the overlying layer. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Chemosterilant - A chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction, thereby causing the population to collapse. This contrasts with chemicals that directly kill pests.

Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. v. Chicago (1897 U.S. Supreme Court): The Chicago ruling held that the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment was made applicable to the States through the Fourteenth Amendment. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Child Mortality Rate - The probability of dying between the ages of one and five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. (WB-UN)

Chipko Movement - A grassroots, community-led movement in India opposing indiscriminate deforestation. Originating among village women in the Himalayan foothills of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in 1974. 'Chipko' means 'to embrace' in Hindi. The movement took its name from women who embraced trees to prevent them from being felled. Over the years the Chipko campaign has gradually evolved into a fully-fledged conservation movement. (UNESCO)

Chipping - The reduction of woody residue by a portable chipper to chips that are left to decay on the forest floor.

CHIPS - Children's Health Insurance Program

Chiseling - Tillage with an implement having one or more soil-penetrating points that shatter or loosen hard compacted layers to a depth below normal plow depth. - USDA

CHL - Critical Habitat Lawsuit

Chlorine demand - The difference between the amount of chlorine added to water, sewage, or industrial wastes and the amount of residual chlorine remaining at the end of a specific contact period. Compare residual chlorine. - USGS

Chlorite - A nonexpanding clay mineral having a silica tetrahedral, an alumina octahedral, a silica tetrahedral, and a magnesium hydroxide (brucite) octahedral layer, has a 2:2 or 2:1:1 crystal structure.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. CFCs are often used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air-conditioners and in the manufacture of some plastics such as Styrofoam. They are a potent greenhouse gas and their use is currently being phased out. (UNESCO)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Cheap synthetic gases that serve as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners and as propellants in aerosol spray cans. Although originally considered harmless, CFCs are now known to accumulate in the earth's atmosphere, where they destroy the protective ozone layer and trap the sun's heat- contributing to the greenhouse effect (see greenhouse gases). The use of CFCs is now controlled by the Montreal Protocol, an agreement signed by many countries. - World Bank Glossary

Chlorosis - The conditions of plants when chlorophyll fails to develop and plants are yellowish white to white and poorly developed. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

CHMS - Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy

Choke point - A constricted geographical area, easy to defend. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CHOICE - Center for Humanitarian Outreach and Intellectual Exchange

CHOICE - Consumers for Healthy Options In Children's Education

CHOKE - Coalition to Help Organize a Kleaner Environment

Cholera - Any of several diseases of man and domestic animals usually marked by severe gastrointestinal symptoms. (UNESCO)

Cholera - Infectious and often-fatal disease of the digestive system acquired by drinking contaminated water. - UNEP Children's Glossary

CHP - Combined heat and power

CHR - Center for Human Rights (UN - WIPO)

CHR - Chatham House Rule (no disclosure of events at meetings)

CHR - Cultural and Historic Resources (DOI)

CHRF - Committee on Human Resources and Facilities

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) - An inorganic arsenical; the most prevalent of the waterborne wood preservatives, commonly used anywhere termites and decay attack may occur, both indoors and outdoors. Applications include decks, fences, landscape architecture, playground equipment, docks, marinas, utility poles, bridges, highway sound barriers, roller coasters, wood foundations, mine shafts, and more. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Chronic Disease - An illness, such as heart disease or asthma that is ongoing or recurring but is not caused by infection and is not passed on by contact. (WB-UN)

Chronic Toxicity - The capacity of a substance to cause long- term or delayed adverse health effects. For example, a cancer resulting from exposure to a carcinogen may not appear for years or decades.

CHRSG - Compliance History Rulemaking Stakeholder Group

CHU - Critical Habitat Unit

Chute spillway - The overall structure that allows water to drop rapidly through an open channel without causing erosion. Usually constructed near the edge of dams. - USGS

Chutzpa or Chutzpah - Unmitigated effrontery or impudence.

CI - Capital Improvements

CI - Champion International

CI - The Chlorine Institute, Incorporated

CI - Claremont Institute

CI - Conservation Information

CI - Conservation International

CI - Corporate Investment

CIAD - Canadian International Development Agency

CIB - Center for the Inland Bays http://www.inlandbays.org/

CIBN - The Canadian Indigenous Biodiversity Network (UN)

CICA - U.S. - Mexico Border Information Center on Air Pollution (The acronym CICA derives from the Center's name in Spanish: Centro de Información sobre Contaminación de Aire) http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/cica/about_e.html

CICI-2003 - The International Conference on the Contribution of Criteria and Indicators to Sustainable Forest Management: The Way Forward (UN)

CICR - Capital Improvement Coordination and Review

Circularity or Transitivity - The property of indices when the price or quantity relationship among any two of three countries is the same, whether derived from an original-country comparison between them or from the comparison of each country with any third country. In the case of three countries, where I is a price or quantity index and j, k and I are countries, the circularity test is satisfied if Ij/k = Ij/i /Ik/i. When this test is satisfied, there is a unique cardinal scaling of countries with respect to relative quantities and prices. (UN)

Circumboreal - Distributed around the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere in the boreal zone. (NPS)

CID - The Central Idaho recovery area (wolf reintroduction) (DOI/USFWS) http://mountain-prairie.fws.gov/wolf/annualrpt02/2002report.pdf

CID - Common International Database

CID - Consortium for Idahoans with Disabilities

CIDA - The Canadian International Development Agency

CIDC - Crop Intensification, Diversification and Commercialization

CIEL - Center for International Environmental Law

CIES - Childhood International Education Seminar

CIESIN - Center for International Earth Science Information Network

CIF - Center for Individual Freedom

CIF - The Conservative Internet Forum

CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research

CIIR - Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval

CIG - Collaborative interagency groups (DOI)

CIG - Conservation Innovation Grants

CIL - Center for Independent Living, which provides cross-disability services to empower and enable people to live independently.

CIL - Critically Important Landscapes

CIL - Customary International Law

CILHI - Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii (US Army)

CIM - Certificate of Initial Mastery

CIM - Certificates of Initial Mastery

CIMRI - Channel Islands Marine Resource Institute

CINMS - Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary http://www.cinms.nos.noaa.gov/

CIP - Capital Improvements Program

CIP - Community Involvement Program

CIP - Conservation Implementation Program (DOI/BOR)

CIP - Conservation Improvement Program (DOI/BOR)

CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection

CIPRIS - Coordinated Interagency Partnership Regulating International Students

CIPSH - International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies

CIR - Credentialing In Reverse

CIRCA - Center for Individual Rights and Constitutional Accountability

CIS - Commonwealth of Independent States. An organization comprised of several of the former republics of the Soviet Union.

Cistern - A non-pressurized tank, usually underground, for storing water.

CIT - Community Involvement Team

CIT - Continuous Interstate Trails

CITD - Center for International Trade Development

CITES - United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

CITIC - China International Trust Corporation

City of Phoenix v. Superior Court, Maricopa County, 137 Ariz. 409, 671 P.2d 387 (1983) - This ruling separated takings decisions into two components. The first considered "necessity," which the court considered a legislative decision. The second component was "public use," which the court determined was subject to judicial review.

Civil Rights - Cordeco Development Corp. v. Vazquez 354 F. Suppl. 1355 (1972): "There exists no dichotomy between personal liberty and property rights. It has long been recognized that rights in property are basic civil rights." This citation stems from a reference to U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lynch v. Household Finance Corp. (1972). The Cordeco decision allowed an action under 42 United States Code, Section 1985. The Cordeco action sought damages and other relief on the basis of denial of due process and equal protection in the refusal to grant a permit for extraction of sand from the plaintiff's land or to pass upon the plaintiff's permission for a permit. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Civil and Political Rights - The rights of citizens to liberty and equality; sometimes referred to as first generation rights. Civil rights include freedom to worship, to think and express oneself, to vote, to take part in political life, and to have access to information. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Civil Support - Department of Defense (DoD) support to civilian authorities for natural and manmade domestic emergencies, civil disturbances, and designated law enforcement efforts. (A Homeland Defense Program Term)

Civil War - A war between factions within a country that is contained as a domestic dispute. Civil wars have many causes including ethnic disputes, disputes over resources and a dissatisfaction with the current regime or form of governance. Like all wars there are tremendous social and environmental costs involved. (UNESCO)

CJCS - Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

CJMG - California Journal of Mines and Geology

CK - Creek Keeper (EPA)

CKC - Central Kansas Conservancy

CKS - Collaborative Knowledge Space

CKX - Chin, Kwan-Je, and Xie

CL - Common Law

CL - Confidence Level

CL - Conservation League

CL - Cooling Lake

CLA - Coin Laundry Association

Clade - A technical term for an evolutionary group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants.

Claim - The entitlement of a creditor to repayment of a Loan (q.v.); by extension, the loan itself or the outstanding amount thereof. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

CLARC - CAB International Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre http://www.cabi-bioscience.org

Clarifier - A tank used to remove solids by gravity, to remove colloidal solids by coagulation, and to remove floating oil and scum through skimming. - Bioenergy Glossary

Clarity - Transparency; routinely estimated by the depth at which you can no longer see a sechi disk. The Secchi disk is a 20 cm (8 inch) diameter weighted metal plate with alternating quadrants painted black and white that is used to estimate water clarity (light penetration). The disc is lowered into water until it disappears from view. It is then raised until just visible. An average of the two depths, taken from the shaded side of the boat, is recorded as the Secchi depth. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

CLAS - Core Language Arts Standards

CLASS - Consular Lookout and Support System

Class - Is a title/name used in classifications to depict a particular level within a hierarchy (e.g. Section, Division, Group, Class). It usually refers to the one of the lower levels of a classification, often the lowest (e.g. in ISIC Rev. 3 the lowest level - 4 digit - is referred to as the class, while in the CPC the class level is the second lowest level). Its use is not mandatory. Refer also to Division, Level. (UN)

Class I area - Any area designated for the most stringent protection from future air quality degradation. - Bioenergy Glossary

Class I (air quality) Areas - Special areas (i.e., national parks, certain wilderness areas) protected for their air quality related values. (BLM)

Class I Equivalency - The amount of less productive land in a water district receiving Bureau of Reclamation water (Classes 2, 3, and 4) that would be necessary to be equivalent in productive potential to Class I land. This equivalency rating is made to adjust the number of acres that may be irrigated (see acreage limitation) so that less productive lands are equivalent in productive potential to 960 acres of Class I land.

Class I Land - Under reclamation law, Class I land is defined as irrigable land within a particular agricultural economic setting that is productive enough to yield the highest level of suitability for continuous, successful irrigation farming, and has the highest relative productive potential as measured in net income per acre.

Class I Landfills - Landfills that will accept non-radioactive, hazardous solid and liquid wastes.

Class II area - Any area where air is cleaner than required by federal air quality standards and designated for a moderate degree of protection from air quality degradation. Moderate increases in new pollution may be permitted in Class II areas. - Bioenergy Glossary

Classification - Is a set of discrete, exhaustive and mutually exclusive observations that can be assigned to one or more variables to be measured in the collation and/or presentation of data. The terms `classification' and `nomenclature' are often used interchangeably, despite the definition of a `nomenclature' being narrower than that of a `classification'. The structure of a classification can be either hierarchical or flat. Hierarchical classifications range from the broadest level (e.g. division) to the detailed level (e.g. class). Flat classifications (e.g. sex classification) are not hierarchical. The characteristics of a good classification are as follows: - the categories are exhaustive and mutually exclusive (i.e. each member of a population can only be allocated to one category without duplication or omission); - the classification is comparable to other related (national or international) standard classifications. - the categories are stable i.e. they are not changed too frequently, or without proper review, justification and documentation; - the categories are well described with a title in a standard format and backed up by explanatory notes, coding indexes, coders and correspondence tables to related classifications (including earlier versions of the same classification); - the categories are well balanced within the limits set by the principles for the classification (i.e. not too many or too few categories). This is usually established by applying significance criteria (e.g. size limits on variables such as employment, turnover, etc.) - the categories reflect realities of the field (e.g. the society or economy) to which they relate (e.g. in an industry classification, the categories should reflect the total picture of industrial activities of the country); and - the classification is backed up by availability of instructions, manuals, coding indexes, handbooks and training. Refer also to Nomenclature. (UN)

Classification Structure - Refers to how the categories of a classification are arranged, grouped and sub-divided. The categories of a classification can be arranged in either a hierarchical or flat structure. In flat classifications the categories are arranged at a single level. Hierarchical classifications have several levels corresponding to different degrees of resolution (detail) in the measurement (specification) of the variable being observed. (UN)

Classification Unit - Is the basic unit to be classified in the classification (e.g. in an activity classification this would be the establishment or enterprise, in an occupational classification it will be the job). Refer also to Observation Unit. (UN)

Classified Road - A road that is constructed or maintained for long-term highway vehicle use. Classified roads may be public, private, or forest development. ("...at least 50" wide & constructed or maintained for vehicle use")

Classifying - The term is used for the act of classifying or assigning a classification code to a unit or observation. (UN)

Clay - A mineral soil separate consisting of particles less than 0.002 mm in equivalent diameter. 2. A soil textural class. 3. A fine-grained soil that has a high plasticity index in relation to the liquid limits (engineering). 4. A specific mineral structure.

Clay - 1.) Sedimentary grains < 1/256 mm. 2.) Fine particles of aluminum silicates and other minerals typically both definitions apply. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Clay film - A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin. - USDA

Clayhills - Pine communities on clay soils, especially in northwestern Florida, eastern Alabama and southwestern Georgia. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Claypan - A compact, slowly permeable soil horizon that contains much more clay than the horizon above it. A claypan is commonly hard when dry and plastic or stiff when wet. - USDA

CLC - Catawba Lands Conservancy (North Carolina)

CLC - Conservation Land Coalition

CLE - Continuing Legal Education (mandatory for attorneys)

CLEAN - Citizens for Leaders with Ethics and Accountability Now!

The Clean Air Act (CAA) - The Clean Air Act restricts the types and amounts of pollutants that may be released into the air and requires permits for large, and sometimes small, polluters. Superfund cleanup responses must comply with CAA requirements and the substances that are listed as hazardous air pollutants under section 112 of the CAA are considered to be Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) hazardous substances.

Clean Air Act - The primary federal law governing efforts to control air pollution. Federal legislation addressing air pollution was first adopted in 1955 (Air Pollution Control Act, P.L. 84-159) research and technical assistance. Subsequent amendments, most notably the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 (P.L. 91-604), 1977 (P.L. 95-95), and 1990 (P.L. 101-549), strengthened the federal role. The Clean Air Act seeks to protect human health and the environment from emissions that pollute the air. EPA is required to establish minimum National Standards Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), while states are assigned primary responsibility for developing compliance. Areas not meeting the standards (nonattainment areas) are required to implement specific control measures. There is no direct federal regulation of agriculture under the Clean Air Act. Two of the NAAQS (for particulates and ozone) could affect agriculture: particulates, because certain agricultural practices, such as prescribed burning and tilling, create airborne particles that might be targeted for control in State Implementation Plans; and ozone, because concentrations of ozone above the standard can adversely affect crop yields. Ozone is formed in the atmosphere when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (from manufacturing, transportation, and utilities) react in the presence of sunlight (agriculture rarely if ever represents significant sources of ozone precursors).

Clean distillate - A creosote preservative introduced in 1985. Clean distillate products, such as utility poles, exhibit clean, dry surfaces with little or no surface residue. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Cleanup - An action taken to deal with a release or threatened release of hazardous substances that could adversely affect public health and/or the environment. The word "cleanup" is used to refer to both short-term (removal) actions and long-term (remedial response) actions at Superfund sites. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Clean Water Act (1977) - This is the principal law governing pollution of the nation's rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. Originally enacted in 1948 as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (P.L. 80-845), it was totally revised by amendments in 1972 that gave the Act its current name and shape (P.L. 92-500). The objective of the Act is the restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters. The Act is implemented by the EPA in partnership with state and local governments. Programs in the Act have been primarily directed at managing point source pollution (wastes discharged from industrial facilities, sewage treatment plants, and municipal storm sewer systems). Agricultural activities have been less of a focus, but some may be affected by the Clean Water Act. Large confined animal feeding operations are treated like industrial sources and are subject to permit requirements. Programs to manage non-point source pollution (rainfall runoff from farms, rangelands, forests, etc.) may affect agriculture. A program in the Act that regulates discharges of dredged and fill material into wetlands (Section 404) requires permits for activities on agricultural wetlands. Requires consultation with the Corps of Engineers (404 permits) for major wetland modifications.

The Clean Water Act, Title 33, Sec. 1341 - TITLE 33 -- NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS CHAPTER 26 -- WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL SUBCHAPTER IV -- PERMITS AND LICENSES Sec. 1341. Certification: (a) Compliance with applicable requirements; application; procedures; license suspension. (1) Any applicant for a Federal license or permit to conduct any activity including, but not limited to, the construction or operation of facilities, which may result in any discharge into the navigable waters, shall provide the licensing or permitting agency a certification from the State in which the discharge originates or will originate, or, if appropriate, from the interstate water pollution control agency having jurisdiction over the navigable waters at the point where the discharge originates or will originate, that any such discharge will comply with the applicable provisions of sections 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, and 1317 of this title. In the case of any such activity for which there is not an applicable effluent limitation or other limitation under sections 1311(b) and 1312 of this title, and there is not an applicable standard under sections 1316 and 1317 of this title, the State shall so certify, except that any such certification shall not be deemed to satisfy section 1371(c) of this title. Such State or interstate agency shall establish procedures for public notice [that] in the case of all applications for certification by it and, to the extent it deems appropriate, procedures for public hearings in connection with specific applications. In any case where a State or interstate agency has no authority to give such a certification, such certification shall be from the Administrator. If the State, interstate agency, or Administrator, as the case may be, fails or refuses to act on a request for certification, within a reasonable period of time (which shall not exceed one year) after receipt of such request, the certification requirements of this subsection shall be waived with respect to such Federal application. No license or permit shall be granted until the certification required by this section has been obtained or has been waived as provided in the preceding sentence. No license or permit shall be granted if certification has been denied by the State, interstate agency, or the Administrator, as the case may be. 2) Upon receipt of such application and certification the licensing or permitting agency shall immediately notify the Administrator of such application and certification. Whenever such a discharge may affect, as determined by the Administrator, the quality of the waters of any other State, the Administrator within thirty days of the date of notice of application for such Federal license or permit shall so notify such other State, the licensing or permitting agency, and the applicant. If, within sixty days after receipt of such notification, such other State determines that such discharge will affect the quality of its waters so as to violate any water quality requirements in such State, and within such sixty-day period notifies the Administrator and the licensing or permitting agency in writing of its objection to the issuance of such license or permit and requests a public hearing on such objection, the licensing or permitting agency shall hold such a hearing. The Administrator shall at such hearing submit his evaluation and recommendations with respect to any such objection to the licensing or permitting agency. Such agency, based upon the recommendations of such State, the Administrator, and upon any additional evidence, if any, presented to the agency at the hearing, shall condition such license or permit in such manner as may be necessary to insure compliance with applicable water quality requirements. If the imposition of conditions cannot insure such compliance such agency shall not issue such license or permit. 3) The certification obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection with respect to the construction of any facility shall fulfill the requirements of this subsection with respect to certification in connection with any other Federal license or permit required for the operation of such facility unless, after notice to the certifying State, agency, or Administrator, as the case may be, which shall be given by the Federal agency to whom application is made for such operating license or permit, the State, or if appropriate, the interstate agency or the Administrator, notifies such agency within sixty days after receipt of such notice that there is no longer reasonable assurance that there will be compliance with the applicable provisions of sections 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, and 1317 of this title because of changes since the construction license or permit certification was issued in (A) the construction or operation of the facility, (B) the characteristics of the waters into which such discharge is made, (C) the water quality criteria applicable to such waters or (D) applicable effluent limitations or other requirements. This paragraph shall be inapplicable in any case where the applicant for such operating license or permit has failed to provide the certifying State, or, if appropriate, the interstate agency or the Administrator, with notice of any proposed changes in the construction or operation of the facility with respect to which a construction license or permit has been granted, which changes may result in violation of section 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, or 1317 of this title. (4) Prior to the initial operation of any federally licensed or permitted facility or activity which may result in any discharge into the navigable waters and with respect to which a certification has been obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, which facility or activity is not subject to a Federal operating license or permit, the licensee or permittee shall provide an opportunity for such certifying State, or, if appropriate, the interstate agency or the Administrator to review the manner in which the facility or activity shall be operated or conducted for the purposes of assuring that applicable effluent limitations or other limitations or other applicable water quality requirements will not be violated. Upon notification by the certifying State, or if appropriate, the interstate agency or the Administrator that the operation of any such federally licensed or permitted facility or activity will violate applicable effluent limitations or other limitations or other water quality requirements such Federal agency may, after public hearing, suspend such license or permit. If such license or permit is suspended, it shall remain suspended until notification is received from the certifying State, agency, or Administrator, as the case may be, that there is reasonable assurance that such facility or activity will not violate the applicable provisions of section 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, or 1317 of this title. (5) Any Federal license or permit with respect to which a certification has been obtained under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be suspended or revoked by the Federal agency issuing such license or permit upon the entering of a judgment under this chapter that such facility or activity has been operated in violation of the applicable provisions of section 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, or 1317 of this title. (6) Except with respect to a permit issued under section 1342 of this title, in any case where actual construction of a facility has been lawfully commenced prior to April 3, 1970, no certification shall be required under this subsection for a license or permit issued after April 3, 1970, to operate such facility, except that any such license or permit issued without certification shall terminate April 3, 1973, unless prior to such termination date the person having such license or permit submits to the Federal agency which issued such license or permit a certification and otherwise meets the requirements of this section. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=browse_usc&docid=Cite:+33USC1341

CLEAR - Clearinghouse on Environmental Advocacy and Research

CLEAR - Council on Licensure, Enforcement and Regulation

Clear-Cut - A harvest in which all or almost all of the trees are removed in one cutting.

Clear-cut Harvest - A harvest regeneration method under an even-aged silvicultural system in which the existing stand of trees is removed.

Clear-cutting - One of the harvest cutting methods of the even-aged management system in which the old crop is cleared over a considerable area at one time. Regeneration then occurs from (a) natural seeding from adjacent stands, (b) seed contained in the slash or logging debris, (c) advance growth, or (d) planting or direct seeding. An even-aged forest usually results. Strictly the removal of the entire standing crop.

Clear Title - Title that is free from defects, doubts and litigious uncertainties; a title that would qualify as "marketable title". - Cadastral Data glossary

Clearinghouse (National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse) - a distributed, electronically connected network of geospatial data producers, managers, and users. - Cadastral Data glossary

Clearly defined landscape - One of the three main categories of cultural landscapes adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its sixteenth session in December 1992 (UNESCO 14 December 1992: 54-55) and included in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 11, Paragraph 39). Paragraph 39 (i) of the Operational Guidelines refers to clearly defined landscapes in the following way: 39. (i) The most easily identifiable is the clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes constructed for aesthetic reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles (UNESCO February 1996: 11).

Cleft - Split about in the middle. (NPS)

CLF - Cattlemen's Legal Fund

CLF - Conservation Law Foundation

CLF - The Conservation Law Foundation

CLIMAP - Climate Long- Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction

Climate - The average or prevailing weather conditions of a place over a period of years (BLM Technical Reference 4400-7). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. The sum total of the meteorological elements that characterize the average and extreme condition of the atmosphere over a long period of time at any one place or region of the earth's surface. The collective state of the atmosphere at a given place or over a given area within a specified period of time. (Landsberg, 1945, p. 928.) - USGS

Climatic cycle - The periodic changes climate displays, such as a series of dry years following a series of years with heavy rainfall. - USGS

Climatic factor (C factor - WEQ) - Characterizes climatic erosivity, specifically wind speed and surface soil moisture. The factor for any given locality is expressed as a percentage of the C factor for Garden City, Kansas, which has a value of 100. - National Resources Inventory

Climate model - A quantitative way of representing the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. Models can range from relatively simple to quite comprehensive. See General Circulation Model.

CLIMAS - Climate Assessment Project for the Southwest

Climate modeling - The simulation of the climate using computer-based models. (See climate model, General Circulation Model)

Climatic year - A continuous 12-month period during which a complete annual cycle occurs, arbitrarily selected for the presentation of data relative to hydrologic or meteorologic phenomena. The climatic year is usually designated by the calendar year during which most of the 12 months occur. A period used in meteorological measurements. The climatic year in the U.S. begins on October 1. (See Water year.) - USGS

Climax - The culminating stage in plant succession for a given site, where the vegetation has reached a highly stable condition over time and perpetuates itself unless disturbed by outside forces.

Climax Community - The end of a successional sequence; a community that has reached stability under a particular set of environmental conditions. - UNDP/WRI

Climax Species - Those species that dominate a climax stand.

Climax Vegetation - The final vegetation community and highest ecological development of a plant community that emerges after a series of successive vegetational stages. The climax community perpetuates itself indefinitely unless disturbed by outside forces. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Climax Vegetation Community - The final or stable community in a series of successive vegetation states that is self-perpetuating and in dynamic balance with the physical and biotic environment. - BLM

Cline - Change in population characteristics over a geographical area, usually related to a corresponding environmental change. - UNDP/WRI

Clinker - Slaggy or vitreous masses of coal ash. Clinkers form the area of naturally burning coal fires and are later exposed by erosion. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

CLMA - Contact Lens Manufacturers Association

CLN - The Conservation Land Network (Linking Environmental Groups, Land Trusts and Montana Real Estate Brokers

CLN - Conservation Leadership Network

CLNS - Cape Lookout National Seashore

Clone - A genetically identical copy. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Close-grown crops - Crops that are generally drill-seeded or broadcast, such as wheat, oats, rice, barley, and flax. - National Resources Inventory

Closed - Generally denotes that an area is not available for a particular use or uses; refer to specific definitions found in law, regulations, or policy guidance for application to individual programs. For example, 43 CFR 8340.0-5 sets forth the specific meaning of "closed" as it relates to OHV use, and 43 CFR 8364 defines "closed" as it relates to closure and restriction orders. - BLM

Closed Traverse - A traverse that starts and ends at the same point, or at points whose relative horizontal position are known. A traverse that forms a continuous loop enclosing an area is known as a "loop traverse" (also being a closed traverse). Another kind of closed traverse is a "connecting traverse" that starts and ends at separate points whose relative positions have been determined by a survey of equal or higher-order accuracy. - Cadastral Data glossary

Cloudburst - A torrential downpour of rain, which by its spottiness and relatively high intensity suggests the bursting and discharge of a whole cloud at once. (Woolley, 1946, p. ii.) - USGS

CLP - Corridors of Life Program (Wildlands Project aka American Wildlands)

CLORV - California League of Off Road Voters

Closed Discretionary - Areas closed to mineral exploration and development by authority of law or regulation, but where such lands can be opened by action of BLM without legislation, regulation change, Secretarial decision of Executive Order. (BLM)

Closed Non-discretionary - Areas specifically closed to mineral exploration and development by authority of law, regulation, Secretarial decision (including Public Land Orders), or Executive Order. (BLM)

CLP - California Legacy Project (virtually the "California Wildlands Project")

CLS - Cooperative Library System

CLSA - California Land Settlement Act of 1851

CLSG - Congressional Liberty Study Group

CLT - The Conservation Land Trust http://www.deepecology.org/directory.html

CLU - Compatible Land Use

CLU - Consumptive Land Use

Club of Rome, The - A consortium of industrialists named such because their first meeting was held in Rome. The founder of the Club was David Rockefeller. It's purpose, in 1962, was to discuss the ramifications of overpopulation. It was there that the strategy for legalizing abortion worldwide was hammered out. At the conclusion of the meeting, George Gallop was hired to conduct a series of polls to determine the views of the American people on the legalization of abortion. The first poll taken found that 91% of the American people opposed the legalization of abortion. The money pledged to wage the PR battle was then liberally used to influence the opinion of people to convince them that by the end of the century the world would be so overpopulated that half of the world would be starving and the other half would be fighting for what little food was left. That same year the Carnegie Trust, which was also represented at the Club of Rome, funded the distribution of the book, "The Population Bomb" to further convince educators that overpopulation was a reality. Gallop took another poll in 1964. At that time, 78% of the people viewed abortion as a crime. An addition poll was taken in 1965. 71% of the people then thought abortion was wrong. Another Gallop poll on the subject was commission in 1968. At that time, 69% of the people thought abortion was wrong. The last poll taken was taken in 1969. This time the question was changed. The poll asked if the respondents thought abortion should be a private matter between a woman and her doctor. Sixty-seven percent of those asked said yes. Gallop published his findings saying that 67% of the people favored the legalization of abortion even though that question was not asked. In 1969 lawmakers in Michigan tried to legalize abortion. The measure was defeated by 67.5% of the voters.

CLUE - The Center for Land Use Education http://www.uwsp.edu/cnr/landcenter/

CLUE - The Coalition for Land Use and the Environment (based in western Colorado)

Cluster - The aggregation of cavity trees previously and currently used and defended by a group of woodpeckers, or this same aggregation of cavity trees and a 61 m (200 ft.) wide buffer of continuous forest. Here the second definition is used. For management purposes, the minimum area encompassing the cluster is 4 ha (10 acres). Use of the term 'cluster' is preferred over colony because colony implies more than one nest (as in colonial breeder). - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Cluster, active - See active cluster.

Cluster, captured - See captured cluster.

Cluster Development - Buildings concentrated together in specific areas to minimize infrastructure and development costs while achieving the allowable density. Allows the preservation of natural open space for recreation, common open space, and preservation of environmentally sensitive features. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Clustered Development - Development in which a number of two or more dwelling units are placed in closer proximity than usual on smaller lots, or are attached, with generally for the purpose of retaining and preserving open space area in a natural state or avoiding natural hazards. The resulting vacant area would typically be established as permanent open space, dedicated to a public agency.

CLV - Current Level of Visits (to federal lands)

CLWB - Committee on Lions, Wolves and Bears

CM - Change Management

CM - Changing Methodology

CM - Common Market

CM - Compliance Monitoring

CM - Computer Modeling

CM - Congressional Mandate

CM - Consortium Monitoring

CM - Critical Mass

CM - Customary Maneuver

CMA - California Mining Association

CMA - Colorado Mining Association

CMA - Cross-Media Analysis

CMAQ - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (ISTEA)

CMAQ - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (EPA - Clean Air Act) http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/cmaqpgs/

CMC - The Center for Marine Conservation

CMC - The Center for Marine Conservation also known as The Ocean Conservancy "As the largest and oldest organization dedicated solely to protecting the oceans, we take our work very seriously. With more than 900,000 members and volunteers, The Ocean Conservancy combines science-based advocacy, grassroots activism, litigation, education and outreach to find lasting solutions to issues affecting our oceans and all marine life." http://www.cmc-ocean.org/

CMC - Chicago Mining Corporation

CMC - Citizen Management Committee

CMC - Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

CMCD Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline

CMD - Center for Media and Democracy

CMDC - Center for the Moral Defense of Capitalism

CME - The Chicago Mercantile Exchange, also known as 'the Merc' and 'the Chicago Merc'

CME - Closed to Mineral Entry

CME - Compliance Monitoring Efforts

CME - Corporate Marketing Executive

CMEA - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (superseded by OIEC in 1992)

CMEF - California Mineral Education Foundation

CMF - Central and Mississippi Flyways

CMG - Climate Modeling Group

CMG - Coastal and Marine Geology (DOI/USGS)

CMI - Can Manufacturers Institute

CML - Currently Mined Land

CMP - Center for Market Processes

CMP/EIS - Comprehensive Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement - DOI/NPS/BLM

CMR - Command Management Review

CMR/TWM - Coastal and Marine Recreation/Tourism and Waterway Management

CMS - Congestion Management System

CMWA - Crex Meadows Wildlife Area (Wisconsin)

CN - Conservation Network

CNA - Continental North America

CNA - Mexico's National Water Commission (IBWC)

Cname - Common name.

CNE - The Center for Native Ecosystems (Boulder, CO)

CNF - Colville National Forest

CNG - Compressed Natural Gas

CNHLCH - Citizens for NH Land and Community Heritage (New Hampshire)

CNIC - Canadian National - Illinois Central (NAFTA Railway)

CNMA - The Center for Natural Lands Management http://www.cnlm.org/

CNMP - Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (USDA)

CNMP - Comprehensive Nutrient Management Planning http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/cnmp1.html

CNMPA - California and Nevada Miners and Prospectors Association

CNP - Council for National Policy

CNPPA - Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

CNPS - California Native Plant Society

CNR - Composite Noise Rating Standards

CNR - Corporation for the Northern Rockies

CNRAC - Conservation and Natural Resources Advisory Council

CNS - Corporation of National Services

CNS - Cybernet News Service

CNSV - Conservation and Environmental Maps Web Site Historic and recent maps show 'changes in the landscape, including natural and man-made features, recreational and wilderness areas, geology, topography, wetland area, vegetation, and wildlife.' The site may be searched by keyword or browsed by Subject Index, Creator Index, Geographic Location Index, or Title Index. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/cnsvhome.html

CO - carbon monoxide

CO - Coal Outlook

CO - Charter Organization (aka United Nations)

CO - Congressional Oversight

CO - Conservation Organization

CO - Court Order

CO - Covert Operation

COA - Citizens Of America

COABE - Covert Open-Air Biowarfare Experiments

Coadapted gene complexes - Genes, having evolved together, that as a unit confer higher fitness than the sum of the individual genes' contributions. A coadapted gene's fitness effect depends on the genetic environment (the presence of other genes). - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Coagulation - In water treatment, the use of chemicals to make suspended solids gather or group together into small flocs. - USGS

Coarse Filter Management - Land management that addresses the needs of all associated species, communities, environments, and ecological processes in a land area.

The Coastal Barrier Improvements Act (CBIA) was passed by Congress in 1990 as an amendment to the CBRA. The CBIA added Pumpkin Key (unit FL-35), among other undeveloped parcels to the CBRS. Section 3503 of the statute deemed "undeveloped coastal barrier" to mean: (A) a depositional geologic feature (such as a bay barrier, tombolo, barrier spit, or barrier island) that - (i) is subject to wave, tidal, and wind energies, and (ii) protects landward aquatic habitats from direct wave attack; and (B) all associated aquatic habitats including the adjacent wetlands, marshes, estuaries, inlets, and nearshore waters; but only if such features and associated habitats contain few manmade structures and these structures, and man's activities on such features and within such habitats, do not significantly impede geomorphic and ecological process. Under the CBRA, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (F&WS) is authorized to consider, and make recommendations as to whether parcels of property should be considered undeveloped, and therefore included in the CBRS. To this end, the F&WS may consider whether there are fewer than one structure per five acres of fastland. 50 Fed. Reg. 8700 (March 4, 1895). The Secretary of Interior defined "structure" to mean a legally authorized building larger than 200 square feet in area, regardless of the number or size of housing units it contains. H. R. Rep. No. 101-657(I), p.6. See also 44 CFR 71 (Oct. 1, 1996). The F&WS also currently considers whether there was a full complement of infrastructure on the parcel prior to its inclusion in the System. According to the F&WS, a full complement of infrastructure includes electric lines, water lines, sewer pipes/septic systems and paved roads.

The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982 (CBRA), 16 U.S.C. Section 3501 et seq. (1994) (Pub. L. 97-348), established the Coastal Barrier Resources System in order to achieve three goals: to minimize the loss of human life by discouraging development in high-hazard areas, to protect fragile natural resources along the coast, and to reduce wasteful federal expenditures. Undeveloped coastal barriers included in the CBRS are prohibited from receiving federal subsidies for new, private construction. The CBRS does not prevent development from occurring, it prevents the distribution of federal funds, such as federal flood insurance, for construction. The developer is free to obtain private insurance for new development inside the System.

Coastal plain - In the United States, an ecoregion or physiographic province located near the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Coastal Ridge - Area of land bordering the coast whose topography is elevated higher than land further inland. - EvergladesPlan glossary

COB - Close Of Business

COBOL - Common Business-Oriented Language

COBRA - Brazilian Man And the Biosphere Committee

COBRA - Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985

COC - Chamber of Commerce

COC - The Council of Canadians

COC - Congressional Oversight Committee

COCL - Coalition for Constitutional Liberties

COCOM - Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls

COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand

COD - Conservation Operations Division (USDA)

CODE - Culture Of Death

Code, Code Letters and Numbers - Normally consists of one or more alphabetic, numeric or alpha/numeric characters assigned to a descriptor in a classification. Each code is unique to a property within a classification. If the property changes, then the code should also be changed. Codes can be linked to other codes with common characters, especially in hierarchical classifications. For example, in ISIC Rev. 3, Technical and vocational secondary education has a class code 8022, which is linked to Group 802 Secondary education and to Division 80 Education. Statistical compilation, storage and retrieval are facilitated by the use of codes with their descriptors. (UN)

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - The listing of various regulation pertaining to management and administration of public lands.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - The Code of Federal Regulations is not made up of laws passed by Congress. It is a collection of laws based on rules published in the Federal Register -- rules written by the various executive agencies of the federal government, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Codex Alimentarius Commission - A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization, comprised of some 146 member countries, created in 1962 to ensure consumer food safety, establish fair practices in food trade, and promote the development of international food standards. The Commission drafts non-binding standards for food additives, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, and other substances that affect consumer food safety. It publishes these standards in a listing called the 'Codex Alimentarius.'

CODIAC - CODIAC is a data management system that offers scientists access to research and operational geophysical data. It provides the means to identify data sets of interest, view associated metadata, browse the data, and then automatically obtain data via Internet file transfer (FTP) or on removable media. You may access a variety of datasets pertaining to the research programs in which JOSS has provided data management support. http://www.joss.ucar.edu/codiac/  (UCAR)

Codification, Codify - The process of bringing customary international law to written form. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Coding - Refers to the transformation of a textual information about an observation into a code that identifies the correct category (value) for that observation. (UN)

Coding Index - A detailed, comprehensive list of entries reflecting the information required as the basis for consistent coding. The code list (of descriptions and codes) is ordered either alphabetically or numerically and could be stored electronically or in hard copies. It acts as a link between responses and the classification, enabling responses to be coded accurately and quickly to the appropriate category of the classification. It may be necessary to compile different coding indexes for coding different observations to the same classification because of the differences in the information provided. The content and structure of a coding index may also depend on the coding methodology being used (i.e. whether coding is done manually, with computer assistance or automatically). (UN)

Coding Strategy - Refers to the guidelines for systematically, effectively and accurately allocating codes to the categories in a classification. (UN)

Coding Structure (coding system) - Refers to the systematic numbering/lettering of all the categories in a classification. The use of standardized conventions when creating coding structures helps in using and comparing classifications. The following numbering systems could be used: - a strict decimal numbering system - i.e. each category at a particular level in a classification system would have the same type and number of numeric characters; - a non-strict decimal numbering system - i.e. at a particular level each category in a classification system would not have the same number of numeric characters. This would have been the case in ISCO-88 if a `0' had not been used to indicate that a particular minor group has not been further sub-divided into unit groups. In a mixed character system, e.g. ISIC Rev. 3, where the tabulation categories are identified by letters, the divisions, groups and classes are identified by two, three, and four digit numbers respectively. (UN)

COE - Center Of Excellence

COE - Church Of England

COE - Common Operating Environment

COE - Corps Of Engineers (U.S. Army)

COE - Center Of Expertise

COE - Certificate Of Entitlement

COE - Checkout And Evaluation

COE - Chief Of Engineers

COE - Church Of Euthanasia

COE - Close Of Escrow

COE - Community Of Excellence

COE - Concept Of Employment

COE - Concept Of Execution

COE - Contract Operations Executive

COE - Council for Opportunity in Education

COE - Council Of Europe

COE - Create an Open Environment

COEJL - Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life

COEMIS - Corps Of Engineers Management Information System

COF - Clean Ohio Fund

COF - Council On Foundations

COFO - FAO Committee on Forestry (FAO-UN)

COG - Continuity Of Government Commission (an organization seeking to take away our right to elect our own Congress -- an abomination to our American Constitution and Constitutional Republic) http://www.continuityofgovernment.org

COG - Council of Governments

Cogeneration - The sequential production of electricity and useful thermal energy from a common fuel source. Reject heat from industrial processes can be used to power an electric generator (bottoming cycle). Conversely, surplus heat from an electric generating plant can be used for industrial processes, or space and water heating purposes (topping cycle). - Bioenergy Glossary

COGS - Computer Oriented Geological Society

Coherence - The capacity to predict a scene or the ease with which information in the scene can be organized into a small number of 'chunks'. It is a landscape factor that has a special effect on preference.

COI - Communities Of Interest (GWOB)

COI - Conflict Of Interest

COI Cycle - The period of time determined to be appropriate for a COI (Community Of Interest) to complete each phase of the COI Roadmap. One cycle involves the execution of a single pass through the COI Roadmap and should last no longer than one year. - GWOB

COI Executive Board (CEB) - The CEB consists of the primary champions for the COI (Community Of Interest), and would have the authority and responsibility to commit resources to the maturation of the COI. - GWOB

COI Development Team (CDT) - The CDT is responsible for identifying solution candidates, proposing solutions and candidates, and delivering the products needed by the COI (Community Of Interest). - GWOB

COIN - Client Oriented Information System

COINTELPRO - Communist Counterintelligence Program

COI Resource - An application, content, or other type of web service or capability available to all participants of a COI (Community Of Interest). - GWOB

COI Roadmap - A series of steps and processes executed to further the maturity of a COI (Community Of Interest). - GWOB

COI View - A general stakeholder category within a COI (Community Of Interest) defined by a distinct perspective and skill set. A COI consists of three views: business, technical, and facilitation. Each view contains certain realities (or at least perceptions) that must be considered during the collaboration process. - GWOB

COL - Colorado Open Lands http://www.coloradoopenlands.org/

COL - Country of Origin Labeling

COLA - The Congress of Lakes Association http://www.mainecola.org

Cold Desert - Areas that are consistently dry (evaporation equals or exceeds precipitation), that have 7 or fewer months when temperatures average above 50° F, and that have average annual temperatures below 65° F. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Cold vapor - A method to test water for the presence of mercury. - USGS

Cold joint - A break in a construction installation; a stopping point. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Cold War - The post World War II animosity between the United States and the USSR.

Coliform Index - A rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal coliform bacteria. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria, which are harmless bacteria that live in the intestines of humans and other vertebrate animals, indicates contamination by human or animal feces, and hence the potential presence of disease pathogens.

Collaboration - A cooperative process in which interested parties, often with widely varied interests, work together to seek solutions with broad support for managing public and other lands. This may or may not involve an agency as a cooperating agency. - BLM

Collaborative Framework - A structured approach to intergovernmental collaboration in which jurisdictions work together to determine solutions to jointly developed collaboration priorities within a COI (Community Of Interest). - GWOB

Collaborative Partnerships and Collaborative Stewardship - Refers to people working together, sharing knowledge and resources, to achieve desired outcomes for public lands and communities within statutory and regulatory frameworks. - BLM

Collaborative Relationship - An alliance or cooperative working relationship. A two-way street requiring clearly expressed and understood expectations, performance measurement, attention to detail and ongoing communication, a matter of working together expediently.

Collar - The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth or top of a shaft.

Collateral Assignment of Beneficial Interest - Any pledge or assignment of the beneficial interest in a land trust to any person to secure a debt or other obligation.

Collective Rights - The rights of groups to protect their interests and identities. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Collective Visioning - Knowledge management. Eight pillars were instrumental to support the Bank's initiative defining a clear strategy based on the business needs of the organization; keeping small the central KM unit which oversees overall implementation; making available a budget to allow communities to function; supporting the development of communities of practice; keeping information technology user-friendly and responsive to its users needs; orchestrating systematic communications to explain what knowledge means and to keep every one informed; introducing new incentives to accelerate the shift towards a knowledge culture; and developing a set of metrics to measure progress. From www.knowledgepoint.com/au and from The World Bank Group www.worldbank.org/knowledgebank/ and from www.kwork.org In most organizations, building a repository of knowledge collections is easier than shifting the company's culture towards knowledge sharing. To successfully capture, share and leverage knowledge, an organization needs to facilitate and nurture human interactions between professionals who share a common interest or experience, who share common problems and whose interest is to identify solutions that will improve their work effectiveness. Without the benefit of a shared practice, people will constantly reinvent the wheel, deliver sub-optimal solutions to their clients, and miss potential efficiency gains. At the outset of the knowledge sharing program of the Bank, only a hand-full of professional communities was in existence. The World Bank president held several "town hall" meetings with the staff to explain his vision. In 1998, the Bank published its annual World Development Report on knowledge and development. That year, it organized two Knowledge Fairs. It was there that thematic groups could display their knowledge sharing activities and could further illustrate with concrete examples the benefits of working together. The first fair took place in the lobby of the headquarters building in March 1998. It had thousands of visitors, including the Bank president and his senior managers. It generated an extremely positive response from the staff who could see and feel what knowledge sharing was all about. This first success lead the president to repeat each year the fair during the Bank's annual meetings where attendance exceeds 10,000 people from around the world. Storytelling was also used by the KM program director and some network KM staff to sensitize the organization to the kind of problems that knowledge sharing was meant to solve. Presenting real-life, problem-solving situations allowed each individual in the audience to recast the stories into his or her own contextual work environment. Suddenly, the highway knowledge-sharing story was becoming relevant to the expert on early childhood education without even pronouncing the word knowledge management or attempting to give an elaborate definition of it. Storytelling turned out to be a much more powerful and effective way of communicating the values of knowledge sharing than using one of the typical complex definitions and diagrams found in every knowledge management book. Story telling is also used during the inception program of new Bank recruits. Traditional vertical hierarchical models of organization tend to exacerbate the "silo" culture of a company and discourage knowledge sharing behaviors. In 1996, the World Bank decided to adopt a matrix organization to precisely promote the exchange of information and know-how between regional units, which had been lacking. Although changing the organizational structure of the Bank was an important decision, it was not in itself sufficient to provoke the intended cultural change. A year later, the Bank made knowledge sharing an integral part of its formal personnel evaluation system by modifying the small number of core behaviors against which people's performance is assessed. This sent a strong signal to managers and staff that the institution was serious about encouraging and rewarding knowledge sharing behaviors. Did this change produced and instant incentive effect? Not quite; some cynicism and posturing remained. It had to be supplemented by a series of monetary awards. Annual performance awards reinforcing sharing behaviors were used by the Bank to foster knowledge sharing behaviors. A President Award for Excellence was introduced to recognize outstanding team behaviors. A Development Market Place was organized to promote innovation and ground breaking work with external partners. Seed financing was offered to the winning proposals. Finally, a pilot performance award was introduced in 1999 to reward cross-boundary work and client impact. It is expected that over time these incentives will accelerate the intended behavioral change. Measuring the performance of an organization-wide knowledge sharing program is a difficult, and sometimes ambiguous, undertaking. On one hand, the return on the significant knowledge sharing investments needs to be evaluated. On the other hand, the evolution of behavioral changes throughout the organization should be measured. A set of metrics for measuring progress is essential to the sustainability of the knowledge sharing program. At the outset of its program, the Bank focused mainly on measuring inputs (such as budget deployment and recruitment of knowledge management staff) and activities (such as the number of help desks, communities, and knowledge collections available on-line). As implementation progressed, the focus was expanded to measuring outputs (such as the number of questions satisfactorily answered by help desks, the number of page-equivalent downloaded from the web, the number of knowledge databases and the usage of electronic tools). Outcomes, such as lending cycle times, the quality of services, staff and client perceptions are also measured. Measuring the overall impact of the knowledge sharing program poses a unique challenge. Managerial factors, changes in processes and the external work environment are simultaneously taking place with knowledge sharing activities. As a result, the causal relationship between inputs and impact remains, at best, unclear. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional performance measurement, the Bank decided to subject its knowledge sharing program to two independent assessments. In February 1999, Larry Prusak, director of the IBM Institute of Knowledge Management, lead an external panel of knowledge management experts to assess the relevance and impact of the Bank knowledge sharing program. The panel was also asked to make recommendations for improvement. The conclusions of the panel were presented to the Bank senior management in April 1999. The knowledge management strategy of the Bank was found "far-sighted in conception and sound in its fundamentals. It positions the Bank to play a key role in the world economy of the 21st Century." This reassuring conclusion was supplemented in October/November 1999 by a benchmarking study of knowledge management programs in 80 organizations conducted by the American Productivity and Quality Centre. In February 2000, The World Bank was recognized as one of the five top knowledge management organizations in the US. In June 2000, an annual survey of experts of Fortune 500 companies, also selected the Bank as one of the top ten Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises (MAKE) in the world.

Collectivization - Reorganization of a country's agriculture involving political adversaries, such as Thailand between British and French colonial domains. Involves the expropriation of private holdings and their incorporation into relatively large-scale units, which are farmed and administered cooperatively by those who live there. This system transformed agriculture in the former Soviet Union, and went beyond the Soviet model in China's program of communization.

Collector Roads - These roads serve small land areas and are usually connected to a Forest System Road, a county road, or a state highway.

Collector well - A well located near a surface water supply used to lower the water table and thereby induce infiltration of surface water through the bed of the water body to the well. - USGS

Colluvial - (1) Processes related to the slow movement of the ground (creep) due to gravity; (2) a hillside deposit developed by mass movement of rock on slopes leading away from the exposed source rock (lode). - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Colluvium - Rock and soil accumulated at the foot of a slope from gravitational forces. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Colombo Plan - Founded in 1951 and known as the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia until it was expanded in 1977 and called the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific. It is an arrangement that permits a developing member country to approach a developed member country for assistance on a one-to-one basis. Assistance may be technical or in the form of capital or commodity aid. - WB

Colonia - A substandard housing area defined in the Housing Act of 1949 as any identifiable community that: (1) is in the states of Arizona, California, New Mexico, or Texas; (2) is in an area that is within 150 miles of the border between the United States and Mexico (except for standard metropolitan statistical areas that have a population exceeding 1 million); (3) is designated by the state or county as a colonia; and (4) is determined to be a colonia based on criteria such as lack of potable water supply, lack of adequate sewage systems, and lack of decent, safe, and sanitary housing.

Colonialism - The attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its economic and cultural principles in another territory.

Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act - P.L. 93-320 (June 24, 1974), and the laws authorizing three other conservation cost-sharing programs, were repealed in the FAIR Act of 1996 and replaced by a new cost-sharing program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Until it was replaced, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program provided cost- sharing assistance to producers to install on-farm irrigation system improvements to prevent irrigation water heavily charged with salts and minerals from reentering the river. Participating farmers received up to 70% of total project costs and technical assistance. Participation was concentrated at sites where problems existed. This program was available to producers in the seven states of the Colorado River watershed. The Farm Service Agency until FY1996 administered the law, when administration was transferred to the Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program - This program was authorized in the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act and was repealed and replaced by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program in the FAIR Act of 1996. Administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, it is used to implement salinity control measures, primarily to manage irrigation water using financial and technical assistance to landowners. This program supports U.S. efforts to meet international treaty obligations for downstream water quality in Mexico.

Colorado River Water Conservation District v. Vidler Tunnel Water Co., 594 P.2d 566, 568 (Colo. 1979) - Under ordinary circumstances, one may appropriate for the anticipated future use of others only if the appropriator is in privity of contract or has an agency relationship with the intended user of the water sought for appropriation.(21) The strict requirements of Colorado River Water Conservation District v. Vidler Tunnel Water Co. do not, however, apply to municipal appropriators, or arguably, to other governmental agencies making appropriations to meet a proven need for water within established service areas. http://www.white-jankowski.com/a_1.htm  More at: http://www.rmmlf.org/

Columbiad - A large caliber, smoothbore, breech-loading cannon, designed to fire both shot and shell. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Co-management - The sharing of authority, responsibility, and benefits between government and local communities in the management of natural resources. - UNDP/WRI

COMAP - Comanagement of Protected Areas Project (UN-USAID)

Combine - A self-propelled grain harvester. In one operation it combines cutting, threshing, separation, cleaning, and straw dispersal.

Combined cycle - Two or more generation processes in series or in parallel, configured to optimize the energy output of the system. - Bioenergy Glossary

Combined-cycle power plant - The combination of a gas turbine and a steam turbine in an electric generation plant. The waste heat from the gas turbine provides the heat energy for the steam turbine. - Bioenergy Glossary

Combined heat and power (CHP) - An older term for what is now generally called cogeneration. The term is currently used in Europe and other foreign countries. - Bioenergy Glossary

Combined sewer - A sewer system that carries both sanitary sewage and stormwater runoff. When sewers are constructed this way, wastewater treatment plants have to be sized to deal with stormwater flows and oftentimes some of the water receives little or no treatment. Compare separate sewer. - USGS

Coming New Economy - Shifts in international capitalist development that date from the mid 1970s.

COMINT - Communications Intelligence

Command and control - Environmental regulations which rely on the ability of the state to set and impose controls on society. Regulations under a command and control regime require individual companies and other societal actors to take specific, delineated action. In many cases, such regulations result in less efficient pollution control than could be achieved by using market-based mechanisms. However, for pollutants with a known threshold effect, strict controls are necessary for public health reasons.

The Commerce Clause (Bill of Rights) - Although Congress and the courts have construed the "commerce clause" as a constitutional "clause" in the Bill of Rights, it is not. What is construed as a "right" of the federal government is merely a explanatory preamble to the specific rights granted to the federal government. Alexander Hamilton, who was the mastermind behind that verbiage, correctly believed that ensuing generations would view that preamble as a "right." The Supreme Court attempted to do in 1797. Congress and the people ratified the 11th Amendment to "correct" that misinterpretation. The commerce clause remained a preamblatory statement until 1935. When FDR threatened to stack the high court and force the retirement of the justices because they were killing his New Deal laws (all of which violated the Constitution), the Justices readdressed the "commerce clause" and decided it was a right of government. Once they rubber stamped FDR's illegal New Deal laws using the 'commerce clause' to justify their sins, the "commerce clause" became the catalyst that allowed bad laws outlaw the rule of law in America.

The Commission on Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain (CCAPD) - Herbert Hoover's Commission on Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain paved the way for an additional three million acres of national parks, and 2.3 million acres in national forests. http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/Hooverstory/gallery05/gallery05.html  Statement on the Commission on Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain, October 18, 1929: IN COOPERATION with Secretary Wilbur, I have now made a start at the selection of this Commission. In order that each of the 11 important public land States may be represented and that there may be representatives from other sections of the country, I have decided to make the Commission approximately 20 in number, of whom 2 will be women. The following have accepted the invitations so far sent out. Mr. James R. Garfield, Secretary of the Interior during Mr. [Theodore] Roosevelt's administration, who is to be the Chairman. Of the general representatives Mr. George Horace Lorimer of Philadelphia, ex-Governor James P. Goodrich of Indiana, Col. W.B. Greeley, former head of the Forest Service, and Mr. Gardner Cowles of Des Moines, Iowa, have so far accepted invitations to serve. As to representatives from the public land States the following have so far accepted: California, Elwood Mead. Montana, I.M. Brandjord. Washington [state], R.K. Tiffany. Arizona, Rudolph Koechler. Colorado, Charles. J. Moynihan. Nevada, George W. Malone. Utah, William Peterson. Idaho, I.H. Nash. The purpose of the Commission is to study the whole question of the public domain particularly the unreserved lands. We have within it three outstanding problems: First, there has been overgrazing throughout these lands, the value [p.334] of the ranges having diminished as much as 80-90 percent in some localities. The major disaster, however, is that destruction of the natural cover of the land imperils the water supply. The problem, therefore, in this sense is really a problem of water conservation. Second, the question as to what is the best method of applying a reclamation service to the West in order to gain real and enlarged conservation of water resources. Third, the Commission is free to consider the questions of conservation of oil, coal, and other problems that arise in connection with the domain. I recently put forward some tentative proposals for consideration at the Governors' conference in Salt Lake City and a survey of public opinion and the views of responsible officials show that while three States seem generally opposed to the idea of the States taking the responsibility for conservation of grazing values by transfer to them of the surface rights, seven States are in favor of this idea with some secondary modifications. Public opinion in those States generally seems to support the tentative suggestions for reorganization of the Reclamation Service. The suggestions, however, were entirely tentative and the whole subject is open to the Commission. I have recently had opportunity to confer with the chairmen of the Senate and House committees covering public land and irrigation, and they have expressed their warm approval of the creation of this Commission and have undertaken to introduce the necessary legislation to provide funds for its work. NOTE: Biographical information on each of the named members was released with the statement. For the President's message to the Governors' conference in Salt Lake City, see Item 185. Other members named later were Perry Jenkins of Wyoming, Huntley Spaulding of New Hampshire, E. C. Van Petten of Oregon, Wallace Townsend of Arkansas, Francis Wilson of New Mexico, and Mrs. Mary Roberts Rinehart of Washington, D.C. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/site/docs/pppus.php?admin=031&year=1929&id=242 Hoover's Commission on Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain made way for a large surplus of national parks, and millions of acres in national forests. Perhaps one of the biggest downfalls in Hoover's political career was his attempt to stabilize farm produce prices. He failed …by studying the farm produce price graph, it becomes very obvious that there is a direct connection between farm produce prices between 1928 and 1931 and Hoover's competency as President. http://www.imsa.edu/~hobbit/

Command Economy - An economic system where economic resources are owned by the government and the government makes all economic decisions.

Commercial activity - All activities of industry and trade, including, but not limited to, the buying or selling of commodities and activities conducted for the purpose of facilitating such buying and selling: Provided, however, That it does not include exhibition of commodities by museums or similar cultural or historical organizations. - ESA

Commercial Applicator - A person applying pesticides as part of a business applying pesticides for hire or a person applying pesticides as part of his or her job with another (not for hire) type of business, organization or agency. Commercial applicators often are certified, but need to be so only if they use restricted-use pesticides. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Commercial farming - For-profit farming.

Commercial Farms - 1) A farm management unit of no less than five acres producing agricultural or horticultural products worth $2,500 or more annually, and satisfying the eligibility criteria for differential property taxation pursuant to the "Farmland Assessment Act of 1964," P.L.1964, c.48 (C.54: 4-23.1 et seq.), or (2) a farm management unit less than five acres, producing agricultural or horticultural products worth $50,000 or more annually and otherwise satisfying the eligibility criteria for differential property taxation pursuant to the "Farmland Assessment Act of 1964," P.L.1964, c.48 (C.54:4-23.1 et seq.).

Commercial Forest Land - (see Timberland).

Commercial Species - Tree species currently or potentially suitable for industrial wood products. - USDA/FS

Commercial Thinning - Cutting by means of sales for products (poles, posts, pulpwood, etc.) in immature stands to improve the quality and growth of the remaining stand. Harvesting that produces merchantable material at least equal in value to the direct costs of harvesting.

Commercial water use - Water used for motels, hotels, restaurants, office buildings, other commercial facilities, and institutions. Water for commercial uses comes both from public-supplied sources, such as a county water department, and self-supplied sources, such as local wells. - USGS

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) - An international organization based in Montreal, Canada, created by Canada, Mexico and the United States under the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. The Agreement complements the environmental provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The CEC was established to address regional environmental concerns, help prevent potential trade and environmental conflicts, and to promote the enforcement of environmental law. Its annual report on chemical wastes helps NAFTA partners set goals for reducing chemical pollution. The CEC report, "Taking Stock," is based on reports submitted to the national pollutant release and transfer registers of Canada and the U.S. by industry, and includes data on 210 chemical substances. Reporting of data for Mexico is not yet mandatory, though legislation to collect this data was passed in Mexico late last year [1991], and 117 Mexican facilities reported their chemical releases voluntarily.

Commission on Human Rights - Body formed by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN to deal with human rights; one of the first and most important international human rights bodies. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

The Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) is one of the six voluntary Commissions of IUCN - The World Conservation Union. The CNPPA is the largest worldwide network of protected area managers and specialists. The CNPPA mission is to promote the establishment and effective management of a worldwide network of terrestrial and marine protected areas. See IUCN, IUCN evaluation - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Commission on 21st Century Production Agriculture - Established by Title I of the FAIR Act of 1996 to conduct a comprehensive review of changes to production agriculture in the United States. The Commission also will study the future of production agriculture in the United States and the appropriate role of the federal government in it.

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) - A commission set up by the United Nations to help implement the Agenda 21 strategy that emerged from the Earth Summit.

Commitment - A firm obligation, expressed in writing and backed by the necessary funds, undertaken by an official donor to provide specified assistance to a recipient country or a multilateral organisation. Bilateral commitments are recorded in the full amount of expected transfer, irrespective of the time required for the completion of disbursements. Commitments to multilateral organisations are reported as the sum of (i) any disbursements in the year reported on which have not previously been notified as commitments and (ii) expected disbursements in the following year. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Commodity - Tangible or physical output, such as timber, livestock, minerals, and water.

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) - A federally owned and operated corporation within the U.S. Department of Agriculture created to stabilize and support agricultural prices and farm income by making loans and payments to producers, purchasing commodities, and by various other operations. The CCC handles all money transactions for agricultural price and income support and related programs. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Commodity Exchange - An organization operating under a set of bylaws aimed at promoting trade in one or more commodities by providing services and rules for the conduct of trade.

Commodity Exchange Authority - A former regulatory agency of USDA established to administer the Commodity Exchange Act prior to 1975; the predecessor of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Act of 1974 - P.L. 93-463 (October 23, 1974) created the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, to replace USDA's Commodity Exchange Authority, as the independent federal agency responsible for regulating the futures trading industry, and to administer the Commodity Exchange Act. The Act made extensive changes in the basic authority of Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, which itself had made extensive changes in the original Grain Futures Act of 1923.

Commodity Import Programs (CIPs) - The U.S. Agency for International Development uses a small portion of U.S. foreign aid funds to make grants and loans to countries judged important to U.S. foreign policy objectives. These CIPs, by making dollars available, help these countries finance purchases of U.S. commodities (including agricultural commodities) or other inputs needed to meet their development objectives and also provide balance-of-payments support to countries with very limited foreign exchange.

Commodity loan rate - The price per unit (pound, bushel, bale, or hundredweight) at which the Commodity Credit Corporation provides commodity-secured loans to farmers for a specified period of time. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Common Property Resource Management - The management of a specific resource (such as a forest or pasture) by a well-defined group of resource users with the authority to regulate its use by members and outsiders. - UNDP/WRI

Commodity Resources - Goods or products of economic use or value. (BLM-DOI)

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) - The set of legislation and practices jointly adopted by the nations of the European Union (EU) in order to provide a common, unified policy framework for agriculture. Its stated purposes are to increase farm productivity, stabilize markets, ensure a fair standard of living for farmers, guarantee regular supplies, and ensure reasonable prices for consumers. The CAP rests upon four basic principles: common import restrictions, common financing, common pricing, and common treatment of surpluses.

Common brick - Utilitarian brick used for normal-load-bearing construction. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Common External Tariff (CXT) - A tariff rate applied by a regional grouping of countries as a unit. For example, the European Community allows free trade in most agricultural commodities among member countries, but applies common external tariffs against many farm products imported from non- member or 'third' countries.

Common Variety Minerals - Stone, gravel, pumice, pumicite, and cinders that, though possibly having value for trade, manufacture, the sciences, or the mechanical or ornamental arts, do not have a distinct, special value for such use beyond normal uses. On the public lands such minerals are considered saleable and are disposed of by sales or by special permits to local governments. See SALEABLE MINERALS, MINERAL MATERIALS, and UNCOMMON VARIETY MINERALS. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) - A formal association of states comprising the republics formed out of the former Soviet Union, with the exception of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Included are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

Community - An assemblage of interacting plants and animals forming a distinctive group within a given area. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. An integrated group of species inhabiting a given area; the organisms within a community influence one another's distribution, abundance, and evolution. (A Human Community is a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality.) - UNDP/WRI 2. A group of plants and animals living together in a common area and having close interactions. - BLM

Community Alliances - Alliances between communities and agriculture. - USDA

Community Center - An area of the community where more intense land use occurs. A community center may include retail, office, compatible light industrial, higher density housing, and cultural and recreational facilities. Typically 4,000 to 10,000 square feet of gross leasable area, but could go up to 25,000 square feet of GLA.

The Community Character Act (S.975) - 107th CONGRESS, 1st Session -- S. 975 To improve environmental policy by providing assistance for State and tribal land use planning, to promote improved quality of life, regionalism, and sustainable economic development, and for other purposes. IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES May 25, 2001 Mr. CHAFEE (for himself, Mr. BENNETT, Mr. JEFFORDS, Mr. LEVIN, Mr. SPECTER, Mr. BINGAMAN, Mr. CLELAND, and Mr. LIEBERMAN) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. A BILL To improve environmental policy by providing assistance for State and tribal land use planning, to promote improved quality of life, regionalism, and sustainable economic development, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the 'Community Character Act of 2001'. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. Congress finds that -- (1) inadequate land use planning at the State and tribal levels contributes to -- (A) increased public and private capital costs for public works infrastructure development; (B) environmental degradation; (C) weakened regional economic development; and (D) loss of community character; (2) land use planning is rightfully within the jurisdiction of State, tribal, and local governments; (3) comprehensive land use planning and community development should be supported by Federal, State, and tribal governments; (4) States and tribal governments should provide a proper climate and context through legislation in order for comprehensive land use planning, community development, and environmental protection to occur; (5)(A) many States and tribal governments have outmoded land use planning legislation; and (B) many States and tribal governments are undertaking efforts to update and reform land use planning legislation; (6) the Federal Government and States should support the efforts of tribal governments to develop and implement land use plans to improve environmental protection, housing opportunities, and socioeconomic conditions for Indian tribes; and (7) the coordination of use of State and tribal resources with local land use plans requires additional planning at the State and tribal levels. SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS. In this Act: (1) LAND USE PLAN - The term 'land use plan' means a plan for development of an area that recognizes the physical, environmental , economic, social, political, aesthetic, and related factors of the area. (2) LAND USE PLANNING LEGISLATION - The term 'land use planning legislation' means a statute, regulation, executive order, or other action taken by a State or tribal government to guide, regulate, or assist in the planning, regulation, and management of -- (A) environmental resources; (B) public works infrastructure; (C) regional economic development; (D) current and future development practices; and (E) other activities related to the pattern and scope of future land use. (3) SECRETARY - The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Economic Development. (4) STATE - The term 'State' means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (5) TRIBAL GOVERNMENT - The term 'tribal government' means the tribal government of an Indian tribe (as defined in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b)). SEC. 4. GRANTS TO STATES AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS TO UPDATE LAND USE PLANNING LEGISLATION. (a) ESTABLISHMENT OF PROGRAM - (1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall establish a program to award grants to States and tribal governments eligible for funding under subsection (b) to promote comprehensive land use planning at the State, tribal, and local levels. (2) GRANT APPLICATIONS - (A) SUBMISSION- A State or tribal government may submit to the Secretary, in such form as the Secretary may require, an application for a grant under this section to be used for 1 or more of the types of projects authorized by subsection (c). (B) APPROVAL - The Secretary shall -- (i) not less often than annually, complete a review of the applications for grants that are received under this section; and (ii) award grants to States and tribal governments that the Secretary determines rank the highest using the ranking criteria specified in paragraph (3). (3) RANKING CRITERIA - In evaluating applications for grants from eligible States and tribal governments under this section, the Secretary shall consider the following criteria: (A) As a fundamental priority, the extent to which a State or tribal government has in effect inadequate or outmoded land use planning legislation. (B) The extent to which a grant will facilitate development or revision of land use plans consistent with updated land use planning legislation. (C) The extent to which development or revision of land use plans will facilitate multistate land use planning. (D) The extent to which the area under the jurisdiction of a State or tribal government is experiencing significant growth. (E) The extent to which the project to be funded using a grant will protect the environment and promote economic development. (F) The extent to which a State or tribal government has committed financial resources to comprehensive land use planning. (b) ELIGIBILITY- A State or tribal government shall be eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a) if the State or tribal government demonstrates that the project, or the goal of the project, to be funded by the grant promotes land use planning activities that -- (1) are comprehensive in nature and, to the maximum extent practicable -- (A) promote environmental protection (including air and water quality); (B) take into consideration -- (i) public works infrastructure in existence at the time at which the grant is to be made; and (ii) future infrastructure needs, such as needs identified in -- (I) the needs assessments required under sections 516(2) and 518(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1375(2), 1377(b)) and subsections (h) and (i)(4) of section 1452 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300j-12); and (II) the State long-range transportation plan developed under section 135(e) of title 23, United States Code; (C) promote sustainable economic development (including regional economic development) and social equity; (D) enhance community character; (E) conserve historic, scenic, natural, and cultural resources; and (F) provide for a range of affordable housing options; (2) promote land use plans that contain an implementation element that -- (A) includes a timetable for action and a definition of the respective roles and responsibilities of agencies, local governments, and other stakeholders; (B) is consistent with the capital budget objectives of the State or tribal government; and (C) provides a framework for decisions relating to the siting of infrastructure development, including development of utilities and utility distribution systems; (3) result in multijurisdictional governmental cooperation, to the maximum extent practicable, particularly in the case of land use plans based on watershed boundaries; (4) encourage the participation of the public in the development, adoption, and updating of land use plans; (5) provide for the periodic updating of land use plans; and (6) include approaches to land use planning that are consistent with established professional land use planning standards. (c) USE OF GRANT FUNDS - Grant funds received by a State or tribal government under subsection (a) may be used for a project -- (1) to carry out, or obtain technical assistance with which to carry out -- (A) development or revision of land use planning legislation; (B) research and development relating to land use plans, and other activities relating to the development of State, tribal, or local land use plans, that result in long-term policy guidelines for growth and development; (C) workshops, education of and consultation with policymakers, and participation of the public in the land use planning process; and (D) integration of State, regional, tribal, or local land use plans with Federal land use plans; (2) to provide funding to units of general purpose local government to carry out land use planning activities consistent with land use planning legislation; or (3) to acquire equipment or information technology to facilitate State, tribal, or local land use planning. (d) PILOT PROJECTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS- A State may include in its application for a grant under this section a request for additional grant funds with which to assist units of general purpose local government in carrying out pilot projects to carry out land use planning activities consistent with land use planning legislation. (e) AMOUNT OF GRANTS - (1) IN GENERAL - Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount of a grant to a State or tribal government under subsection (a) shall not exceed $1,000,000. (2) ADDITIONAL AMOUNT - The Secretary may award a State up to an additional $100,000 to fund pilot projects under subsection (d). (f) COST SHARING - (1) IN GENERAL - The Federal share of the cost of a project funded with a grant under subsection (a) shall not exceed 90 percent. (2) GRANTS TO TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS - The Secretary may increase the Federal share in the case of a grant to a tribal government if the Secretary determines that the tribal government does not have sufficient funds to pay the non-Federal share of the cost of the project. (g) AUDITS - (1) IN GENERAL - The Inspector General of the Department of Commerce may conduct an audit of a portion of the grants awarded under this section to ensure that the grant funds are used for the purposes specified in this section. (2) USE OF AUDIT RESULTS- The results of an audit conducted under paragraph (1) and any recommendations made in connection with the audit shall be taken into consideration in awarding any future grant under this section to a State or tribal government. (3) REPORT TO CONGRESS- Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Inspector General of the Department of Commerce shall submit to Congress a report that provides a description of the management of the program established under this section (including a description of the allocation of grant funds awarded under this section). (h) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS - (1) IN GENERAL- There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2006. (2) AVAILABILITY FOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS- Of the amount made available under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year, not less than 5 percent shall be available to make grants to tribal governments to the extent that there are sufficient tribal governments that are eligible for funding under subsection (b) and that submit applications. SEC. 5. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE. (a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary may develop voluntary educational and informational programs for the use of State, tribal, and local land use planning and zoning officials. (b) TYPES OF PROGRAMS- Programs developed under subsection (a) may include -- (1) exchange of technical land use planning information; (2) electronic databases containing data relevant to land use planning; (3) other technical land use planning assistance to facilitate access to, and use of, techniques and principles of land use planning; and (4) such other types of programs as the Secretary determines to be appropriate. (c) CONSULTATION AND COOPERATION - The Secretary shall carry out subsection (a) in consultation and cooperation with -- (1) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; (2) the Secretary of Transportation; (3) the Secretary of Agriculture; (4) the heads of other Federal agencies; (5) State, tribal, and local governments; and (6) nonprofit organizations that promote land use planning at the State, tribal, and local levels. (d) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS - There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2006.

Community Development Area - The land around a Core and within the Community Development Boundary of a Center where the infrastructure, including sewers, public water supply, other utilities and community facilities and services are provided (or are planned to be provided) in order to accommodate the anticipated long-term growth of the Center.

Community Development Boundary - The line between a Community Development Area and the environs of a Center. Physical features, such as rivers, roads, or changes in the pattern of development or by open space or farmland define the boundary.

Community Development Corporation (CDC) - Tax-exempt, non- profit organizations whose primary mission is the economic and social revitalization of distressed urban and rural areas. A CDC is a community-based organization carrying out its activities within a geographically defined area. CDCs may support or undertake such activities as housing development and rehabilitation, job training and counseling, and business development activities.

Community Facilities Program (CFP) - Administered by the Rural Housing Service of USDA, the CFP provides grants, loans, and loan guarantees to local governments, federally recognized native tribes, and nonprofit organizations. Funds are used to construct, expand, or rehabilitate such community facilities as hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, ambulatory care centers, police and fire stations, rescue and fire vehicles, communication centers, telecommunications, distant learning and telemedicine, child and adult care centers, jails, courthouses, airports, and schools.

Community of Biota - An assemblage of plant and animal populations in a common spatial arrangement.

Community of Interest (COI) - For a citizen constituent, it is an intuitive concept or idea around which web content and services will be organized, linked, and be readily available. For providers of those services, it is an intersection of common interests held by multiple groups and levels of interests. It is what they have in common relative to the citizen concept. - GWOB

Community Of Place - A dynamic, diverse, compact and efficient Center that has evolved and been maintained at a human scale, with an easily accessible central core of commercial and community services, residential units, and recognizable natural and built landmarks and boundaries that provide a sense of place and orientation.

Community Of Place Municipality - A municipality that: (1) displays a pattern of development that is consistent with the State Plan's Resource Planning and Management Structure, (2) maintains up-to-date plans that are consistent with the goals, Statewide Policies and other provisions of the State Plan, (3) has a housing element certified by the Council on Affordable Housing, (4) maintains a realistic and up-to-date capital facility budget and program that will assure maintenance of adequate facility standards for all systems, (5) protects and enhances locally and regionally important natural, historic and cultural resources, (6) regularly reviews and maintains efficient regulatory systems that support development and redevelopment in locations consistent with local, county and State plans, (7) funds planning at adequate levels.

Community Pit - A mineral materials pit established by the Bureau of Land Management for use by local communities and individuals. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Community Policing - A policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes and reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem solving tactics and community-police partnerships. A fundamental shift from traditional, reactive policing, community policing stresses the prevention of crime before it occurs. Community policing is an integral part of combating crime and improving the quality of life in the nation's cities, towns and rural areas. Core components of community policing include partnering with the community; problem solving; and transforming policing agencies to support and empower frontline officers, decentralize command and encourage innovative problem solving.

Community Sewer - A trunk line system and treatment facility designed to collect and treat community sewage. - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Community Sewage System or Community Wastewater System - A community sanitary sewage system including collection, treatment, and disposal facilities in public or private ownership, serving a part or all of a single Center or municipality. It is intermediate in scale between a Regional Sewer System and an Individual Sewage System.

Community Stability - The capacity of a community (incorporated town or county) to absorb and cope with change without major hardship to institutions or groups within the community. (BLM)

Community Trade Mark (CTM) (trademark-international) - A trademark registration granted by the European Community Trademark Office and enforceable throughout EC member nations.

Compact - A pattern of land development with sufficient density of development and proximity between uses and activities to encourage pedestrian movement and efficient provision of public facilities and services.

Compact Development - A form of development that builds housing in close proximity to increase density on a site and support urban amenities like transit and commercial uses.

Compaction - The packing together of soil particles by forces exerted at the soil surface, resulting in increased soil density.

Company-sponsored Foundations - Legally separate from the profit-making businesses that provide their funds, these foundations separate themselves from charitable programs administered by parent corporations. These foundations tend to focus their work in areas of interest to the founding firms. Since about 1950, company-sponsored foundations have grown significantly both in number and size of endowments. The larger company-sponsored foundations include the Fannie Mae Foundation, the Alcoa Foundation, the Merck Company Foundation, the Prudential Foundation, and the AT&T Foundation. (See foundations)

Comparative Advantage - Refers to the economic theory that in international trade it is more advantageous for a country to devote its resources not to all lines of production in which it may have superiority (least cost production), but to those in which its relative superiority is greatest. Two countries may find trade mutually profitable even if one of the countries could produce all goods at lower cost than the other.

Comparative advantage - The concept, formulated by British economist David Ricardo, according to which economic agents- people, firms, countries- are most efficient when they do the things that they are best at doing. Comparative advantage is particularly important in global markets, where countries benefit most by producing and exporting goods and services that they can produce more efficiently (at a lower cost, by using less physical, human, and natural capital) than other goods and services. In particular, Ricardo showed that a country can benefit from international trade even if it has higher costs of production for all traded goods and services relative to the countries it trades with- that is, even if it has no absolute advantages whatsoever. This can be done by correctly choosing the country's international specialization in accordance with its comparative advantages. In this case, by using export earnings to import other goods and service at prices that are lower than the costs of their domestic production, the country will maximize the overall volume of national production and consumption. - World Bank Glossary

Comparative assessments - In stating that properties included in the World Heritage List should be carefully selected, Paragraph 9 of the Operational Guidelines further comments that "comparative assessments for the harmonization of tentative lists and nominations of cultural properties" should be performed (UNESCO February 1996: 4). See Comparative evaluations, Tentative list, Harmonization - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Comparative evaluations - Paragraph 12 of the Operational Guidelines refers to the requirement when nominating cultural properties belonging to "certain well-represented categories" to prepare "a comparative evaluation of the property in relation to other properties of a similar type" (UNESCO February 1996: 5). In presenting "Guidelines for the evaluation and examination of nominations" the Operational Guidelines state that "ICOMOS is requested to make comparative evaluations of properties belonging to the same type of cultural property" (UNESCO February 1996: 18-19, Paragraph 61(c)). The Operational Guidelines do not contain a similar requirement for IUCN in evaluating natural properties. See Comparative assessments, Tentative list, Harmonization - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Comparative Price Level - A comparative price level is defined as the purchasing-power parity divided by the exchange rate. Expressed another way, the comparative price level for a bundle of goods is its cost in one country as a per cent of the cost of the same bundle in another country, when prices in both countries are expressed in a common currency, with the official exchange rate being used for currency conversions. (UN)

Compartments - A geographic area delineated by a sub-watershed drainage for management planning purposes.

COMPASS - Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea. "The National Marine Protected Areas Center (NMPAC) http://www.mpa.gov/  and the Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea (COMPASS) are working together to provide "one-stop-shopping" for comprehensive information on all ongoing federal and state MPA planning processes on the west coast." http://www.compassonline.org/

Compatible Use - A wildlife-dependent recreational use, or any other use on a refuge that will not materially interfere with or detract from the fulfillment of the mission of USFWS or the purposes of the refuge.

Compatibility - A proposed or existing wildlife-dependent recreational use or any other use of a national wildlife refuge that, in the sound professional judgment of the Refuge Manager, will not materially interfere with or detract from the fulfillment of the National Wildlife Refuge System Mission of the major purposes of the affected national wildlife refuge. - DOI/FWS

Competent Rock - Rock that, because of its physical and geological character, can sustain openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Competition - The active demand of two or more organisms for the same limited resource (i.e. space, nutrients, water, food, female). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Competition - The interaction between organisms as a result of the removal of a common required resource from the environment. Resources may include water, nutrients, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and shelter. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Competitive Advantage - A situation in which one country, region, or producer can produce a particular commodity more cheaply than another country, region or producer.

Competitive Imports - A term used by USDA's Economic Research Service in its reporting of agricultural trade statistics to describe imports that are similar to and therefore competitive (in contrast to non-competitive) with those produced in the United States. Examples are beef, wheat, cotton, and sugar.

Compilation - The preparation of a new or revised cadastral map, or portion thereof, from existing maps, aerial photographs, field surveys, and other records. - Cadastral Data glossary

Completion - Sealing off access of undesirable water to the well bore by proper casing and/or cementing procedures. - USGS

Complex slope - Irregular or variable slope. Planning or constructing terraces, diversions, and other water-control measures on a complex slope is difficult. - USDA

Complex, soil - A map unit of two or more kinds of soil in such an intricate pattern or so small in area that it is not practical to map them separately at the selected scale of mapping. The pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas. - USDA

Complexity - The ease with which a landscape can be comprehended by the viewer as a result of the diversity of its composition. It is a landscape factor that has a special effect on preference.

Compliance - Acting in accordance with the provisions of a covenant, or refraining from doing anything prohibited by a covenant.

Compliance - data exists and the data have the same logical relationships as do the entities in the Standard; the ability to convert data to the Cadastral Data Transfer Profile. - Cadastral Data glossary 2. To act to ensure that the terms of laws are met. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Composition - What an ecosystem is composed of. Composition could include water, minerals, trees, snags, wildlife, soil, microorganisms, and certain plant species.

Composting - The controlled biological decomposition of organic material, such as sewage sludge, animal manures, or crop residues, in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically.

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Over five years, $1.6 billion was collected and the tax went to a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA: established prohibitions and requirements concerning closed and abandoned hazardous waste sites; provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at these sites; and established a trust fund to provide for cleanup when no responsible party could be identified. The law authorizes two kinds of response actions: Short-term removals, where actions may be taken to address releases or threatened releases requiring prompt response. Long-term remedial response actions, that permanently and significantly reduce the dangers associated with releases or threats of releases of hazardous substances that are serious, but not immediately life threatening. These actions can be conducted only at sites listed on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL). CERCLA also enabled the revision of the National Contingency Plan (NCP). The NCP provided the guidelines and procedures needed to respond to releases and threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants. The NCP also established the NPL. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) on October 17, 1986.

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) - The plan for the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Comprehensive Plan - A statement, including maps, to guide all aspects of development and preservation in a coordinated way for a given jurisdiction. It includes an inventory and analysis of current conditions in and around the area and policies to guide future actions, including development regulations. The general, inclusive plan for future development of a community, identifying needed infrastructure improvements and funding needs for future capital improvements in the area. A long-range vision of how growth should occur in a community, ideally with goals and implementation methods defined.

Comprehensive Plan Refinement Team - An interagency, interdisciplinary task team of the RECOVER Leadership Group, which recommends refinements to the Comprehensive Plan and provides Comprehensive Plan Updates for Project Implementation Reports. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Comprehensive Planning - The continuous process of preparing, modifying or updating a comprehensive plan.

Comprehensive Conservation Plan - A document that describes the desired future conditions of the refuge, and specifies management actions to achieve refuge goals and the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System.

Compressive force - The tendency of a mass to bear on a surface by gravity. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Comprehensive water resources management - Water resources planning, development and control that incorporates physical, social, economic and environmental interdependencies. (FAO-UN)

Compressible - Excessive decrease in volume of soft soil under load. - USDA

Comp Tel - Competitive Telecommunications Association

CONAC - Center of North America Coalition (a REAP Zone - USDA) Includes the North Dakota counties of McHenry, Bottineau, Rolette, Towner, Pierce and Benson; and the Indian reservations of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa outmigration and areas of high poverty. Since 1980, all except Rolette County have experienced substantial population loss, with most in excess of 20%. Rolette County, home to the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation, has a poverty rate of almost 40%.

CONBIO - The Society for Conservation Biology

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) - Generally, a facility where large numbers of farm animals are confined, fed, and raised, such as dairy and beef cattle feedlots, hog production facilities, and closed poultry houses. EPA has developed a specific regulatory definition of CAFO for the purposes of enforcing the Clean Water Act. The Act requires individual places that are potential sources of water pollution to obtain point source discharge permits that specify the allowable levels of effluent from each of these places. The EPA regulations define 'animal feeding operations' as those confining livestock or poultry for 45 days or more in a 12-month period in a facility that has no vegetative ground cover. Such places are further considered 'concentrated,' and therefore required to have an EPA permit, if they reach certain size limits or meet other criteria specified in the EPA regulations. Those size limits are 700 mature dairy cattle, 1,000 beef cattle, 100,000 chickens, 55,000 turkeys, 2,500 swine, or 10,000 sheep. A lot or facility where animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12 month period; and where crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained over any portion of the lot facility in the normal growing season and more than 1,000 animal units are confined at the facility or from 301 - 1,000 animal units are confined at the facility and it also meets one of the specific criteria addressing the method of discharge [40 CFR Part 122 Appendix B]". In addition, AFOs can be designated a CAFO on a case-by-case basis if the NPDES-authorized permitting authority determines that it is a significant contributor of pollution to waters of the U.S. [40 CFR part 122.23c]. The EPA provides online access to the 1999 draft Guidance Manual and Example NPDES permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) - Definitions: According to U.S. EPA's new rules, to be considered a CAFO, a livestock, dairy or poultry farm must first meet the definition of an animal feeding operation (AFO), which is defined as a facility that confines animals for at least 45 days in a 12-month period and there is no grass or other vegetation in the confinement area during the normal growing season. An operation is a CAFO if it meets the definition of an AFO and meets one of the following CAFO definitions: Large CAFO - An operation is a large CAFO if it has at least: 700 mature dairy cows, 1,000 beef cattle or heifers, 2,500 swine weighing more than 55 pounds, 10,000 swine weighing less than 55 pounds, 30,000 ducks (other than liquid manure systems), 5,000 ducks (liquid manure handling systems), 30,000 chickens (liquid manure handling systems), 125,000 chickens except layers (other than a liquid manure system), 82,000 laying hens (other than liquid manure systems), 1,000 veal calves, 500 horses, 10,000 sheep or lambs, or 55,000 turkeys. Medium CAFO - An operation is a medium CAFO if a man-made ditch or pipe carries manure or wastewater from your operation to surface water, or your animals come into contact with surface water running through the area where they are confined, and your operation has at least: 200 mature dairy cows, 300 beef cattle or heifers, 750 swine weighing more than 55 pounds, 3,000 swine weighing less than 55 pounds, 10,000 ducks (other than liquid manure handling systems), 1,500 ducks (liquid manure handling system), 9,000 chickens (liquid manure handling system), 37,500 chickens except layers (other than liquid manure handling systems), 25,000 layers (other than liquid manure handling systems), 300 veal calves, 150 horses, 3,000 sheep or lambs, or 16,500 turkeys. No matter the size of a livestock, dairy or poultry facility, if it is an AFO, it may be designated a CAFO if, after being inspected by a permitting authority, it is found to be adding pollutants to surface waters. It is important to note that the U.S. EPA permit will cover both the production area and the land application areas. http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/afo/cafofinalrule.cfm

Concentrated Flow - Runoff that accumulates or converges into well-defined channels.

Concentration - Concentration refers to the amount of a substance in a specific amount of water at one point in time. For example, if 1,000,000 parts of water contained 10 parts of salt, the salt concentration would be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). For water, the units of parts-per-million are equivalent to milligrams-per-liter (mg/L). Concentration is helpful in determining pollutant levels in which only the quality of the water needs to be considered. For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established that the maximum amount of nitrate-nitrogen allowable in public drinking water supplies is 10 parts of nitrate-nitrogen in 1,000,000 parts of water. This concentration can be expressed as 10 ppm or 10 mg/L of nitrate-nitrogen. Determining the amount of a pollutant that will result in the water becoming toxic to some organism usually develops these levels.

Concept Development Stage (CDS) - The second stage in the life cycle of a major application system. In this stage, develop blueprints (plans) for the functions, data, and data communications needed to fulfill the mission needs. These blueprints provide guidance and structure to the work done when the system enters the Development Phase. - USDA

Concepts - Are abstract summaries, general notions, knowledge etc. of a whole set of behaviors, attitudes or characteristics that are seen as having something in common. Concepts are used to assist in presenting/conveying precise meaning, categorizing, interpreting, structuring and making sense of classifications. (UN)

Concept Plan - An exhibit meeting the requirements of specific zoning ordinances which is required to be submitted with zoning change requests in certain zoning districts.

Concern Level - A measure of the degree of public importance placed on how landscapes are viewed from travelways and use areas. - FS

Concession Contract - A type of short-term agreement that may be implemented to provide accommodations, facilities and services necessary for public use and park enjoyment (NPS 1994A). - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Concessionaire - Someone who holds a long term authorization to possess and use public lands to provide recreation facilities and services for a fixed period of time authorized under BLM regulations. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Concessional (export) Sale - A sale in which a foreign buyer is allowed payment terms that are more favorable than those obtainable in the commercial market. Under P.L. 480, the concessional terms include the length of the credit period, the grace period for repayment, and the interest rate charged. Conditional registration -- Under special circumstances, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) permits registration of pesticide products that is 'conditional' upon the submission of additional data. These special circumstances include a finding by EPA that a new product or use of an existing pesticide will not significantly increase the risk of unreasonable adverse effects. A product containing a new (previously unregistered) active ingredient may be conditionally registered only if the EPA finds that such conditional registration is in the public interest, that a reasonable time for conducting the additional studies has not elapsed, and the use of the pesticide for the period of conditional registration will not present an unreasonable risk.

Concessionality Level - A measure of the "softness" of a credit reflecting the benefit to the borrower compared to a loan at market rate. Technically it is calculated as the difference between the nominal value of a Tied Aid Credit (q.v.) and the present value of the debt service as of the date of disbursement, calculated at a discount rate applicable to the currency of the transaction and expressed as a percentage of the nominal value. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Conciliation - Procedures intended to help establish trust and openness between the parties to a dispute. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

Concordant flows - Flows at different points in a river system that have the same recurrence interval, or the same frequency of occurrence. It is most often applied to floodflows. - USGS

Concretion - Spherical to elliptical nodules, harder than the surrounding rock, formed by accumulation of mineral matter (example - iron oxide) after deposition of sedimentary rock. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various sizes, shapes, and colors consisting of concentrated compounds or cemented soil grains. The composition of most concretions is unlike that of the surrounding soil. Calcium carbonate and iron oxide are common compounds in concretions. - USDA

Concurrent Jurisdiction - With national courts: The ICTY's jurisdiction is not exclusive. It has concurrent jurisdiction with national courts, although the Security Council asserts that it has primacy over national courts. This allows the ICTY to request that national courts discontinue their proceedings in deference to the ICTY. This is precisely how Dusko Tadic wound up being tried at The Hague instead of in a German national court. The question of the discretionary powers of the Council under Article 94(2) represents, indeed, only a part of the more general problem of the relation of the Council to the Court, which cannot be analyzed here. More generally, on the problem of the concurrent jurisdiction between the Council and the Court, see T.G.H. Elsen, Litispendence Between the International Court of Justice and the Security Council (1986). In fact, in the present study the problem of concurrent jurisdiction is analyzed with regard to whether the Security Council can bring about a sort of political review of a Court decision, a problem that presents itself when the Council deliberates on an issue which has been brought before the Court after it has passed a judgment. The other side of the problem is that of the possibility of judicial review of the legality of a Council decision. The most recent case addressing this problem is that on the interpretation and application of the 1971 Montreal Protocol

Conditions of authenticity - See Authenticity - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Conduit - A natural or artificial channel through which fluids may be conveyed. - USGS

Cone of depression - A natural depression in the water table around a well during pumping. - USGS

Conflict of Interest - To allow due process, members of zoning boards and appeals boards who have an interest in a project (for example: financially, as a neighbor whose property value would be affected, or an immediate family member) must not take part in the discussion, nor vote. In New York State, they must absent ("recuse") themselves from deliberations. Examples in New York are a contractor who is a planning board member may not be paid for services rendered in relation to a matter which is pending or must be brought before a planning board (State Comptroller Opinion 93-23) and an attorney for a planning board may not represent clients for compensation before that board (State Attorney General Opinion 93-36). State Comptroller Opinion 90-28 held that a planning board member is prohibited from receiving or agreeing to receive compensation for engineering services in connection with any matter before a planning board. If the member is performing uncompensated work on a matter before the board, he should not participate in the discussion or vote on the matter. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Confluent growth - In coliform testing, abundant or overflowing bacterial growth which makes accurate measurement difficult or impossible. - USGS

Conformance - Means that a proposed action shall be specifically provided for in the land use plan or, if not specifically mentioned, shall be clearly consistent with the goals, objectives, or standards of the approved land use plan. - BLM

Conglomerate - A cemented clastic rock containing rounded fragments corresponding in their grade sizes to gravel or pebbles. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Conjunctive management - Integrated management and use of two or more water resources, such as an aquifer and a surface water body. - USGS

Connate growth - Water trapped in the pore spaces of a sedimentary rock at the time it was deposited. It is usually highly mineralized. - USGS

Connectivity - A qualitative term describing the degree to which late successional ecosystems are linked to one another to form an interconnected network. The degree of interconnectedness and the characteristics of the linkages vary in natural landscapes based on topography and natural disturbance regime. Breaking of these linkages results in forest fragmentation. Fragmentation due to forest harvesting should be viewed and managed to mimic fragmentation resulting from natural disturbance. The degree and characteristics of this "natural fragmentation" vary with differences in landscape type. Specific types of connectivity: 1. upland to upland connectivity - describes how well late successional forests in the upland portion of the landscape were linked over time. 2. upland to stream connectivity - describes how well late successional forests on the upland and stream riparian portions of the landscape were linked over time. 3. upland to wetland connectivity - describes how well late successional forests on the upland and wetland portions of the landscape were linked over time. 4. cross-elevational connectivity - describes how well late successional forests from low elevation valley bottoms and higher elevation portions of the landscape were linked with each other over time. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Connectivity/Diversity blocks - Connectivity/Diversity blocks are specific lands spaced throughout the Matrix lands, which have similar goals as Matrix but have specific Standards & Guidelines which affect their timber production. They are managed on longer rotations (150 years), retain more green trees following regeneration harvest (12-18) and must maintain 25-30 percent of the block in late successional forest. - BLM

CONS - Conservation

Conservation - The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to current generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations: Thus conservation is positive, embracing preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration, and enhancement of the natural environment. - UNDP/WRI 2. The World Heritage Convention does not specifically define conservation. Throughout the Convention reference is made to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage". Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission" (UNESCO 1972). The Operational Guidelines do not include a definition of conservation. The Operational Guidelines state that one of the four essential functions of the World Heritage Committee is to "monitor the state of conservation of properties inscribed on the World Heritage List" (UNESCO February 1996: 2, Paragraph 3 (ii)). Guidelines for monitoring the "state of conservation" of properties inscribed in the World Heritage List feature prominently in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: Section II). The term preservation and conservation are used interchangeably to refer to the "State of preservation/conservation" section of the nomination form (UNESCO February 1996: 20, Paragraph 64 (d)). Paragraph 24 (b) (ii) of the Operational Guidelines stipulates that cultural properties included in the World Heritage List must "have adequate legal and/or contractual and/or traditional protection and management mechanisms to ensure the conservation of the nominated cultural properties or cultural landscapes" (UNESCO February 1996: 7-8). The Operational Guidelines also include reference, without definition, to "conservation policy" (Paragraph 27 (ii)), "conservation scheme" (Paragraph 34), "preventive conservation" (Paragraph 69) and "day-to-day conservation" (Paragraph 70) (UNESCO February 1996: 8, 10 and 26). Conservation is used interchangeably with preservation, safeguarding and protection in the Operational Guidelines. The Nara Document on Authenticity defines conservation, specifically with reference to the cultural heritage, as: Conservation: all efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its presentation, restoration and enhancement (Larson 1995: xxv). The French definition of Conservation is also included in Larson (1995: xxxi). See Preservation, Protection, Safeguarding, State of conservation - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Conservation Agreement - A formal signed agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service and other parties that implements specific actions, activities, or programs designed to eliminate or reduce threats or otherwise improve the status of a species. CA's can be developed at a State, regional, or national level and generally include multiple agencies at both the State and Federal level, as well as tribes. Depending on the types of commitments the BLM makes in a CA and the level of signatory authority, plan revisions or amendments may be required prior to signing the CA, or subsequently in order to implement the CA. - BLM

Conservation Agreement - A formal agreement between the USDA Forest Service and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and/ or National Marine Fisheries Service identifying management actions necessary to prevent the need to list species under the Endangered Species Act (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52

Conservation agreements and strategies (number of sensitive aquatic and terrestrial species) - Report the number of recovery and conservation tasks that were completed in the fiscal year for sensitive aquatic and terrestrial species. Recovery plans and conservation strategies include assignment of specific tasks to agencies. For those federally listed species having such either FWS approved recovery plans or conservation strategies or sensitive species having a conservation strategy approved by Forest Supervisors or Regional Foresters, report those tasks required of the Forest Service in the given year that were accomplished. Approved and implemented recovery plans (number of listed aquatic and terrestrial species). Report the number of recovery and conservation tasks that were completed in the fiscal year for listed aquatic and terrestrial species. Recovery plans and conservation strategies include assignment of specific tasks to agencies. For those federally listed species having such either FWS approved recovery plans or conservation strategies or sensitive species having a conservation strategy approved by Forest Supervisors or Regional Foresters, report those tasks required of the Forest Service in the given year that were accomplished. - FS

Conservation Easements - A legally binding recorded interest in property that gives a qualified public or private agency the right to prohibit any practice, use, subdivision or development that is contrary to the conservation purposes spelled out in the easement deed. Conservation easements are used to protect agricultural land, land of ecological importance and open space. Landowners may be permitted to deduct the fair market value of easements from their income for tax purposes. [Source: AFT Farmland Information Library, 1996]

Conservation Financing - Innovative conservation finance strategies and management mechanisms, which could be employed to support multi-stakeholder conservation management efforts such as debt-for-nature swaps, carbon offsets and joint implementation, private sector partnerships, and local and regional conservation trust funds. - UN

Conservation of Biodiversity - The management of human interactions with genes, species, and ecosystems so as to provide the maximum benefit to the present generation while maintaining their potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations; encompasses elements of saving, studying, and using biodiversity. - UNDP/WRI

Conservation plan - A statement of management objectives for grazing, including contract stipulations defining required uses, operations, and improvements. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Conservation practice - A management action to protect, conserve, utilize, and maintain the sustained yield productivity of Indian agricultural land. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. A specific treatment, such as a structural or vegetative measure or management technique commonly used to meet specific needs in planning and conservation, for which standards and specifications have been developed. Conservation practices are in the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, which is based on the National Handbook of Conservation Practices. The practices recorded for NRI have been applied to the area of land in which the NRI point falls or the portion of the field that would be used in conservation planning. The point need not fall on a specific practice. - National Resources Inventory

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) primary goals: To: (from the FSA manual) "1) create an opportunity where the resources of a State government and CCC can be targeted in a coordinated manner to address specific conservation and environmental objectives of that State and the nation, and 2) improve water quality, erosion control, and wildlife habitat in specific geographic areas which have been adversely impacted by agricultural activities, with emphasis on addressing non-point source water pollution and wildlife habitat restoration in a cost-effective manner. Conservation of species either listed on the Federal endangered species list or identified as candidates for listing on the Federal endangered species list are included under this second objective."

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) - CRP is reauthorized through 2007. CRP provides rental payments to farmers to set aside sensitive lands. The new law increases the CRP acreage cap to 39.2 million acres. (Limit was 36.4 million under the previous law.)

Conservation Security Program (CSP) - A new program that will commence in 2003 and will reward farmers for applying conservation practices to working lands. The National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is currently working to define the scope of the program, including the enrollment level. Land must have been used for crops for at least four of the past six years to be eligible. Contracts will run for five and ten year periods.

Conservation storage - Storage of water for later release for useful purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control. - USGS

Conservation Strategy - A strategy outlining current activities or threats that are contributing to the decline of a species, along with the actions or strategies needed to reverse or eliminate such a decline or threats. Conservation strategies are generally developed for species of plants and animals that are designated as BLM Sensitive species or that have been determined by the Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service to be Federal candidates under the Endangered Species Act. - BLM

''Conserve'', ''Conserving'', and ''Conservation'' - To use and the use of all methods and procedures which are necessary to bring any endangered species or threatened species to the point at which the measures provided pursuant to this chapter are no longer necessary. Such methods and procedures include, but are not limited to, all activities associated with scientific resources management such as research, census, law enforcement, habitat acquisition and maintenance, propagation, live trapping, and transplantation, and, in the extraordinary case where population pressures within a given ecosystem cannot be otherwise relieved, may include regulated taking. - ESA

Consistence, soil - The feel of the soil and the ease with which a lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to describe consistence are: Loose-Noncoherent when dry or moist: does not hold together in a mass. Friable-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure between thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together into a lump. Firm-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable. Plastic-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled between thumb and forefinger. Sticky-When wet, adheres to other material and tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than to pull free from other material. Hard-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. Soft-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under very slight pressure. Cemented-Hard; little affected by moistening. - USDA

Consistency - The resistance of a material to deformation or rupture. 2. The degree of cohesion or adhesion of the soil mass. Used for describing consistency of soil materials at various soil moistures and degrees of cementation.

Consistency - Means that the proposed land use plan does not conflict with officially approved plans, programs, and policies of tribes, other Federal agencies, and State and local governments to the extent practical within Federal law, regulation, and policy. - BLM

Concordance - Correlation. (UN)

Conference of the Parties - United Nations meetings, held in various parts of the world, their purpose being to bring about the terms of the Kyoto Protocol and so forth.

Conflict Resolution - Activities that aim to mitigate mass violence between or within countries. This field of endeavor mainly involves governments, multilateral agencies like the United Nations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). It goes by many names: conflict prevention, conflict resolution, conflict management, preventive action, preventive diplomacy, and so on. For the most part, these all convey the same idea: preventing conflict at an early stage is more humane, less costly, and more manageable that trying to cope later.

Confucianism - It is a worldview, a social ethic, a political ideology, a scholarly tradition and a way of life.

Conceptual Mitigation - The early, generalized identification of measures that would minimize or avoid anticipated environmental consequences associated with a given alternative. Typically, conceptual mitigation ideas are discussed prior to the concluding stages of an environmental study, well before many of the ideas are further worked upon, refined or committed.

Concurrence - Written determination by an agency that the information to date is adequate; the agency agrees that the study process can be advanced to the next stage. Agencies agree not to revisit the previous process steps unless conditions change.

Condition Class - A grouping of timber stands into size-age-stocking classing for Forest planning.

Cone of Depression - A depression in the potentiometric surface in the area around a well, or group of wells, from which water is being withdrawn.

Confined Aquifer - An aquifer that is overlain by a confining layer of impermeable soil or rock material. The water table is separated from the atmosphere by the impermeable layer. This type of aquifer is sometimes called an artesian aquifer.

Conforming Element - Those elements that complement or conform to the surrounding landscape character.

Conformity - The U.S. Clean Air Act stipulates that any approved project, plan, or program must conform to the State Implementation Plan, a document that prescribes procedures for the implementation, maintenance and enforcement of primary and secondary pollutants.

Congressionally Reserved Areas - Areas that require congressional enactment for their establishment, such as national parks, wilderness and wild and scenic rivers. (BLM-DOI)

Conifer - A tree that produces needles and cones, such as a pine, spruce, or fir tree.

Conjunctive Use - Water management methods. Usually used to describe the practice of storing surface water in a groundwater basin in wet years and withdrawing it from the basin in dry years. Often used in discussing water supplies and water conservation. The combined use of surface and ground waters to serve a particular purpose.

Connectivity (of habitat) - The linkage of similar but separated vegetation stands by patches, corridors, or "stepping stones" of like vegetation. This term can also refer to the degree to which similar habitats are linked. A measure of how connected or spatially continuous a corridor or matrix is. Network connectivity is the degree to which corridors link all nodes in a system.

Consensus - The point at which agencies and the public offer their agreement with recommendations or findings. Although unanimous consensus is seldom achieved, continuous coordination throughout the study process is expected to garner support from most agencies and much of the public.

Conservation - The management of human and natural resources to provide maximum benefits over a sustained period of time (see sustainable agriculture). In farming, conservation entails matching cropping patterns and the productive potential and physical limitations of agricultural lands to ensure long-term sustainability of profitable production. Conservation practices focus on conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Contour farming, no-till farming, and integrated pest management are typical examples of conservation practices. 2. The wise and careful use of natural resources that does not jeopardize the long-term viability of the resource base or inflict undue or excessive damage. It is different from 'preservation' which refers to maintaining a pristine state of nature as it is or might have been before the intervention of human activities. (UNESCO)

Conservation Biology - A combination of biology and ecology that has protecting and where necessary restoring, the structure and function of natural biological communities throughout the world as its objective.

Conservation Covenant - A voluntary, written agreement between the owner of land and a conservation organization in which the landowner agrees to protect the land in certain ways. Covenants may be held by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as well as municipal governments.

Conservation (cross) Compliance - A provision originally authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 that requires farmers who operate on highly erodible land to manage this land under an approved conservation system in order to maintain eligibility in specified federal farm programs. The FAIR Act of 1996 amended the conservation compliance provisions in several ways to provide greater planting flexibility to farmers.

Conservation Districts - A legal subdivision of a state government, with an elected governing body, which develops and implements soil and water conservation programs within a certain area, usually coinciding with county lines. The nearly 3,000 districts in the United States have varying names -- soil conservation district, soil and water conservation district, natural resources district, resource conservation district, resources district, or conservation district.

Conservation Easements - A legal document that provides specific land use rights to a secondary party. A perpetual conservation easement usually grants conservation and management rights to a party in perpetuity. Acquisition of rights and interest to a property to protect identified conservation or resource values, using a reserved interest deed. Since the mid 1970s, conservation easements have been purchased to protect nearly 420,000 acres of farmland in fifteen states, primarily in the Northeast.

Conservation Farm Option Program - A provision of the FAIR Act of 1996 authorizes a pilot program for producers who receive production flexibility payments to enter into a contract to consolidate payments at rates that are equivalent to payments that would otherwise be received from the Conservation Reserve Program, Wetlands Reserve Program, and/or the Environmental Quality Incentives Program in exchange for implementing practices to protect soil, water, and wildlife.

Conservation Plan - A combination of land uses and farming practices to protect and improve soil productivity and water quality, and to prevent deterioration of natural resources on all or part of a farm. Plans may be prepared by staff working in conservation districts and must meet technical standards. For some purposes, such as conservation compliance, the local conservation district must approve the plan. Under the 1996 FAIR Act, conservation plans for conservation compliance must be both technically and economically feasible.

Conservation Practice - Any technique or measure used to protect soil and water resources for which standards and specifications for installation, operation, or maintenance have been developed. Practices approved by USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service are compiled at each conservation district in its field office technical guide.

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) - The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program or CREP (pronounced krep) is a joint, state-federal land retirement conservation program targeted to address State and nationally significant agriculture-related environmental effects. This voluntary program uses financial incentives to encourage farmers and ranchers to enroll in contracts of 10 to 15 years in duration to remove lands from agricultural production. It is authorized pursuant to the 1996 Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act.

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) - A program, created in the Food Security Act of 1985, to retire from production up to 45 million acres of highly erodible and environmentally sensitive farmland. Landowners who sign contracts agree to keep retired lands in approved conserving uses for 10-15 years. In exchange, the landowner receives an annual rental payment, cost-share payments to establish permanent vegetative cover and technical assistance. The CRP reportedly has reduced erosion by up to 700 million tons per year. The FAIR Act of 1996 extends authorization to enroll land through 2002 and caps maximum CRP acreage at 36.4 million acres, its 1995 level. The Act also makes the program-spending mandatory and finances it through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).

Conservation Technical Assistance (CTA) -- CTA has been the central activity of the Natural Resources Conservation Service since it was established in 1936. NRCS field staff helps landowners and farm operators plan and implement soil and water conservation and water quality practices. The most common use of this program in recent years has been preparing and updating conservation compliance plans. In FY1993, CTA assisted 1.2 million farmers and serviced 62 million acres.

Conservation Tillage - The U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service defines conservation tillage as any tillage system that leaves at least 30% of the surface covered by plant residues for control of erosion by water; for controlling erosion by wind, it means leaving at least 1120 kg/ha (1000 lb/a) of small-grained-straw-equivalent during the critical wind erosion period. The amount of residue needed depends on the kind of residue and whether it is standing or flat. 2. Any tillage and planting system that leaves at least 30% of the soil surface covered by residue after planting. Conservation tillage maintains a ground cover with less soil disturbance than traditional cultivation, thereby reducing soil loss and energy use while maintaining crop yields and quality. Conservation tillage techniques include minimum tillage, mulch tillage, ridge tillage, and no- till.

Conserving Use Acreage - Farmland diverted from crop production to an approved cultural practice that prevents erosion or other degradation. Though crops are not produced, conserving use is considered an agricultural use of the land.

Consolidated - A homogeneous layer composed of solid rock or cemented earthen material.

Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1961 - P.L. 87-128 (August 8, 1961) authorized a major expansion of USDA lending activities, which at the time were administered by USDA's Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), but now through USDA's Farm Service Agency. The legislation was originally enacted as the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961. In 1972, this title was changed to the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, and is often referred to as the Con Act. The Con Act, as amended, currently serves as the authorizing statute for USDA's agricultural and rural development lending programs. Titles in the Act include current authority for the following three major FSA farm loan programs--farm ownership, farm operating and emergency disaster loans. Major amendments to the Con Act enacted in recent years that affect current USDA farm lending programs include the following: Title VI of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-233, January 6, 1988) assists borrowers by requiring FSA to restructure or write down a delinquent loan if the government cost of restructuring is less than the cost of foreclosure. Title VI details the restructuring process and gives delinquent borrowers specific rights throughout the process. Title XVIII, Subtitle A of the FACT Act of 1990 contained provisions designed to curb the perceived abuses of the borrower rights provisions of the 1987 Act. The 1990 farm bill allows FSA to consider the equity in non-essential assets in determining what portion of the loan can be written down and also gives FSA the authority to deny a borrower restructuring if these non-essential assets can be liquidated to make the borrower current on the delinquent loan. The Agricultural Credit Improvement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-554, October 28, 1992) established new USDA loan programs to assist beginning farmers and ranchers. The law established direct and guaranteed loan programs for beginning farmers and ranchers, and a program to provide 10-year loans for beginning farmers and ranchers to purchase their own farm or ranch in return for a down payment equivalent to 10% of the purchase price of the land. The law also limited the total number of years any borrower may participate in the agency's farm ownership and operating loan programs. Title VI of the FAIR Act of 1996 directly affects eligibility for FSA loans and the servicing of its delinquent loans. It tightens the borrower rights provisions of the 1987 Act by, e.g., prohibiting any borrower who has had debt forgiven on a delinquent loan from receiving a new loan, and expedites the sale of farmland acquired by USDA through foreclosure or other forms of debt settlement.

Consolidated formation - Naturally-occurring geologic formations that have been lithified (turned to stone). The term is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "bedrock." Commonly, these formations will stand at the edges of a bore hole without caving. - USGS

Constrained Timber Production Base - Acreage managed for timber production at less than full intensity in consideration of non-timber resource management objectives. (BLM)

Constraints - (More commonly described as environmental features.) Significant resources, facilities, or other features of a study area that serve to restrain, restrict, or prevent the implementation of proposed transportation improvements in a given area. Constraints may include natural or physical resources, important structures, communities' facilities, or topographic features. (NPS)

Consultation - A meeting to discuss, decide, or plan something. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Consultations of the Whole (Closed) (a.k.a. "Informal Consultations ") - This is the Briefings - The President normally briefs non-UN Security Council members on the consultations at the end of the meeting. The President also makes a statement to the press on issues discussed by the Council.

Consumer Information Sheets (CIS) - EPA-approved guidelines for handling treated wood generally available to the consumer at retail outlets where treated lumber is sold and from AWPI and the wood-treating industry. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Consumer Price Index (CPI-U) - The Bureau of Labor Statistics' general measure of retail prices (for goods and services) paid by urban wage earners and clerical workers. Includes prices of about 400 items, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and transportation. The CPI-U is commonly used to deflate time series data and is the most widely accepted measure of inflation.

Consumers - Organisms, chiefly animals, that ingest other organisms or particulate organic matter. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Consumer Surplus - The difference between the total value people receive from the consumption of a particular good and the total amount they pay for the good. Same as net economic value.

Consumption - Purchase and use of goods. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Consumption Expenditures of the Population (CEP) - The ICP concept of "consumption", which includes both household expenditures and expenditures of government on such categories as health and education. (UN)

Consumption Per Capita - An indicator of development. The richer a country is, the more its citizens consume.

Consumptive Use - Use of resources that reduces the supply, such as logging and mining. Water that has been evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products, plant tissue, or animal tissue and, therefore, is not available for immediate reuse. Sometimes referred to as water consumption.

Consumptive use - The quantity of water absorbed by the crop and transpired or used directly in the building of plant tissue together with that evaporated from the cropped area. (U.S. Bur. of Reclamation, 1952, p. 3.) The quantity of water transpired and evaporated from a cropped area or the normal loss of water from the soil by evaporation and plant transpiration. (Blaney, 1951b, p. 190.) (see also Water requirement and Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) The quantity of water discharged to the atmosphere or incorporated in the products of the process in connection with vegetative growth, food processing, or an industrial process (MacKichan, 1957, p. 2.) - USGS

Consumptive use, net - The consumptive use decreased by the estimated contribution by rainfall toward the production of irrigated crops. (Simons, 1953, p. 12.) (See Effective precipitation (3).) Net consumptive use is sometimes called crop irrigation requirement. - USGS

Consumptive waste - The water that returns to the atmosphere without benefiting man. (Thomas, 1951, p. 217.) - USGS

CONTACT - International Training's Conflict Transformation Across Cultures Program (UN)

Contact recreation - Activities involving a significant risk of ingestion of water, such as wading by children, swimming, water skiing, diving and surfing. - USGS

Contact Spring - A spring that usually occurs where a mass of permeable rock or unconsolidated materials overlie a mass of impermeable material.

CONTAG - Confederacao Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura (Brazil)

Contaminant - A constituent that can impair the use of water. - USDA/FS

Content (of a classification category) - Refers to what is included within the boundary of a classification category. For example, in an industry classification, the content of a detailed classification category (e.g. class) would include a descriptor or title, a summary stating its scope, a list of inclusions and exclusions and a list of primary activities. (UN)

Contents - The volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage. - USGS

Context-sensitive design - A planning technique that embraces a collaborative interdisciplinary process, employing traffic calming, livability goals, and pedestrian-friendly road design features, and recognizes the unique quality and importance of the host community in planning transportation projects.

Contingency Planning - The development of a management plan that identifies alternative strategies to be used to ensure project success if specified risk events occur. - Everglades Plan glossary

Continental Drift - The slow movement of continents controlled by the process associated with plate tectonics.

Continental Drift - The theory, first advanced by Alfred Wegener, that Earth's continents were originally one land mass. Pieces of the land mass split off and migrated to form the continents. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Continuous harvesting - Crops that are harvested continuously throughout the season, such as carrots radishes, sweet potatoes, etc., or crops which are standing in the field more than a year, like sugar cane. The estimation of their production has to include all the harvest during the year. - FAO UN Glossary

Continuous Inspection - USDA's meat and poultry inspection system is often called 'continuous' because no animal destined for human food may be slaughtered or dressed unless an inspector is continuously present to examine each one before slaughter (ante mortem inspection), and its carcass and parts after slaughter (postmortem inspection). In processing plants (as opposed to slaughter plants), inspectors need not be present at all times, but they do visit at least once daily. Thus, processing inspection is also considered to be continuous.

Continuous Process Improvement - An ongoing effort to incrementally improve how products and services are provided and internal operations are conducted. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Contour - A line drawn on a map connecting points of the same elevation.

Contour Farming - Field operations (such as plowing, planting, cultivating, and harvesting) at right angles to the natural slope to reduce soil erosion, protect soil fertility, and limit water runoff. Contour strip farming is a kind of contour farming in which row crops are planted in strips, between alternating strips of close-growing, erosion-resistant forage crops.

Contraception - The prevention of unwanted pregnancy, also referred to as birth control or family planning. Contraception is now an accepted means of preventing pregnancies in most developed countries and, increasingly, in developing countries. (UNESCO)

Contract Acreage - Enrolled 1996 commodity base acreage under the FAIR Act of 1996 for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice (generally fixed for 1996 through 2002). A farmer may voluntarily choose to reduce contract acreage in subsequent years. Land leaving the CRP may be entered into a production flexibility contract if the land was previously commodity base acreage.

Contract acreage - Land voluntarily enrolled in a production flexibility contract (PFC) under the 1996 Act. Land was eligible for the PFC enrollment if it had attributed to it at least one crop acreage base for a contract crop that would have been in effect for 1996 under previous farm law, prior to its suspension by the 1996 Act. A farmer may voluntarily choose to reduce contract acreage in subsequent years. Upon leaving the Conservation Reserve Program, base acreage under previous farm law may be entered into a production flexibility contract. Otherwise, the maximum amount of contract acreage was established during the one-time sign up for the PFC in 1996. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Contract crops - Crops eligible for production flexibility contract payments under Title I of the 1996 Act: wheat, corn, sorghum, barley, oats, rice, and upland cotton. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Contract Sanctity - The concept that U.S. agricultural products already contracted to be exported should not be subject to government cancellation because of short supply, national security, and/or foreign policy reasons. The FACT Act of 1990 provides for contract sanctity by prohibiting the President from restricting the export of any agricultural commodity already under contract to be delivered within 270 days from the date the embargo is imposed, except during national emergency or war.

Contrast (Visual) - The effect of a striking difference in the form, line, color, or texture of an area being viewed. - BLM

Contrast Rating - A method of determining the extent of visual impact of an existing or proposed activity that will modify any landscape feature. - BLM

Control - A natural constriction of the channel, a long reach of the channel, a stretch of rapids, or an artificial structure downstream from a gaging station that determines the stage-discharge relation at the gage. A control may be complete or partial. A complete control exists where the stage-discharge relation at a gaging station is entirely independent of fluctuations in stage downstream from the control. A partial control exists where downstream fluctuations have some effect upon the stage-discharge relation at a gaging station. A control, either partial or complete, may also be shifting. Most natural controls are shifting to a degree, but a shifting control exists where the stage discharge relation experiences frequent changes owing to impermanent bed or banks. - USGS 2. A process for ensuring that reality or actual performance meets expectations or plans. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Control of access - The condition where the right of owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons to access, light, air, or view in connection with a highway is fully or partially controlled by public authority.

Control plot - A plot in which no vegetation will be cut and natural succession will occur. A control plot serves as a baseline to compare other treatments (Early, Mid and Late Seral). - Bioenergy Glossary

Control section - The part of the soil on which classification is based. The thickness varies among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches and 40 or 80 inches. - USDA

Control Structure - A human-created structure that regulates the flow of waters or the level of waters. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Controlled area - At a nuclear facility, an area outside of a restricted area but within the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee for any reason. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Controlled Vocabulary - Refers to the vocabulary to be used for specific classifications that have specific meaning as given by the author or agreed by experts. `Commodity', `product' and `service' would be examples of terms in controlled vocabulary used in industry and product classifications. (UN)

CONUS - Continental United States

CONV - Conventional

Convention - A general rule, method, or practice established by consensus, usage, or a formal agreement between parties. A convention can apply to both the adoption of particular classifications and to the ways they are interpreted and used. Formal International Conventions are often signed to establish organizations such as the Customs Co-operative Council (CCC). The functions and purposes of the organization are included under the terms of the Convention. They may also be designed to commit governments to certain policies or legislation upon ratification, as do e.g. the ILO Labor Conventions. (UN) 2. The term "convention" again can have both a generic and a specific meaning. (a) Convention as a generic term: Art.38 (1) (a) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice refers to "international conventions, whether general or particular" as a source of law, apart from international customary rules and general principles of international law and - as a secondary source - judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists. This generic use of the term "convention" embraces all international agreements, in the same way as does the generic term "treaty". Black letter law is also regularly referred to as "conventional law", in order to distinguish it from the other sources of international law, such as customary law or the general principles of international law. The generic term "convention" thus is synonymous with the generic term "treaty". (b) Convention as a specific term: Whereas in the last century the term "convention" was regularly employed for bilateral agreements, it now is generally used for formal multilateral treaties with a broad number of parties. Conventions are normally open for participation by the international community as a whole, or by a large number of states. Usually the instruments negotiated under the auspices of an international organization are entitled conventions (e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity of 1992, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969). The same holds true for instruments adopted by an organ of an international organization (e.g. the 1951 ILO Convention concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, adopted by the International Labor Conference or the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the General Assembly of the UN). (UN)

Convention - Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with Treaty and Covenant. Conventions are stronger than Declarations because they are legally binding for governments that have signed them. When the UN General Assembly adopts a convention, it creates international norms and standards. Once a convention is adopted by the UN General Assembly, Member States can then Ratify the convention, promising to uphold it. Governments that violate the standards set forth in a convention can then be censured by the UN. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary 2. An agreement between states. - UNEP Children's Glossary 3. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), signed on March 3, 1973, and the appendices thereto. - ESA See Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Convention Area - The waters within the area bounded by the mainland of the Americas, lines extending westward from the mainland of the Americas along the 40 deg. N. lat. and 40 deg. S. lat., and 150 deg. W. long. - MFCMA

Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libya v. US), Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures. The Court's Order of 14 April 1992 has prompted an intense debate among international law scholars, among others, of the principal modality used by the UN Security Council to conduct its business away from the glare of the public. During such meetings, the business of the Council can include reviewing the latest developments in respect of an issue that is on its agenda, receive briefings from the UN Secretariat, discuss action of the Council in response to specific developments and discuss (and form consensus on) the terms of draft resolution/presidential statement/ press statement. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - Informal consultations are restricted to Council members and the relevant officials of the UN Secretariat. Venue - The meetings are held in the Consultation Room outside the UN Security Council Chamber. Records - No official record of the meetings will be taken. Publicity - Notice of the meetings is posted in the UN Journal. The Journal would also contain notice that the President will give a briefing at the end of the closed session to interested members of the UN.

Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage - The Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its seventeenth session in Paris on 16 November 1972 (UNESCO 1972). The Convention, with146 signatory States Parties as of June 1996, is the most successful international heritage conservation instrument in the world. The Convention responds to the increasing threats to cultural heritage and natural heritage caused by poverty in many countries, neglect, and in some countries, by unconsidered economic growth and development and seeks to encourage States Parties to identify, protect, preserve and present cultural heritage and natural heritage for future generations in a spirit of international cooperation. As the first step in the World Heritage conservation process, cultural properties and natural properties of outstanding universal value are identified and included on the World Heritage List. The World Heritage Committee has inscribed 469 properties on the World Heritage List. The Convention also establishes a World Heritage Fund from which assistance is available for the identification and conservation of the world's heritage. - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Convention for the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage - See Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (Women's Convention) (adopted 1979; entered into force 1981) - The first legally binding international document prohibiting discrimination against women and obligating governments to take affirmative steps to advance the equality of women. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Convention on the Rights of the Child (Children's Convention) (adopted 1989; entered into force 1990): - Convention setting forth a full spectrum of civil, cultural, economic, social, and political rights for children. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Conventional Agriculture (also known as modern, mainstream or industrial agriculture) - The dominant farming paradigm in America today. It is characterized by intensive use of capital and credit, consolidation of farms into fewer and larger units, rapid and pervasive mechanization, heavy reliance on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and use of close confinement livestock systems. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Conventional Agriculture - Generally used to contrast common or traditional agricultural practices featuring heavy reliance on chemical and energy inputs typical of large-scale, mechanized farms to alternative agriculture or sustainable agriculture practices. Mold-board plowing to cover stubble, routine pesticide spraying, and use of synthetic fertilizers are examples of conventional practices that contrast to alternative practices such as no-till, integrated pest management, and use of animal and green manures.

Conventional Pesticides - Pesticides that are chemicals or other substances developed and produced primarily or only for use as pesticides. The term is generally used in reference to active ingredients. An example is DDT, which was developed and used almost exclusively as a pesticide. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Conventional Tillage - Tillage operations considered standard for a specific location and crop and that tend to bury the crop residues; usually considered as a base for determining the cost effectiveness of erosion control practices.

Convergent Boundary - Where the earth's crust is destroyed as one tectonic plate dives under another. Convergent boundaries explain the location of the world's ocean trenches and some mountain chains like the Andes of South America and the Himalayas of Asia.

Converted Wetland - Under the swampbuster program, these are wetlands that were drained or altered to improve agricultural production after December 23, 1985, the date swampbuster was enacted. On lands with this designation, no drainage maintenance and no additional drainage are allowed.

Convey- To transfer or deliver to another; to pass from one person to another. Equivalent to the word "grant". - Cadastral Data glossary

Conveyance - A channel or passage for conduction or transmission, as a pipe, canal, conduit, or ditch. - USDA/FS

Conveyance Capacity - The rate, generally measured in cubic feet per second (cfs) at which water can be transported by a canal, aqueduct or ditch. - Everglades Plan glossary

Conveyance Loss - Water loss in pipes, channels, conduits, ditches by leakage or evaporation.

Conveyed - The land transferred in fee title. - Cadastral Data glossary

COOFA - Contour Orchard and Other Fruit Area

COOL - Country Of Origin Labeling

Cool-Season Plant Species - Plants whose major growth occurs during the late fall, winter, and early spring.

Cooperating Agency - An agency whose role is documented in a formal memorandum of agreement with the lead agency. - Everglades Plan glossary

Cooperating Agency - Assists the lead Federal agency in developing an EA or EIS. The Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA define a cooperating agency as any agency that has jurisdiction by law or special expertise for proposals covered by NEPA (40 CFR 1501.6). Any tribe or Federal, State, or local government jurisdiction with such qualifications may become a cooperating agency by agreement with the lead agency. - BLM

Cooperation with the States (ESA 6) - The Secretary is to cooperate...with the states, including consulting with a state before acquiring land, water or interests for conservation of listed species.

Cooperative - An enterprise or organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services. In agriculture, such an organization is owned and used by farmers mainly to handle the off-farm part of their businesses -- buying farm supplies, marketing their products, furnishing electric and telephone service, and providing business services --at cost. Essential features are democratic control, limited return on capital, and operation at cost, with distribution of financial benefits to individuals in proportion to their use of the services made available by the cooperative (called patronage refunds). In 1997, there were 3,884 farmer cooperatives in the United States. As a variation from the traditional design, so-called 'new generation cooperatives" are characterized by limited membership, require substantial investment, and include delivery contracts. Producers are increasingly using this model to create their own value-added business enterprises. The USDA's Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) assists in forming new cooperative businesses and improving the operations of existing cooperatives through technical assistance, research, and information products. Cooperatives are afforded certain antitrust exemptions by the Capper-Volstead Act.

Cooperative Agreement - A simple habitat protection action in which no property rights are acquired. An agreement is usually long-term and can be modified by either party. Lands under a cooperative agreement do not necessarily become part of the National Wildlife Refuge System.

Cooperative Agreement - A type of short-term agreement in which there is mutual interest and the principal purpose is to transfer money, property, services, or anything of value to the non-federal partner to stimulate or support a public purpose [that is] authorized by federal statute. In addition, the federal partner, CVNP (in this instance - Cuyahoga Valley National Park), is required to be substantially involved during the performance of the contemplated activity (NPS 2001a). - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Cooperative Agreement - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Bureau of Reclamation Cooperative Agreement - According to the 1977 cooperative agreement (Reclamation and Service contract No. 7-07-20-W0089) between the two agencies, USFWS has ultimate administrative control of the Lower Klamath and Tule Lake refuges, but Reclamation manages the agricultural leased lands program. Agricultural crops are grown on both refuges by Service personnel, by growers under cooperative arrangements (a sharecrop arrangement), and by private growers who lease Service lands through the program operated by Reclamation. The agricultural programs are subject to limitations on the use of chemicals (and must comply with pesticide use proposals [PUPs]), timing of cultivation, and any other appropriate limitations as may be necessary. Reclamation must consult with and obtain the approval of the Service in developing the agricultural leasing program.

Cooperative breeding - A breeding system in which one or more adults assist a breeding pair in rearing of young. These extra adults, called helpers, delay their own dispersal and reproduction and are generally related to the offspring of the breeding pair. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Cooperative Extension System - A federal-state-local cooperative education system that provides continuing adult education based on the academic programs of the land grant colleges of agriculture and their affiliated state agricultural experiment stations. The system employs approximately 32,000 people located on land grant campuses and offices in virtually every county in the nation. About half of Extension's education programs focus on agriculture and natural resources, one-quarter on youth development (including the vocational 4-H program), and the balance on home economics and community resource development work.

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) - The USDA agency that administers federal funds appropriated for agricultural and forestry research, extension, and education programs at eligible institutions, including the land grant colleges of agriculture in the states, selected veterinary schools, and other institutions with capabilities in the food and agricultural science arena. The agency administers formula funds to the 1862 land grant colleges under the Hatch Act of 1887, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 and the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962; Evans-Allen funds for research programs at the 1890 land grant colleges; the National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants program; the Special Grants program; grants for higher education; and the research portion of the Fund for Rural America. http://www.reeusda.gov/

Cooperator Program - Officially known as the Foreign Market Development Program (FMDP). One of several agricultural export promotion programs operated by the Foreign Agricultural Service. This program consists of joint government/agri-industry efforts to develop markets by acquainting potential foreign customers with U.S. farm products. Activities under this program include providing technical assistance to prospective foreign buyers, overseas food exhibits, product demonstrations and advertising aimed at foreign consumers. FAS shares the financing of these projects with the 'cooperators,' which are nonprofit commodity trade associations primarily composed of producer-based farm groups.

Coordinated Resource Management Plan - A plan for management of one or more allotments that involves all the affected resources, e.g. range, wildlife, and watershed. - BLM

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) - The time scale based on the atomic second but corrected every now and again to keep it in approximate sync with the earth's rotation. The corrections show up as the leap seconds put into UTC - usually on New Year's Eve. In the most common usage, the terms GMT and UTC are identical. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Coos Bay Wagon Road (CBWR) Lands - Public lands granted to the Southern Oregon Company and subsequently re-conveyed to the United States. (BLM)

COP - Community Involvement Program

COP - Community-Oriented Protection

COP - Conference Of the Parties

COP - Council of Presidents

COPPA - Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

Copper Naphthenate - An organic unrestricted-use wood preservative that protects against wood-destroying organisms. Uses include the pressure treatment of utility poles, lumber, timbers, pilings and laminated beams. Also recommended for brush, spray, or dip treatments for end cuts and cutoffs of pressure-treated wood products. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Coppice regeneration - The ability of certain hardwood species to regenerate by producing multiple new shoots from a stump left after harvest. - Bioenergy Glossary

COR - Capture Of Resources

COR - Club Of Rome

Coral - A bottom-dwelling, sessile, marine coelenterate; some are solitary individuals, but the majority grow in colonies; they secret external skeletons of calcium carbonate. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

CORE - The Congress of Racial Equality ("a conservative African-American civils rights group")

CORE - Council of Registrars (UN)

Core - A pedestrian-oriented area of commercial and civic uses serving the surrounding municipality or Community Development Area, generally including housing and access to public transportation. The center, heart or focus.

Core Area - The core area of a nation-state is constituted by the national heartland, the largest population cluster, the most productive region, and the area with greatest centrality and accessibility, probably containing the capital city as well. In geography, a term with several connotations. Core refers to the center, heart or focus. The core area of a nation-state is constituted by the national heartland, the largest population cluster, the most productive region, the area with the greatest centrality, and accessibility, probably containing the capital city as well. 2. The central component of the wild land reserve program. Core areas are large, allow little or no human use, and are taken mostly from public lands.

Core or Key Process - Business processes that are vital to the organization's success and survival. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Core Language -

CORF - Central Ohio Regional Forum

Corn Belt - That area of the United States where corn is a principal cash crop, including Iowa, Indiana, most of Illinois, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin.

Corn Gluten - A byproduct of wet milling of corn. Corn gluten is used as a medium-protein (20-24%), medium-fiber (10%) feedstuff. The European Union is the major market for U.S. corn gluten feeds.

Corner - The intersection of two or more converging property or survey lines, whether internal or external. In surveying the terms "corner" and "monument" are used largely in the same sense. However, "corner" usually denotes a point determined by the survey, whereas "monument" is the physical structure erected to mark the corner on the earth's surface. - Cadastral Data glossary

Corridor - A travel route that is used by large volumes of movement -- if capitalized and used in the phrase, such as 'Ventura Freeway Corridor,' see the definition of "region." - Cornell Preservation Glossary

Corps of Engineers - All property adjacent to land owned by the federal government and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which primary purpose is temporary reservoir storage (and, in some instances, on adjacent private land). Within the COE ownership may be a regulatory flowage easement. Through lease agreements with the COE, property within the Corps of Engineers category may be utilized as parks, recreation, and open space. Ancillary commercial and retail activities associated with these uses are permitted, but no habitable structures may be developed within the flowage easement.

Corporate Farm - A form of farm ownership that is a separate legal entity from the owners of the farm. Changes in the tax law in the 1970s encouraged the incorporation of farms as corporate tax rates declined while individual tax rates rose, mainly because of inflation. The 1992 Census of Agriculture reports that less than 4%, or nearly 73,000, of the 1.925 million farms in the nation were corporate farms. By contrast, more than 1.653 million (86%) were individual or family-owned operations and 186,000 (10%) were partnerships.

Corporate Land - Owned by corporations, including incorporated farm ownerships, and Timber Investment and Management Organizations (TIMOS). - USDA/FS

Corps - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Correction of Errors - If, after the authentication of a text, the signatory and contracting states are agreed that it contains an error, it can be corrected by initialing the corrected treaty text, by executing or exchanging an instrument containing the correction or by executing the corrected text of the whole treaty by the same procedure as in the case of the original text. If there is a depositary, the depositary must communicate the proposed corrections to all signatory and contracting states. In the UN practice, the Secretary-General, in his function as depositary, informs all parties to a treaty of the errors and the proposal to correct it. If, on the expiry of an appropriate time limit, no objections are raised by the signatory and contracting states, the depositary circulates a process-verbal of rectification and causes the corrections to be effected in the authentic text(s). [Art.79, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Corrective measures - Corrective measures are referred to in Paragraphs 22, 46, 47, 82 and 83 of the Operational Guidelines without specific definition (UNESCO February 1996: 6, 15 and 30). In Paragraph 22 an "action plan outlining corrective measures" is required when a State Party nominates a property that meets the criteria and the conditions of authenticity and/or integrity but which is threatened by human action. Similar reference is made in Paragraphs 46 and 47 (UNESCO February 1996: 6 and 15). Paragraphs 82 and 83 of the Operational Guidelines refer to the development of "a programme of corrective measures" in the section on the "Procedure for the inclusion of properties in the List of World Heritage in Danger" (UNESCO February 1996: 30). - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Correlation - The process of establishing a relation between a variable and one or more related variables. Correlation is simple if there is only one independent variable; multiple, if there is more than one independent variable. For gaging station records, the usual variables are the short-term gaging-station record and one or more long-term gaging-station records. (Searcy, 1960.) - USGS

Correlative estimate - A discharge determined by correlation. A correlative estimate represents a likely value of the discharge for any particular period--commonly a month--according to a specified method of analysis. (After Langbein and Hardison, 1955, [no. 826], p. 826-8.) - USGS

Correlative rights - Rights that are coequal or that relate to one another, so that any one owner cannot take more than his share. - USGS

Correspondence Table - Is a tool for the linking of classifications. A correspondence table systematically explains where, and to what extent, the categories in one classification may be found in other classifications, or in earlier versions of the same classification. Methodologically, correspondence tables (also referred to as tables) describe the way in which the value sets of classifications are related, by describing how the units classified to the groups defined for a classification would be classified in other classifications. Tables are important for the development and harmonization of international classifications. There are many different circumstances under which one may want to establish relations between classifications, and many forms that these relations may take. Tables can be precise, depending on convention in order to describe the type of link between tables (e.g. historical, hierarchical or whether they overlap). (UN)

Corridor - A linear strip of land or water identified as significant to fish and/or wildlife and/or for the present or future location of trails or transportation or utility right-of-way within its boundaries. (36 CFR 219.3) An area of land that connects core areas to other core areas. Corridors generally follow rivers and streams, and wildlife migration routes. They are taken from both public and private lands. 2. Elements of the landscape that connect similar areas. Streamside vegetation may create a corridor of willows and hardwoods between meadows where wildlife feed.

Corridor - A natural or restored pathway for a population of organisms to use in order to breed and/or remain contiguous. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Corridor Advocacy Group (CAG) - A group of interested citizens, business interests, civic groups, local government representatives, Indian Tribal Councils, and other corridor advocates formed to seek designation for a roadway as a Scenic Highway. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Corridor Management Entity (CME) - An organization created through joint powers of agreement or memorandum of understanding, or other agreement to perpetually administer, manage and monitor the designated corridor. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Corridor Management Plan (CMP) - A formal policy and plan elements of which are adopted by a local general-purpose government(s) into its comprehensive plan. The CMP addresses the goals, policies and objectives, management strategies, regulatory controls, and practices and Action Plans by which the designated Scenic Highway corridor will be managed. Each Scenic Highway shall have a CMP intended to maintain, preserve, protect and enhance the intrinsic resources of the corridor and maintain roadway safety. Additionally, the CMP may address the local economy within the designated corridor. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Corridor Region - A system of central places and outlying communities connected by a transportation corridor. A Corridor Region can be the basis for a Regional Strategic Plan.

Corridor Video - A videotape that is made of the corridor. It simulates or represents the traveler's experience and will be used by the Scenic Highways Advisory Committee in determining eligibility. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

CORS - National Continuously Operating Reference Station network

CORVA - California Off Road Vehicle Association

CORVC - California Off-Road Vehicle Coalition

COS - Conference Of States

COS - Council Of Schools

COSCO - China Ocean Shipping Company

Cosmopolitan - Widely distributed over the globe. - UNDP/WRI

COSP - Community Open Space Partnership

COST - European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/biblio.htm

Cost/benefit Analysis - A quantitative and sometimes qualitative evaluation of the costs which would be incurred by some action (such as implementing an environmental regulation) versus the overall benefits to society of the proposed action.

Cost-effective - A term describing a resource that is available within the time it is needed and is able to meet or reduce electrical power demand at an estimated incremental system cost no greater than that of the least-costly, similarly reliable and available alternative. - Bioenergy Glossary

Cost of Production - The average unit cost (including purchased inputs and other expenses) of producing an agricultural commodity. The Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 requires USDA to make annual estimates of the average cost of producing selected commodities. These cost of production estimates have been used by Congress in considering farm policy options.

Cost recovery - Fee structures that cover the cost of providing the service or investment. (FAO-UN)

Cost Variance - Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity; in Earned Value, this is the Budgeted Cost of Work Performed less the Actual Cost of Work Performed. - Everglades Plan glossary

Coastal Areas - Coastal areas are commonly defined as the interface or transition areas between land and sea, including large inland lakes. Coastal areas are diverse in function and form, dynamic and do not lend themselves well to definition by strict spatial boundaries. Unlike watersheds, there are no exact natural boundaries that unambiguously delineate coastal areas. Geologically, continental margins are of two types: active margins where the edge of a continent happens to be at the edge of an oceanic plate (e.g. the west coast of South America); and inactive margins where the transition from continental lithosphere to oceanic lithosphere is within a plate rather than at a plate edge (e.g. the Atlantic). Coastal areas are therefore characterized by the vertical accretion of near-shore land. This depends on several factors: sediment supply from rivers or from the sea; the width of the shelf, or the proximity of a submarine canyon through which currents remove sediments; and the strength of longshore currents and incidence of cyclones, both of which transport and redistribute sediments along the coast. Sedimentation is the major geological activity that shapes coasts, but human-induced land subsidence is having an increasing impact on coastal morphology.

Coastal Region - The geographic area within the Coastal Zone.

Coastal Zone - The geographic area regulated by the Rules on Coastal Resources and Development. These areas include all other areas now or formerly flowed by the tide, shorelands subject to the Waterfront Development Law, and regulated Wetlands.

Coastal Zone Management Program - P.L. 92-583 (October 27, 1972)created the Coastal Zone Management Program in 1972 to provide grants to eligible states and territories as an incentive to prepare and implement plans guiding the use of coastal lands and resources. Amendments in 1990 require participants to develop non-point pollution programs. These programs must specify and implement management measures to restore and protect coastal waters. For agriculture, management measures are specified for erosion, sediments, nutrients, pesticides, grazing, and animal waste. Participants must implement these management measures after they have been approved by whatever means necessary, including regulation. Federal approval of state proposals is pending.

COT - Climate Of Trust

COTCH - Citizens Opposed to Toxic Chemical Hazards

Cottage Industry - A business located in a small dwelling, typically in the home.

Cotton Competitiveness Provisions - A series of provisions in the cotton support program, including step two payments and import quotas, that are intended to encourage the consumption of U.S. cotton even when its price may be higher than foreign cotton.

COTW - Code Of The West

COTWF - Code Of The West Foundation

Could (rather than would) - Form of wording to protect a document and its author from legal accountability.

Counter-scarp - Wall in field fortification, the wall opposite the scarp; more directly, the side of a defensive ditch [that is] closest to the opposing force. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Council of Governments - A regional multi-county development agency which, under the guidance of a public policy board, provides leadership, expertise and services to communities, businesses, institutions and residents. 2. a voluntary consortium of local government representatives, from contiguous communities, meeting on a regular basis, and formed to cooperate on common planning and solve common development problems of their area. COGs can function as the RTPAs and MPOs in urbanized areas. See Metropolitan Planning Organization - DOT

The Council of State Governments (CSG) - Founded in 1933, CSG serves the executive, judicial and legislative branches of state government through leadership education, research and information services. Founded on the premise that the states are the best sources of insight and innovation, CSG provides a network for identifying and sharing ideas with state leaders. To this end CSG: Builds leadership skills to improve decision-making; Advocates multi-state problem solving and partnerships; Interprets changing national and international conditions to prepare states for the future; and Promotes the sovereignty of the states and their role in the American federal system. www.csg.org

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) - An advisory council to the President, established by NEPA. The agency responsible for the oversight and development of national environmental policy. Created by NEPA, CEQ also shares this responsibility with EPA. It reviews federal programs for their effect on the environment, conducts environmental studies and advises the President on environmental matters. (Regulations, Chapter 1950 of the Forest Service Manual)

Council On Affordable Housing (COAH) - A State agency, created by the Fair Housing Act of 1985, to assess the need for low- and moderate-income housing, and to oversee municipal responses to meet that need.

Counter trade - A trade transaction of goods and services without the exchange of money. Forms of counter trade include barter, buy-back or compensation, counter-purchase, offset requirements, swap, or triangular trade.

Countervailing Duty - A charge levied on an imported article to offset the unfair price advantage it holds due to a subsidy paid to producers or exporters by the government of the exporting country. Section 303 of the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, provides for an assessment equal to the amount of the subsidy, in addition to other duties and fees normally paid on the imported article. Countervailing duties are permitted under Article 6 of the GATT.

Countries with transition economies (transition countries, transition economies) - Countries moving from centrally planned to market-oriented economies. These countries- which include China, Mongolia, Vietnam, former republics of the Soviet Union, and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe- contain about one-third of the world's population. - World Bank Glossary

Country-of-Origin Labeling - Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States must be clearly marked so that the 'ultimate purchaser' can identify the country of origin. Imported meat products are subject to this requirement: imported carcasses and parts of carcasses must be labeled, and individual retail (consumer-ready) packages also must be labeled. Imported carcasses or parts generally go to U.S. plants for further processing. The labeling policy considers these plants as the 'ultimate purchasers.' Therefore, any products these plants make from the imported meat (for example, ground beef patties made in the United States from beef that originated in Canada or elsewhere) do not have to bear country-of-origin labels. A number of other agricultural articles are exempt from the basic country-of-origin labeling requirements: eggs, livestock and other animals, live or dead; and other 'natural products' such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and berries. (However, the outermost containers used to bring these articles into the United States must indicate the country of origin.) There is an interest among U.S. farmers to require more extensive labeling of agricultural products (especially meats and produce). At issue are whether consumers would be more likely to buy the U.S. alternative if such labeling is more prevalent and whether foreign countries might view such a change as a non-tariff trade barrier.

Country-Product-Dummy (CPD) Method - A generalized bridge-country method in which regression analysis is used to obtain transitive price comparisons for each basic heading. The basic data for a given category consist of all the prices available for the various specifications for the entire collection of countries. The basic assumption is that within a given basic heading for a given country, the price of an item depends in a multiplicative way on a country factor and a price factor to be estimated from the sample of item-country prices in each heading. It follows from this that the logarithms of the prices are regressed against two sets of dummy variables: one set contains a dummy for each specification; the second set, a dummy for each country other than the numeraire country. The transitive price comparisons are derived from the coefficients of the country dummies. (UN)

Country Rock (Wall Rock) - The general mass of rock next to a body of ore, as distinguished from the vein or ore deposit itself. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

County Agricultural Development Board (CADB) - A county board responsible for developing and adopting local agricultural retention and development programs to encourage the agricultural business climate and the preservation of agricultural land in the county.

County Committees - Panels of three to five farmers, elected by other farmers, to oversee the local operation of commodity programs, credit, and other programs of the Farm Service Agency. County committees, established by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935, are so named because they have overseen USDA field offices for farmers that once existed in most rural farm counties throughout the United States. Today, the committees often oversee activities in multi-county areas, due to USDA reorganization and consolidation of its field office structure into a network of about 2,500 field service centers. The committees are responsible for hiring and supervising the County Executive Director (CED), who manages the day-to-day activities of the field service center and its employees. The director and most county office staff legally are employees of the farmer- elected committees rather than the federal government, although their salaries come from federal funds.

County Executive Director (CED) - The supervisor hired by the Farm Service Agency county committee to manage the day-to day activities of a field service center (formerly called the county office).

County Office - Usually refers to the local office of the Farm Service Agency, where farmers go to conduct business associated with federal farm commodity and credit programs, and some conservation programs. As a result of reorganization in 1994, local offices are increasingly shared with other USDA agencies having local representatives, such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Offices shared by several agencies are called field service centers.

County Payments - Forest Service payments of 25% of gross revenues from each national forest to the states for use on road and school programs in the counties where the national forests are located. Technically known as Payments to States, because the states determine which road and school programs can be funded, but 100% of the payments are allocated to the counties based on the national forest acreage in each county. Commonly confused with Payments in lieu of taxes.

Coup d'etat - Change of government by force.

Course - "Course" as is used in surveying includes both bearing and distance. "Course and distance" where "bearing and distance" is meant is a common error. When a ship is set on a "course", a bearing is implied, and the word "course" is sometimes used in land description utilizing that meaning. - Cadastral Data glossary

COV - Cultivating the Overnight Experience

Cover, Percentage - The area covered by the combined aerial or basal parts of plants and mulch expressed as a percent of the total area. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

CoVis - Collaborative Visualization (The work of the CoVis Project was completed in 1998. This research is being continued under the auspices of the Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools and a number of other research projects in the Learning Sciences Program at Northwestern. This web site now serves as an archive of CoVis materials. The CoVis Project was part of the Learning Sciences Program at The School of Education & Social Policy at Northwestern University.)

Covenant - An agreement or promise, relating to a parcel of land and set out in a legal document, containing promises by the landowner in respect of uses of the land, limiting or prescribing the uses to which the land will be put.

Covenant - Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with Convention and Treaty. The major international human rights covenants, both passed in 1966, are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Covenantee - The holder of the covenant (the conservation organization).

Cover - Any feature that conceals wildlife or fish. Plants or objects used by wild animals for nesting, rearing of young, escape from predators, or protection from harmful environmental conditions. Cover may be dead or live vegetation, boulders, or undercut stream banks. Animals use cover to escape from predators, rest, or feed.

Cover - Small rocks, litter, basal areas of grass and forbs, and aerial coverage of shrubs that provide protection to the soil surface (i.e. in contrast to bare ground.) - BLM

Cover and management factor (C factor - USLE) - The ratio of soil loss from an area with specific cover and management to that from an identical area in tilled continuous fallow. - National Resources Inventory

Cover Complexity - A qualitative rating of the combinations of different types of cover in one habitat unit. Greater cover complexity would be expected to yield greater abundance.

Cover Crop - A close-growing crop, planted primarily as a rotation between regularly planted crops, or between trees and vines in orchards and vineyards, to protect soil from erosion and improve it between periods of regular crops.

Cover crop - A close-growing crop grown primarily to improve and protect the soil between periods of regular crop production, or a crop grown between trees and vines in orchards and vineyards. - USDA

Cover Forage Ratio- The ratio of hiding cover to foraging areas for wildlife species.

Cover-Opening Ratio - The mixture of cover and forage areas on a unit of land, expressed as a ratio.

Cover Type (forest cover type) - Stands of a particular vegetation type that are composed of similar species. The aspen cover type contains plants distinct from the pinyon-juniper cover type.

Coverage - Specifies the population from which observations for a particular topic can be drawn. An understanding of coverage is required to facilitate the comparison of data. Coverage issues are often explained through the use of tables showing linkages (e.g. part or full correspondence); and can also be used to explain the ratio of coverage. The rules and conventions of coverage are largely determined by concept definitions, scope rules, information requirements and, in the case of statistical collections and classifications, collection and counting units and the collection methodology. (UN)

Coverage Ratio - Measures the extent to which observations designated as primary to a particular category are undertaken by units primarily involved with the observations related to that category. In industry statistics, the coverage ratio is the output of goods and services characteristic of a particular industry in proportion to the total output of the same goods and services by the economy as a whole. (UN)

CO2A - CO2 Absorption

COW - Central Ohio Watershed

COW - The Committee of the Whole (UNEP)

Cow-calf Operator - A ranch or farm where cows are raised and bred mainly to produce calves usually destined for the beef market. The cows produce a calf crop each year, and the operation keeps some heifer calves from each calf crop for breeding herd replacements. The rest of the calf crop is sold between the ages of 6 and 12 months along with old or nonproductive cows and bulls. Such calves often are sold to producers who raise them as feeder cattle.

Cowardin system - A classification system of wetlands and deep water habitats of the United States, officially adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) used to develop wetland data bases. The system was developed by Lewis M. Cowardin of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others. The five major systems are recognized in the NRI: Estuarine, Lacustrine, Marine, Palustrine, and Riverine. [USFWS] - NRI Glossary

COZD - Corridor Overlay Zone District

CP - Citizen Participation

CP - Collaborative Plan

CP - Comment Period

CP - Commodity Program

CP - Common People

CP - Community Parks

CP - Community Partnership

CP - Community Profiling

CP - Comprehensive Plan

CP - Comprehensive Planning

CP - Confiscation of Property

CP - Contingency Planning

CP - Corridor Phase

CP - Critical Processes (Corps of Engineers) http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/pdfs/wlman87.pdf

CP - Cropland Production (DOI - USFWS) (synonym in DOI's eyes for production agriculture?)

CP - Currency Policy

CPA - Commodity Producers' Associations

CPA - Core Preserve Area

CPAC - Conservative Political Action Conference

CPAP - Conflict Prevention And Peacebuilding

CPAR - Construction Productivity Advancement Research

CPAWS - Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society

CPB - Changing Public Behavior

CPC - Center for Plant Conservation

CPC - County Planning Commission

CPC - Child Protection Crisis

CPE - California Power Exchange

CPGL - The Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program (USDA)

CPGL - Conservation of Private Grazing Lands Program

CPHSE - Commission on Public Health, Safety and the Environment

CPI - Cascade Policy Institute

CPIP - Centrally Planned Irrigation Project

CPL - Commissioner of Public Lands

CPLA - City Planning and Landscape Architecture

CPM - Critical Path Method

CPMF - The Committee to Protect Medical Freedom

CPP - Consumption and Production Patterns (UNDESA)

CPPR - Citizens for Private Property Rights

CPR - The Center for Preventing Roads

CPR - Cultural Property Rights (UN)

CPRC - Community Participation Rather than Conflict

CPRNet - Common Property Resource Network (World Bank)

CPRT - Chemical Pattern Recognition Techniques

CPS - Center for Policy Studies

CPS - Certification Policy Statement

CPSC - Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPSS - Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (BIS)

CPUC - California Public Utilities Commission

CPR - Constitutionally Protected Rights

CPRA - Centrally Planned Resource Allocation

CPT - Cal Park Tunnel (California)

CPWE - Citizen's Proposed Wilderness extensions

CR - Chemical Research

CR - Civil Rights

CR - Club of Rome

CR - Community Rights

CR - Comparative Risk

CR - Conflict Resolution

CR - Congressional Record

CR - Congressional Review

CR - Contractual Rights

CR - Core Restoration (USFWS)

CR - Crop Rotation

CR - Cultural Resources (DOI/NPS)

CRA - Cancer Risk Assessment

CRA - Center for Rural Affairs

CRA - Charles River Associates

CRA - Community Reinvestment Act (Jesse Jackson)

CRA - Community Reinvestment Area

CRA - Continuing Resolution Authority

CRA - Converted Resource Analysis (raster data converted to ARC/INFO)

CRAC - Coastal Resources Advisory Council

CRAF - Consultation on the Right to Adequate Food (UN)

Crazing - Random hairline surface cracking. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

CRB - Citizens Rule Book

CRB - Constitutionally Recognized Boundaries

CRBFC - Colorado River Basin Forecast Center http://www.cbrfc.gov

CRC - Capital Research Center

CRC - Committee to Restore the Constitution

CRC - Community Relations Council

CRC - Community Rights Counsel

CRC - Crop Revenue Coverage (USDA) http://www.rma.usda.gov/policies/

CRCPO - The Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization

CRD - Citizens for Responsible Development

CRD - Comparable Replacement Dwelling (FHWA Relocation Brochure)

CRD - Comprehensive Rural Development

CRDI - Cultural Resources Diversity Initiative

CRE - The Center for Regulatory Effectiveness

CRE - Commercial Real Estate

Created Definitions - In those instances where explicit definitions were unavailable, definitions were created to reflect the meaning and intent of the term. - EPA

Created Opening - An opening in the forest cover created by the application of even-aged silvicultural practices.

CREDE - Center for Research on Educaiton, Diversity and Excellence (University of California, Santa Cruz)

Creek - A small stream of water that serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin. The term is relative according to size. Some creeks in a humid region would be called rivers if they occurred in an arid area. - USGS

CREP - Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program

Creep (soils) - Slow mass movement of soil and soil material down relatively steep slopes, primarily under the influence of gravity but facilitated by saturation with water and by alternate freezing and thawing.

Creo-penta - A mixture of creosote and pentachlorophenol, the two elements commonly used during wood treating operations. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Creosote - A dark oily liquid having a penetrating tarry odor, obtained by the distillation of wood tar and commonly used as a wood-treating preservative. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

CRETS - Cross-Referencable Electronic Transfer System

CRFM - Citizens for Responsible Forest Management http://www.crfm.org/coho.html

CRGF - The Conflict Resolution Group Foundation, Inc.

CRGNSA - Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

CRIB - Criteria Reference Information Bank

Crinoid - A type of echinoderm consisting of a cup or "head" containing the vital organs, numerous radiating arms, an elongate, jointed stem, and roots by which it attached to the sea bottom while the body, stem, and arms float. Stems are the common part found as fossils. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Criteria - Paragraphs 2 and 5 of Article 11 of the Convention refer to the definition and establishment of criteria on the basis of which a property belonging to the cultural or natural heritage may be included in the World Heritage List and/or the List of World Heritage in Danger, by the World Heritage Committee (UNESCO 1972). In accordance with Article 11 of the Convention, the World Heritage Committee have established criteria for the inclusion of cultural properties and natural properties in the World Heritage List. The cultural heritage criteria with the associated test of authenticity and requirements concerning protection and management mechanisms are included in Paragraph 24 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 7-8). The natural heritage criteria with the associated conditions of integrity are included in Paragraph 43 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 12-15). In accordance with Article 11 of the Convention the World Heritage Committee have established criteria for the inclusion of cultural properties and natural properties in the List of World Heritage in Danger. The criteria for the inclusion of cultural properties in the List of World Heritage in Danger are included in Paragraph 78 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 28). The criteria for the inclusion of natural properties in the List of World Heritage in Danger are included in Paragraph 79 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 28-29). - See Cultural heritage criteria, Natural heritage criteria, List of World Heritage in Danger, World Heritage List - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Critical habitat - Critical habitat refers to specific geographic areas that are essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species and which may require special management considerations. These areas do not necessarily have to be occupied by the species at the time of designation. A designation does not set up a preserve or refuge and only applies to situations where funding or a federal permit is involved. It has no impact on landowners taking actions on their land that do not involve federal funding or permits. Federal agencies must consult with the Service before taking actions, issuing permits or providing funding for activities that might adversely modify critical habitat. - This is taken directly from the following email: Draft Economic Analysis Available on Prop. Critical Habitat for Ventura Marsh Milk-Vetch 3/21/03 Reply-to: [email protected]  Questions about this news release should be directed to the contact listed below. Contact: Lois Grunwald, Ventura, California, 805-644-1766 DRAFT ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AVAILABLE ON PROPOSED CRITICAL HABITAT FOR VENTURA MARSH MILK-VETCH VENTURA, CA The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has released a draft economic analysis on its proposal to designate 420 acres of critical habitat for the endangered Ventura marsh milk-vetch in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties. With the release of the draft analysis, the Service is re-opening the public comment period on the critical habitat proposal. The Service is taking comments on both the proposed critical habitat and the draft economic analysis, which can be viewed at or downloaded from the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office's web site at http://ventura.fws.gov.  The new public comment period closes on April 21, 2003. The 420 acres of critical habitat for the Ventura marsh milk-vetch are located in three areas on state and private lands. About 281 acres are state-owned with the remaining acreage on private land. Critical habitat is being proposed in the one location where the plant now occurs and where new populations could be established. According to the economic analysis, there will be no costs to private or federal landowners as a result of critical habitat for the Ventura marsh milk-vetch. Economic analyses estimate the cost of the proposed critical habitat for private landowners, and federal, state, and local agencies during the next 10 years. The cost estimates include probable consultations on the plants, project modifications, the development of biological assessments and environmental impact reports, and technical assistance and administrative tasks. The preparation of an economic analysis is required whenever critical habitat is proposed. If the economic benefits of excluding an area as critical habitat outweigh the benefits of including it, the Service may exclude the area unless such an exclusion would lead to the extinction of the species. The only known population of the Ventura marsh milk-vetch is located on less than one acre of privately owned beach dune in Ventura County that has historically been used for oil field waste disposal. When the species was rediscovered in 1997, 374 plants were counted at the site. In 2001, the population declined to 300 plants after a low of 39 plants in 2000. Imminent threats to the plants are the clean-up of contaminated soil and a proposed residential development at the site. Because of its small population, the Ventura marsh milk-vetch is also vulnerable to extinction by natural events, competition from nonnative plant and animal species, and from disease or prolonged drought. The milk-vetch's historical range included coastal Ventura, Los Angeles, and possibly Orange counties. It was once found in the Ballona wetlands and in Santa Monica, but it has not been found at these locations for nearly a century. The Endangered Species Act directs federal agencies to protect and promote the recovery of federally listed species; consequently, federal lands provide the greatest protection for endangered and threatened plants. Where listed plants occur on federal lands, consultation with the Fish and Wildlife Service is required when projects or activities may affect the species. For private and non-federal landowners, however, consultations come into play only in cases where activities involving plants require federal funding or permitting. Critical habitat refers to specific geographic areas that are essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species and which may require special management considerations. These areas do not necessarily have to be occupied by the species at the time of designation. A designation does not set up a preserve or refuge and only applies to situations where funding or a federal permit is involved. It has no impact on landowners taking actions on their land that do not involve federal funding or permits. Federal agencies must consult with the Service before taking actions, issuing permits or providing funding for activities that might adversely modify critical habitat. Copies of the economic analyses as well as the critical habitat proposal is available from the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office by calling 805/644-1766. Written comments should be sent to the Field Supervisor, Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office, 2493 Portola Road, Suite B, Ventura, CA 93003. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting and enhancing fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. The Service manages the 95-million-acre National Wildlife Refuge System, which encompasses nearly 540 national wildlife refuges, thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas. It also operates 70 national fish hatcheries, 64 fishery resource offices and 78 ecological services field stations. The agency enforces federal wildlife laws, administers the Endangered Species Act, manages migratory bird populations, restores nationally significant fisheries, conserves and restores wildlife habitat such as wetlands, and helps foreign governments with their conservation efforts. It also oversees the Federal Aid program that distributes hundreds of millions of dollars in excise taxes on fishing and hunting equipment to state fish and wildlife agencies.

Criteria and Indicators (C & I) - Criteria and Indicators of sustainable management, established on a national or regional basis.

Criterion - A category of conditions or processes by which sustainable forest management may be assessed. A criterion is characterized by a set of related indicators, which are monitored periodically to assess change.

Critical - (A) The term ''critical habitat'' for a threatened or endangered species means - (i) the specific areas within the geographical area occupied by the species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the provisions of section 1533 of this title, on which are found those physical or biological features (I) essential to the conservation of the species and (II) which may require special management considerations or protection; and (ii) specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is listed in accordance with the provisions of section 1533 of this title, upon a determination by the Secretary that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species. (B) Critical habitat may be established for those species now listed as threatened or endangered species for which no critical habitat has heretofore been established as set forth in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. (C) Except in those circumstances determined by the Secretary, critical habitat shall not include the entire geographical area, which can be occupied by the threatened or endangered species. - ESA

Critical Activity - An activity or event that, if delayed, will delay some other important event, commonly the completion of a major project milestone or the project itself. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Critical Control Point - An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measures can be exercised that will eliminate, prevent, or minimize one or more hazards. Critical control points are fundamental to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems, which are now being adopted by the food industry to prevent health hazards in the food supply.

Critical Environmental/Historic Site - An area of less than one square mile characterized by Environmentally Sensitive Features. Once mapped, they are to be treated as equivalent to the Environmentally Sensitive Planning Area.

Critical Habitat - Under the Endangered Species Act, critical habitat is an area essential to the conservation of a listed species, though the area need not actually be occupied by the species at the time it is designated. Critical habitat must be designated for all threatened and endangered species under the Act (with certain specified exceptions). Areas that are critical to maintaining Biodiversity, including those containing 1) habitats of endangered or threatened plant or animal species, 2) pristine waters, Category I waters and their watersheds within and above their pristine water segment, 3) trout production and maintenance waters and their watersheds, 4) contiguous freshwater wetland systems, defined as the zone of biological activity primarily supported by wetlands, and 5) wetland systems, 6) prime forested areas, including mature stands of native species, 7) ridgelines, and 8) grasslands. The areas may be federal or nonfederal lands, but only the federal government is required to protect it. A federal agency with whom a landowner is dealing must ensure that its actions (which may include giving a loan, increasing irrigation flows, etc.) do not adversely modify these areas. Areas designated for the survival and recovery of federally listed threatened or endangered species; essential habitat.

Critical low flow - Low flow conditions below which some standards do not apply. The impacts of permitted discharges are analyzed at critical low-flow. - USGS

Critical Minerals - Minerals essential to the national defense, the procurement of which in war, while difficult, is less serious than those of strategic minerals because they can be either domestically produced or obtained in more adequate amounts or are less essential, and for which some degree of conservation and distribution control is needed. See STRATEGIC MINERALS. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Critical Path - The sequence of tasks that determines the minimum schedule for a project; if one task on the critical path is delayed, the schedule will be late. - Everglades Plan glossary

Critical rate of decline - Critical rate of population decline identified in this recovery plan is 10% decrease in number of active cluster clusters from one year to the next, or within five years. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Critical Soils - Soils that (1) contain very highly saline soils and/or (2) are very susceptible to water erosion. - BLM

Critical Watershed - An area of soils that (1) have a high potential for salt yield; (2) are subject to severe water and wind erosion when disturbed; (3) have high runoff potential during storm events; (4) are subject to frequent flooding; or (5) have a potential for loss of vegetation productivity under high rates of wind and water erosion. - BLM

Critical Wildlife Habitat - Is defined in the Endangered Species Act as follows (i) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by an animal species at the time it is listed in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of this Act on which are found those physical or biological features (I) essential to the conservation of the species and (II) which may require special management considerations or protection; and (ii) specific area outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is listed in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of this Act, upon a determination by the Secretary that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species. - BLM

CRL - Certificate Revocation List

CRLP - Center for Reproductive Law and Policy

CRM - The Center for Resource Management

CRM - Civil Rights Movement

CRM - Coordinated Resource Management

CRM - Crop Residue Management

CRM - Cultural Resource Management

CRM - Customer Research Methodology

CRMI - The California Resource Management Institute http://www.calresources.org/internal.asp?pid=6

CRMP - Cultural Resource Management Plan (Integrated CRMP)

CRMPCP - Cultural resources management, preservation, and compliance program (DOI/NPS)

CRN - Concept and Resource Needs (UN)

Croft - a small tenant/rental farm

Crop Acreage Base - A crop-specific measure equal to the average number of acres planted (or considered planted) to a particular program crop for the previous five years. The sum of the crop acreage bases for all program crops on a farm may not exceed the farm acreage. The acreage base was used in determining the number of acres a farmer, under an acreage reduction program, had to remove from normal crop production and devote to conserving uses in order to be eligible for USDA price and income supports. The FAIR Act of 1996 suspends the base acreage provisions of the permanent law.

Crop Residue - That portion of a plant, such as a corn stalk, left in the field after harvest. Crop residues are measured for farmers who use conservation tillage to implement their conservation plans to meet conservation compliance requirements. These farmers are required to maintain a minimum level of crop residue to be in compliance. Under revisions to the conservation compliance program in the FAIR Act of 1996, farmers are allowed to use third parties, certified by USDA, to measure levels of crop residue.

Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC) - Crop Revenue Coverage provides revenue protection based on price and yield expectations by paying for losses below the guarantee at the higher of an early-season price or the harvest price. (USDA) http://www.rma.usda.gov/policies/

Crop Rotation - The growing of different crops, in recurring succession, on the same land in contrast to monoculture cropping. Rotation usually is done to replenish soil fertility and to reduce pest populations in order to increase the potential for high levels of production in future years.

Crop Year - Generally refers to USDA-designated 12-month period for each crop that begins with that crop's typical month of harvest.

Cropland - Land used primarily for the production of row crops, close-growing crops, and fruit and nut crops. It includes cultivated and non-cultivated acreage, but not land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program. Approximately 382 million acres of cropland, including 50 million acres of irrigated land, was in use in the United States during the most recent national resources inventory, conducted in 1992. Cropland is 30% of all non-federal rural lands. In 1996, the value of production from cropland was about $108 billion.

Cropland - Land under cultivation within the past 24 months, including orchards and land in soil-improving crops but excluding land cultivated in developing improved pasture. Also includes idle farmland. - USDA/FS 2. Land used for the production of adapted crops for harvest, alone or in rotation with grasses and legumes. Adapted crops include row crops, small grain, hay, nursery crops, orchard and vineyard crops, and other specialty crops. Cropland is classified as irrigated, nonirrigated, cultivated or noncultivated acreage. Cropland is an important land use in all legions, making up more than 10 percent of the non-federal land in all regions except the Mountain states. Major limitations to use of cropland are erosion (52 percent), excess wetness (25 percent), shallow, stony or saline soils (10 percent) and climate (6 percent). [source: USDA-SCS 1982 NRI]

Cropping history - A record of the crop that was on the land during each of the 3 years preceding the current inventory year. These data are recorded on cropland, pastureland, and CRP land cover/uses only. Data are used to determine some of the values used to calculate water and wind erosion rates. - National Resources Inventory

Crop tree - Usually a conifer tree grown to provide wood products. - Bioenergy Glossary

Crop yield - The amount of crops produced in a growing cycle. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Crops - Food plants grown for human use. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Crops cultivated simultaneously - The practice of cultivating two or more different crops simultaneously on the same field or plot. If crops grown simultaneously are temporary and permanent crops together, they are called crops grown in association. Otherwise they are referred to as mixed crops. -FAO UN Glossary

Cross-Acceptance or Cross-Acceptance Process - The process of comparing the provisions and maps of local, county and regional plans and regulations with those of the State Plan and the dialogue which occurs among participants during and after this process to achieve consistency among the plans. The three phases of cross-acceptance are comparison, negotiation and final review. Cross-acceptance is required by the State Planning Act and described further in the State Planning Rule and in the Cross-Acceptance Manual.

Cross-Country Ski - Skiing Nordic style across country, not downhill, powered by leg and arm movements.

Cross-Reference - Is the linking, tracing or comparing of concepts/categories in one classification or between classifications. This could be done by specifying inclusions/exclusions, footnotes or descriptors in an annotation. Cross-referencing draws users' attention to related concepts/categories, inclusions/exclusions etc. in the same or other related classifications. Refer also to Table. (UN)

Crosswalk - A term used to describe the process of comparing and matching each entity and attribute, and their definitions, in a database with entity and attribute definitions in the Cadastral Data Content Standard. - Cadastral Data glossary

Crown Height - The distance from the ground to the base of the crown of a tree.

CRP - Center for Responsive Politics

CRP - Conservation Reserve Program

CRP - Cosumnes River Preserve

CRP - Cultural Resource Properties (DOI)

CRPAG - Contemporary Real Property Appraisal Guidelines

CRR - Code of Rules and Regulations

CRR - Common Required Resource (may include water, nutrients, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and shelter) USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

CRRA - Campaign to Reclaim Rural America (be sure to read the list of their partners, including 'environmental' groups) http://www.reclaimruralamerica.org/

CRPA - Colorado Recreation and Parks Association

CRREL - Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory

CRS - Center for Rural Strategies (Kentucky based)

CRS - Center for Public Resources

CRS - The Colorado River System

CRS - Congressional Research Service

CRSS - Commercial Remote Sensing Satellite

CRT - Commercial river traffic (Corps of Engineers)

CRT - Community Response Team

CRTKR - Community Right-To-Know Requirements

CRTWG - Coastal Rail-Trail Working Group

Crucial Habitat - Habitat which is basic to maintaining viable populations of fish or wildlife during certain seasons of the year or specific reproduction periods. (BLM-DOI)

Crucial Wildlife Habitat - Sensitive use areas that are necessary to the existence, perpetuation, or introduction of one or more species during critical periods of their life cycles. - BLM

Cruciform - Cross-shaped. (NPS)

CRUD - Chalk River Unidentified Deposits

CRW - Community Research Worker

CRWUA - Colorado River Water Users Association

Cryogenics - The branch of physics relating to the effects and production of very low temperatures; as applied to living organisms, preservation in a dormant state by freezing, drying, or both. - UNDP/WRI

Cryology - Science of ice and snow. - USGS

Cryptobiotic Crust - Composed of cyanobacteria, green and brown algae, mosses, and lichens that bind together with soil particles to create a crust. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Cryptogam - A plant that bears no flowers or seeds but propagates by means of spores. Cryptogamic organisms make up a cryptogamic crust or surface on certain soils. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

CRZLR - Citizens for Responsible Zoning and Landowner Rights

CS - Campaign Support

CS - Candidate Species

CS - Capital Support

CS - Case Study

CS - City Sprouts

CS - Class Struggle

CS - Classless Society

CS - Clearing and Snagging

CS - Cloud-Seeding (developed in 1946)

CS - Committee System

CS - Compliance Study

CS - Continental Shelf

CS - Contour Stripcropping

CS - Conservation Strategy

CS - Conservative Subculture

CS - Continuous and Sustained

CS - Corporate Sponsorship

CSA - Canadian Standards Association

CSA - Coal and Slurry Association

CSA - Colorado Safety Association

CSAB - Center for the Study of American Business

CSAC - California State Association of Counties

CSAS - Committee on Statewide Accessibility Standards

CSBG - Community Services Block Grant

CSC - Coast Solidarity Committee

CSC - NOAA Coastal Services Center, an office within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration devoted to serving the nation's state and local coastal resource management programs. http://www.csc.noaa.gov/

CSC - Common Sense Coalition (Derry Brownfield)

CSC - Common Sense Conservation

CSD - Common Sense Deficit

CSD - Commission on Sustainable Development (IUCN)

CSD - Conservation Subdivision Development ('smart growth')

CSDI - The Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions

CSE - Citizens for a Sound Economy

CSE - Cost-share Easement

CSEF - Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation

CSF - Casualty Staging Facilities

CSF - Communications for a Sustainable Future

CSF - Company-Sponsored Foundation

CSFP - Committee for Sustainable Farm Publishing

CSG - California Sea Grant

CSG - Campaign for Sensible Growth

CSG - Corporate Support Groups

CSG - Council of State Governments http://www.statesnews.org/  and http://www.csg.org/csg/default

CSGC - Communities for Safer Guns Coalition

CSGI - Center for the Study of Great Ideas

CSI - Construction Specifications Institute

CSI - Culture-Shaping Institutions

CSIA - Control System Integrators Association

CSIO - Center for the Study of International Organization

CSIRO - Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (Australia)

CSM - Colorado School of Mines

CSMA - Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Association

CSNM - Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument

CSO - Combined Sewer Outfalls

CSO - Coastal States Organization

CSO - Consensus Scientific Opinion

CSOP - Commission to Study the Organization of Peace

CSOP - Community's Sense Of Place

CSP - Citizen Suits Provision (ESA)

CSP - Conservation Security Program

CSPC - Center for the Study of Popular Culture

CSPD - Comprehensive System of Personnel Development

CSPE - California Society of Professional Engineers

CSPI - Center for Science in the Public Interest

CSPP - Coastal Subregional Planning Project

CSPR - Control System for Proposed Rules

CSPU - Central Scioto Water Quality Management Plan Update http://utilities.ci.columbus.oh.us/project/index.htm

CSR - Constitutes a Substantial Risk

CSREES - Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service

CSR - Conservation Summary Report

CSRF - Corporate Social Responsibility Forum

CSS - Conservation Strategy

CSSA - The Child Survival Sustainability Assessment

CSSA - Computing Services & Software Association

CSSL - Community Shifts to Sustainable Lifestyles

CST - The Campaign for Sensible Transportation (California)

CSWS - Comprehensive Statewide Summary

CT - Chemical Toxin

CT - Chemical Trail

CT - Chemtrail

CT - Commercial Terrorism

CT - Commercial Thinning

CT - Con-Trail

CT - Condensation Trail

CT - Conservation Traditions

CT - Critical Topics

CT - Cushenbury Trust (AFL-CIO SWHIPF)

CTA - Commodity Trade Associations

CTAP - Critical Trends Assessment Project

CTC - Communities That Care

CTDB - Complex Terrain Data Base

CTF - Conservation Trust for Florida (Micanopy, FL)

CTG - Combustion Turbine Generators

CTG - Cradle To Grave

C3 - Command, Control, and Communications

CTI - Cooperation Through Intimidation

CTIC - Conservation Technology Information Center

CTK - Conservation Tool Kit

CTNC - The Conservation Trust for North Carolina http://www.ctnc.org/

CTON - The Corporate Takeover Of Nature

CTPS - Center for Trade Policy Studies

CTR - Coherent Transition Radiation

CTS - Critical Thinking Skills

CTS - Core Technology Standards

CTS - Correspondence Tracking System

CU - Conjunctive Use

CUA - Center for Urban Affairs (Michigan State University)

Cubic Feet Per Second (cfs) - A measure of the volume rate of water movement; as a rate of stream flow, a cubic foot of water passing a reference section in one second of time. - Everglades Plan glossary

Cubic Feet Per Second (cfs) - As a rate of stream flow, a cubic foot of water passing a referenced section in 1 second of time. One cfs flowing for 24 hours will yield 1.983 acre-feet of water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Cubic Foot - A unit of solid wood that is one foot square and one foot thick. - BLM

CUC - Conditional Upon Compliance ["This license is conditional upon compliance by you with the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1341(a))."] http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=browse_usc&docid=Cite:+33USC1341

CUED - Council for Urban Economic Development

Cull - A tree or log that does not meet merchantable specifications. (BLM)

Cull section - A log cut from a tree that is rejected because of defects making it unsuitable for conventional forest products. - Bioenergy Glossary

Culmination of Mean Annual Increment (CMAI) - The peak of average yearly growth in volume of a forest stand (total volume divided by age of stand). (BLM)

Cultivar - A cultivated variety (genetic strain) of a domesticated crop plant. - UNDP/WRI

Cultivated cropland. See Cropland. - National Resources Inventory

Cultural Assumptions - Beliefs about the internal workings and external environment of an organization which, having worked well in the past, have gradually come to be taken for granted, and which provide the basis for group consensus about common events and circumstances. Cultural assumptions function as the unifying themes of organizational culture. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Cultural diversity - Variety or multiformity of human social structures, belief systems, and strategies for adapting to situations in different parts of the world. (See, "Conserving Cultural Diversity") - UNDP/WRI

Cultural Element - Attributes in a human-altered landscape; scenically positive cultural elements, most of which have historical backgrounds or nostalgic connotations. Examples include split-rail fences, stone walls, barns, orchards, hedgerows, and cabins. - FS

Cultural heritage - Cultural heritage is defined in Article 1 of the Convention: Article 1. For the purpose of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage": monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view (UNESCO 1972). - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Cultural heritage criteria - A cultural property may be inscribed in the World Heritage List if it meets one or more of the cultural heritage criteria, the test of authenticity and requirements concerning protection and management mechanisms presented in Paragraph 24 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 7- 8). See Criteria, Natural heritage criteria, Protection and management mechanisms, Test of authenticity, Integrity - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Cultural landscape - The comprehensive (and linked) built and natural landscape defining a distinctive cultural-use area. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary 2. A geographic area (including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein) associated with a historic event, activity or person, or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values. See also Historic Character. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

Cultural Landscape - The forms placed on the physical landscape by human activities. How people arrange the physical space around them. May include buildings, roads, fields, cities, or any change to the physical landscape

Cultural landscapes - At its sixteenth session in December 1992 the World Heritage Committee adopted three main categories of cultural landscapes (UNESCO 14 December 1992: 54-55) and included guidelines concerning their inclusion in the World Heritage List in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 10-12, Paragraphs 35 to 42). Paragraphs 36 to 38 of the Operational Guidelines provide some definition of cultural landscapes. 36. Cultural landscapes represent the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the Convention. They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal. They should be selected on the basis both of their outstanding universal value and of their representativity in terms of a clearly defined geo-cultural region and also for their capacity to illustrate the essential and distinct cultural elements of such regions. 37. The term "cultural landscape" embraces a diversity of manifestations of the interaction between humankind and its natural environment 38. Cultural landscapes often reflect specific techniques of sustainable land-use, considering the characteristics and limits of the natural environment they are established in, and a specific spiritual relation to nature. Protection of cultural landscapes can contribute to modern techniques of sustainable land-use and can maintain or enhance natural values in the landscape. The continued existence of traditional forms of land-use supports biological diversity in many regions of the world. The protection of traditional cultural landscapes is therefore helpful in maintaining biological diversity (UNESCO February 1996: 10-11). Paragraph 39 of the Operational Guidelines refers to cultural landscapes as falling into three main categories - the clearly defined landscape, the organically evolved landscape (including relict (or fossil) landscapes and continuing landscapes) and associative cultural landscapes (UNESCO February 1996: 11). Paragraphs 40 to 42 of the Operational Guidelines provide some further guidance concerning the inclusion of cultural landscapes in the World Heritage List (UNESCO February 1996: 11-12). Since 1992 several regional and thematic meetings on the subject of cultural landscapes of outstanding universal value have been held (see for example, von Droste et al 1995, von Droste et al 1995: Annexes II to VI and UNESCO 21 April 1996). See Associative cultural landscape, Canal, Clearly defined landscape, Continuing landscape, Heritage route, Organically evolved landscape, Relict (or fossil) landscape - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Cultural Patrimony - Ancestral heritage and entitlement.

Cultural Property - The definite location of a past human activity, occupation, or use identifiable through field inventory, historic documentation, or oral evidence. Cultural properties include prehistoric and historic archaeological remains, or architectural sites, structures, objects, or places with important public and scientific uses. 2. For the purposes of this Convention (UNESCO), the term "cultural property" means property which, on religious or secular grounds, is specifically designated by each State as being of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science and which belongs to the following categories: Rare collections and specimens of fauna, flora, minerals and anatomy, and objects of palaeontological interest; property relating to history, including the history of science and technology and military and social history, to the life of national leaders, thinkers, scientists and artists and to events of national importance; products of archaeological excavations (including regular and clandestine) or of archaeological discoveries; elements of artistic or historical monuments or archaeological sites which have been dismembered; antiquities more than one hundred years old, such as inscriptions, coins and engraved seals; objects of ethnological interest; property of artistic interest, such as: pictures, paintings and drawings produced entirely by hand on any support and in any material (excluding industrial designs and manufactured articles decorated by hand); original works of statuary art and sculpture in any material; original engravings, prints and lithographs; original artistic assemblages and montages in any material; rare manuscripts and incunabula, old books, documents and publications of special interest (historical, artistic, scientific, literary, etc.) singly or in collections postage, revenue and similar stamps, singly or in collections; archives, including sound, photographic and cinematographic archives; articles of furniture more than one hundred years old and old musical instruments.

Cultural property - Properties inscribed in the World Heritage List after having met at least one of the cultural heritage criteria and the test of authenticity are referred to as cultural properties. See Cultural heritage, Mixed property, Natural property, Property - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

Cultural Resource Inventory Classes - BLM 8100 Manual provides through classes of inventory. Class I is an Existing Date Inventory: an inventory study of a defined area designed to provide a narrative overview (cultural resource overview) derived from existing cultural resource information and to provide a compilation of existing cultural resource site record data on which to base the development of BLM's site record system. Class II is a Sampling Field Inventory designed to locate and record, from surface and exposed profile indications, all cultural resource sites within a portion of a defined area in a manner which will allow an objective estimate of the nature and distribution of cultural resources in the entire defined area. The Class II inventory is a tool utilized in management and planning activities as an accurate predictor of cultural resources in the area of consideration. The primary area of consideration for the implementation of a Class II inventory is a planning unit. The secondary area is a specific project in which an intensive field inventory (Class III) is not practical or necessary. Class III is an intensive field inventory designed to locate and record, from surface and exposed profile indications, all cultural resource sites within a specified area. The acceptable form to conduct this survey is for a qualified G-5 archaeologist to walk transects with a maximum interval of 100 feet. The inventory is used to identify any resources that may qualify for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Normally, upon completion of such inventories in an area, no further cultural resource inventory work is needed. A Class III inventory is appropriate on small project areas, all areas to be disturbed, and primary cultural resource areas. - BLM

Cultural Resources - The remains of sites, structures, or objects used by humans in the past; historic or pre-historic. The fragile and nonrenewable remains of human activity found in historic districts, sites, buildings, and artifacts that are important in past and present human events. Potential knowledge about human cultural systems in the form of historical and prehistoric products and by-products of human existence. The physical remains (artifacts, ruins, burial mounds, petroglyphs, etc.) and conceptual content or context of an area (as settings for legendary, historical, or prehistoric events or as a sacred area of native peoples, for instance). Any building, site, district, structure, or object significant in history, architecture, archeology, culture, or science.

Cultural Resources - Portions of the human environment that express aesthetics, traditions, values and customs. Traditions are usually associated with distinct groups of people, which are passed on from one generation to the next. Cultural Resources may include crafts, music, arts, dance or drama, rituals, festivals, languages, museums, foods, special events, vernacular architecture and customs practiced by people, either in the past or present. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary 2. Those fragile and non-renewable remains of human activities, occupations, and endeavors as reflected in sites, buildings, structures, or objects, including works of art, architecture, and engineering. Cultural resources are commonly discussed as prehistoric and historic values, but each period represents a part of the full continuum of cultural values from the earliest to the most recent. - BLM

Cultural resources - The historic and prehistoric features of a park, such as old structures, landscapes, ruins, artifacts, and manuscripts (definition makes no reference to PEOPLE and CULTURE) (DOI/NPS)

Cultural Site - A physical location of past human activities or events. Cultural resource sites are extremely variable in size and range from the location of a single cultural resource object to a cluster of cultural resource structures with associated objects and features. Prehistoric and historic sites that are recorded as cultural resources have sociocultural or scientific values and meet criterion of being more than 50 years old. - BLM

Culture - The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society. The learned patterns of thought and behavior characteristic of a population or society. The attitudes, objectives, and technical skills of a society. 2. A collective noun for the symbolic and learned, non-biological aspects of human society, including language, custom and convention. The concept of culture is often used synonymously with 'civilization'. However, it does have a range of meanings including understandings of culture as norms and values; culture as meaning; and culture as human activity. (UNESCO)

Culture Hearth - Heartland, source area, innovation center, and place of origin of a major culture.

Culture-shaping Institution - Something as obvious as a college or as powerful as a television set.

Culvert - A concrete, metal or plastic passage that transports water under a road or embankment. - Everglades Plan glossary

Cumulative Effects (as per NEPA) - Effects or impacts on the environment resulting from the incremental effect of an action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions (regardless of what agency, Federal or non-Federal, or person undertakes such other actions). Cumulative effects can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.

CUN - Children Uniting Nations

CUNA - Credit Union National Association, Incorporated

CURE - Citizens United for a Realistic Environment

CURE - Coalition for Urban Renewal and Education

Current - The portion of a stream or body of water which is moving with a velocity much greater than the average of the rest of the water. The progress of the water is principally concentrated in the current. - USGS

Current Annual Growth - The amount of forage produced by a plant in one growing season. BLM-DOI

Current meter - An instrument for measuring the speed of flowing water. The Geological Survey uses a rotating cup meter. - USGS

Current Range - The area inside or within 10 miles of the recovery zone line of currently occupied recovery zones or any area where there is a population.

Current Wave - The current business cycle for a COI (Community Of Interest). Delivery of Current Wave COI Resources is likely to occur during the current wave. - GWOB

Curriculum - A defined course of study - the content of knowledge it is deemed necessary to learn for a course of study. In formal education a central body, such as a Department or Ministry of Education usually prescribes the curriculum. (UNESCO)

Curtilage - Land that is immediately surrounding the structures on a property. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

CUS - CU Sinapu (Colorado gray wolf reintroduction group)

Cusec - This abbreviation for cubic foot per second, common in the British Commonwealth countries (except Canada), is not used by the U.S. Geological Survey; instead, cfs is used. - USGS

Custodian of a Classification - Refers to an institution or statistical area which has responsibility for development, maintenance, implementation, promulgation and interpretation of classifications. Collaboration among custodians is essential for harmonization of classifications. Classifications are often constructed by, or on behalf of, those responsible for policy implementation. In such cases, the administrative agency will normally be the custodian, sometimes in cooperation with the statistical agency. For example, Customs agencies are often the custodians of tariff classifications, even though such classifications are also used for statistical purposes. (UN)

Custom Feeders - Producers who provide the service of feeding animals (e.g., cattle, hogs) they do not own, in return for a fee paid by someone else (such as a packer) who does own the animals. Custom feeding potentially provides packers with more control over supplies and prices of animals. Custom feeding is a form of vertical integration.

Customary International Law - Law that becomes binding on states although it is not written, but rather adhered to out of custom; when enough states have begun to behave as though something is law, it becomes law "by use"; this is one of the main sources of international law. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Customer - Groups or individuals who have a business relationship with the organization; those who receive and use or are directly affected by the products and services of the organization. Customers include direct recipients of products and services, internal customers who produce services and products for final recipients, and other organizations and entities that interact with an organization to produce products and services. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Customs Union - An agreement between two or more countries to remove trade barriers between each other and to establish common tariff and non-tariff policies with respect to other countries. The European Community (EC) of the European Union (EU) is the best known customs union.

CUT - Church Universal and Triumphant

Cut and fill - Efficient earthwork where cut materials are used to fill low spots adjacent to the cut. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Cutbanks cave - The walls of excavations tend to cave in or slough. - USDA

Cutterhead Dredge - A hydraulic dredge in which the suction action is augmented by a rotating propeller that operates at the point of suction. The cutterhead performs two functions: (1) it cuts into and loosens compacted soils and soft rock, and (2) it increases dredge capacity by channeling the soils into the end of the suction pipe. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

CUVA - Cuyahoga Valley National Park (DOI/NPS)

CUWCC - California Urban Water Conservation Council http://www.cuwcc.org

CV - Central Valley (Joint Venture Plan)

CV - Channel Vegetation

CV - Commercially Valuable

CV - Commercially Viable

CV - Cooperative Venture

CVA - Cumulative Viewshed Analysis

CVB - Center for Veterinary Biologics (APHIS)

CVI - Canaan Valley Institute (West Virginia)

CVM - Contingent Value Method

CVNP - Cuyahoga Valley National Park (DOI/NPS)

CVP - Central Valley Project

CVPIA - Central Valley Project Improvement Act (WAPA - Western Area Power Administration - California)

CVR - Coalition of Visionary Retailers

CVR - Commercially Valuable Resources

CVRSGA - Central Valley Rock, Sand and Gravel Association

CVRTF - The Central Valley Rails-to-Trails Foundation

CW - Civil Works

CW - Class Warfare

CW - The Cold War

CW - Colorado Wild (Durango, CO)

CW - Congress Watch

CW - Constructed Wetland

CWA - The California Waterfowl Association http://www.calwaterfowl.org/

CWA - California Women for Agriculture

CWA - Christian Women in Agriculture

CWA - Clean Water Act (1972)

CWA - Communications Workers of America

CWA - Council on World Affairs

CWAA - Cleaner Waters Across America

CWAP - Clean Water Action Plan

CWB - Canadian Wheat Board

CWB - Community Well-Being

CWC - California Wilderness Coalition

CWC - Catskill Water Corporation (New York)

CWC - Compliant World Citizens

CWC - Cooperative Wetlands Center. The mission of the Penn State Cooperative Wetlands Center (CWC) is to conduct, facilitate, and coordinate interdisciplinary research, monitoring and training regarding wetlands and related resources, with an emphasis on Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states. http://www.cas.psu.edu/docs/CASDEPT/FOREST/wetlands/

CWCCIS - Civil Works Construction Cost Index System

CWCS - Citizens With Common Sense

CWD - Coarse woody debris

CWF - Cold Water Fishery

CWF - The Conservancy of Southwest Florida http://www.conservancy.org/

CWG - Collectivist World Government (Club Of Rome)

CWH - Conifer Woodland Habitat

CWIC - Clean Water Industry Coalition

CWIS - Civil Works Information System

CWMS - Complete Wildlife Management Service http://www.cwms4u.com/

CWN - Compatible With Nature

CWP - Community Watershed Plan

CWP - Community Watershed Program

CWR - Council of Water Resources

CWR - Cross Wind Ranges

CWRL - Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory

CWRP - Corporate Wetlands Restoration Partnership (USDA) http://www.coastalamerica.gov/text/cwrpprojlist.html

CWS - Church World Services

CWS - Cross-Wind Stripcropping

CWT - Consumers for World Trade

CWTA - Connecticut World Trade Association

CWTS - Cross-Wind Trap Strips

CWZ - County-Wide Zoning

CX - Categorical Exclusion

CY - Calendar Year

Cyanide Leaching - The extraction of a precious metal from an ore by its dissolution in a cyanide solution. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Cyanobacteria - Photosynthetic bacteria formerly called blue-green algae. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Cycle - A completed round of regularly recurring events or phenomena.

Cycle Time - The time that elapses from the beginning to the end of a process. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

CYFD - Children Youth and Family Department (New Mexico)

CZ - Coastal Zone

CZ - Commercial Zones

CZ - Conflict Zone

CZARA - Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990

CZM - Coastal Zone Management

CZMA - Coastal Zone Management Act

CZR - Conventional Zoning Restrictions

CZV - Criminal Zoning Violation

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