A-weighted scale (dBA) – Noise intensity as measured with devices that have the same sensitivity to sound frequencies as the human ear. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary http://www.nps.gov/yose/planning/mrp/html/14_rmrp_ch8.htm

 

AA – Access Agreement

 

AA – Accountable Area

 

AA – Adjacent Area

 

AA – Adverse Action

 

AA – Alternative Agriculture

 

AA – Alternative Approach

 

AA – Alternatives Analysis

 

AA – Analysis Area

 

AA – Approval Application

 

AA – Acquisition Account

 

AA – Assembly Appropriations (Congress)

 

AA – Associated Area

 

AAA – Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933

 

AAA – American Arbitration Association “Arbitration, Mediation and other forms of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) http://www.adr.org

 

AAA – Architecture And Appearance

 

AAA – Army Audit Agency http://www.hqda.army.mil/aaaweb/

 

AAAS – American Association for the Advancement of Science http://www.aaas.org

 

AAC – Arbitrary And Capricious

 

AACC – American Association of Community Colleges http://www.aacc.nche.edu/

 

AACS – American Association of Christian Schools http://www.aacs.org

 

AACU – Association of American Colleges and Universities http://www.aacu.org

 

A & E – Activation and Evaluation

 

A & E – Allocation and Engineering

 

A & E – Appropriation and Expense

 

A & E – Arts and Entertainment

 

AAEA – American Agricultural Economics Association http://www.aaea.org

 

AAEE – American Academy of Environmental Engineers http://www.enviro-engrs.org/

 

AAES – American Association of Engineering Societies http://www.aaes.org

 

AAF – Americans for the Ancient Forests, 1850 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. 202-289-5900 (no website)

 

AAFC – Agriculture and Agrifood Canada http://www.agf.ca

 

AAFCO – American Association of Feed Control Officials http://www.aafco.org

 

A & H – Access and Habitat; also Access and Habitat Program http://www.dfw.state.or/us/AH/

 

AAH – Adopt-A-Highway http://www.adoptahighway.com

 

AAHE – The American Association for Higher Education http://www.infolit.org/members/aahe.htm

 

AAHP – America’s Agricultural Heritage Partnership (Silos & Smokestacks) http://www.silosandsmokestacks.org

 

AAI – The Agribusiness Accountability Initiative http://www.agribusinessaccountability.org

 

AALU – Association for Advanced Life Underwriting http://www.aalu.org

 

AAM – American Agriculture Movement http://www.aaminc.org

 

AAM – Annual Arithmetic Mean (used in all Historical District reports) http://www.aqmd.gov/aqmp/cvves/cvsip_2.doc (when prompted for a password, just click “x” to close and document will continue loading) 19 pages

 

AAMQM – Annual Arithmetic Mean of Quarterly Means (specified for determination of attainment of the federal standards) http://www.aqmd.gov/aqmp/cvves/cvsip_2.doc (when prompted for a password, just click “x” to close and document will continue loading) 19 pages

 

AAOCD – The Arizona Association of Conservation Districts http://aaocd.org/

 

AAP – Administrative Agency Processes

 

AAP – Administrative Appeal Process

 

AAP – American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org

 

AAP – Agribusiness Accountability Project http://www.agribusinessaccountability.org “Co-sponsored by the Center of Concern http://www.coc.org and the National Catholic Rural Life Conference http://www.ncrlc.com the Agribusiness Accountability Initiative is a growing international network of academics, activists and food system experts who recognize that corporate concentration and vertical integration among transnational agro-food companies threaten the sustainability of the most important industry on earth -- the global food system.” “Control over how our food is produced is in the hands of a handful of multinational corporations. Corporations that own factory farms are increasingly powerful, politically connected and globalized. They often own or control the entire process -- from the raising of animals to processing and distribution.” Source of quotes: http://www.factoryfarm.org/topics/agribusiness/

 

AAP – Association of American Publishers

 

AAPE – An Alliance for People and the Environment (TNC)

 

AAPF – Aquatic Animal Production Facility

 

AAPG – The Association of Petroleum Geologists http://www.aapg.index.html

 

AAPL – American Association of Professional Landmen

 

AAQ – Ambient Air Quality

 

AAQS – Ambient Air Quality Standards

 

AAR – Annual Accomplishment Report

 

AAR – Association of American Railroads

 

AARCC – Alternative Agriculture Research and Commercialization Corporation

 

AARP – American Association of Retired Persons

 

AAS – Adopt-A-Stream

 

AAS – Assessment of Academic Skills

 

AASCU – American Association of State Colleges and Universities

 

AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officers

 

AASPO – American Association of Small Property Owners http://www.aaspo.org

 

AAST – Assessment of Academic Skills Test

 

AAU – Association of American Universities

 

AAUW – American Association of University Women

 

AAW – American Agri-Women

 

AAY – Average Annual Yield (water)

 

AB – Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness

 

AB – Aquatic biodiversity, watershed, including water issues. Source: “Spotlight on Conservation” http://legacy.ca.gov/pub_docs/final_central_coast-DWR.pdf

 

Abandoned mineland reclamation – The process of cleaning up environmental hazards associated with such abandoned minelands and returning the land to more productive uses.

http://www.dep.state.pa.us/hosting/efp2/reports/NWRO/team35/Oil%20Creek%20report.pdf

 

Abandoned mine land watershed initiative activities (non-CERCLA sites) – This measure involves the inventory and reclamation of mines causing damage to the environment or posing risks to public health and safety. The program includes sites that clearly do not involve the Comprehensive, Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). – Forest Service http://www.fs.fed.us/pl/pdb/98report/11_glossary.html

 

Abandoned Mineral Lands – Includes the remains of any activity relating to the exploration or development for any mineral resource including hard rock minerals, mineral materials, industrial minerals, coal, oil shale, oil and gas, geothermal energy or topsoil. Abandoned mineral lands include mining or other extraction sites, mill and smelter sites, access roads, processing facilities, and associated disturbed land.

 

Abandoned Property – Property that is found on premises owned or leased by the Government and subject to the filing of a claim thereof by the former owner(s) within three years from the vesting of title in the United States. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Abandoned water right – A water right that was not put to beneficial use for a number of years, generally five to seven years. – USGS http://water.nv.gov/Water%20Planning/dict-1/wwords-f.pdf

 

Abandonment – An action involving relinquishment of rights in real property, by an owner, for the sole purpose of permanently terminating his ownership. Land cannot be abandoned in favor of a specific party. The act of abandonment must be voluntary and intentional. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm

 

Abandonment and destruction – Part of Phase IV: Utilization and Disposal, abandonment and destruction occur when the property has reached the end of its useful life. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Abatement – The reduction or cancellation of an assessed tax. – U.S. Treasury OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision, in charge of banks, savings and loan associations, etc.) http://www.ots.treas.gov/glossary/gloss-n.html

 

Abatement – (water) The process of reducing pollutant levels in a water resource, termed abatement, can be accomplished by modifying or eliminating the production of the pollutant, and controlling the transport of the pollutant to the resource. Both the implementation of BMPs and remediation of non-point source problems are used in the pollution abatement process. The remediation process for non-point source water problems involves the analysis, design, evaluation and implementation of measures, structural or non-structural, to address or correct a water quality problem or concern, or reduce the impact of the problem on the environment. Examples of remediation activities include: evaluation and clean-up operations at a chemical-spill location; removal, disposal and replacement of soil at a site where hazardous wastes have contaminated the soil; treatment of leachate from a leaking landfill; and reclamation of strip-mined areas. (UN) 2. A reduction in the degree or amount of pollution. – Great Lakes glossary

 

Abatement of Nuisance – Extinction or termination of a nuisance. – DRE (The California Department of Real Estate) Reference Book: Chapter 29, Glossary http://www.dre.ca.gov/pdf_docs/ref29.pdf

 

The Abby Dodge 223 U.S. 166 (1912) – The Court barred Federal regulation of the harvest of sponges in Florida's territorial waters on the ground that the regulation of such harvest was exclusively within the power of the State. This was the Supreme Court's first, only and last statement that the state ownership doctrine actually precluded federal wildlife regulation. The preeminence of this doctrine was short-lived, surviving less than a decade. The Supreme Court held that states retained public trust ownership of wildlife within their borders, thus precluding federal regulation. http://policy.fws.gov/101fw2.html

 

ABC – Acceptable biological catch

 

ABC – American Bird Conservancy

 

ABC – Anti-Bias Curriculum

 

ABC – Area-based collaborations

 

ABC – Aspin-Brown Commission

 

ABC – Association of Boards of Certification

 

ABC soil – A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon. - USDA

 

ABCPF – Association of B.C. Professional Foresters (Canada)

 

ABEB – The Abandoned Buildings Enforcement Board (West Virginia)

 

ABEL – EPA’s computer model for analyzing a violator’s ability to pay a civil penalty.

 

ABEP – American Bottom Ecosystem Partnership

 

Aberrant – Atypical, departing from the normal type or structure.

 

ABET – Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

 

ABI – The Association for Biodiversity Information http://www.abi.org When this URL connects/loads, it becomes: http://www.natureserve.org -- whose offices are located: 1101 Wilson Boulevard, 15th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209. From its website, at the "Partners / Conservation Organizations" button: "The Nature Conservancy. NatureServe works in close partnership with The Nature Conservancy http://www.nature.org and continues the Conservancy's long tradition of science-based conservation. NatureServe was jointly established by the Conservancy and the network of natural heritage programs and conservation data centers in 1999, with the majority of NatureServe's staff transferring from the Conservancy's Conservation Science program. Although new as an organization, NatureServe's expertise, databases, standards, and tools thus incorporate more than a quarter-century of experience with the natural heritage methodology developed under the auspices of the Conservancy. One of the first products of the collaboration between NatureServe and the Conservancy was the book-length study, Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States [was] published in 2000. NatureServe and the Conservancy are currently working together on a number of projects, including the development of an ecological systems classification, systems for managing biodiversity information, and ecoregional planning. The Conservancy also provides substantial ongoing logistical and financial support. The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. A new report issued by the Heinz Center in September 2002 -- The State of the Nation's Ecosystems: Measuring the Lands, Waters, and Living Resources of the United States -- introduces a set of environmental indicators designed to take the pulse of America's lands and waters. NatureServe scientists worked with the Heinz Center staff to develop a set of scientifically credible indicators on the condition of native plant and animal species. Relying on NatureServe conservation status data, these indicators include a core national-level species-at-risk indicator, as well as ecosystem-specific indicators for forests, grasslands and shrublands, and freshwater. See http://www.heinzctr.org/ecosystems/index.htm." http://www.natureserve.org/aboutUs/conserorgan.jsp

 

Abiotic – The nonliving physical and chemical aspects of an organism’s environment. Abiotic refers to such factors as light, temperature, and topography. – (DOI/NPS) Long-Term Monitoring Plan – National Capital Region Network, September 30, 2005. Submitted by: Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Capital Region Network, Center for Urban Ecology, 4598 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Washington, D.C. 20007.

http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/plans/NCRN_MonitoringPlan.pdf (Pages G-1 through G-8 - Glossary – or pages 150 through 156 of 156 pages) 2. Non-living. Climate is an abiotic component of ecosystems. 3. Non-living, not associated with life. Although the term does refer to non-living, it may still be associated with life. http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

ABK – Anything But Knowledge

 

Ablation – Removal of a part by melting or vaporization. – USDA glossary

 

ABMS – American Bureau of Metal Statistics

 

ABN – The American Broadcasting Network

 

ABO – Agreed Board Order

 

Aboveground release – Any release to the surface of the land or to surface water. This includes, but is not limited to, releases from the aboveground portion of an UST system and aboveground releases associated with overfills and transfer operation as the regulated substance moves to or from an UST system. – RCRA/40CFR280.12

 

ABS – Areas of Biodiversity Significance

 

Absolute advantage – An advantage that a country has in producing certain goods or services relative to all or many other countries due to specific factors of production at its disposal- such as rich farmland and a favorable climate for agricultural production or a highly educated labor force for high-tech manufacturing. A country's absolute advantage means that it can produce certain goods or services at a lower cost than would be possible for other countries. Thus it is clearly beneficial for this country to specialize in producing and exporting these goods and services. But even countries that do not have any absolute advantages can benefit from international trade; see comparative advantage. – World Bank Glossary

 

Absorption – The uptake of water or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in the soil). http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 2. Photosynthetic interception of light. 3. Capacity of environmental media to dispose of wastes and residuals. (2 and 3: UN)

 

Absorption factor – The fraction of a chemical making contact with an organism that is absorbed by the organism. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html

 

Abstract of Bids – The official document upon which all bids are recorded, including "no bids" and "non-responsive" bids. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Abstract of Title – A statement usually prepared by an attorney that traces the history of ownership of real property to determine the status of its present title, and includes all items of record that might impair the title, such a liens, charges or encumbrances. – U.S. Treasury OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision, in charge of banks, savings and loan associations, etc.) http://www.ots.treas.gov/glossary/gloss-n.html 2. A compilation of abstracts of deeds and other pertinent data that affect the title to a piece of real property, all bound together in chronological order. It is a form of title evidence made for the purpose of title examination. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm

 

Abutment – The sides of the valley against which the dam bears, further classified as right abutment and left abutment when viewing downstream. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary http://www.usbr.gov/uc/envdocs/eis/navajo/pdfs/deis_glossary.pdf 2. That part of the valley wall against which the dam is constructed. The part of a dam that contacts the riverbank. A structure that supports the ends of a dam or bridge. An artificial abutment is sometimes constructed, as a concrete gravity section, to take the thrust of an arch dam where there is no suitable natural abutment. Action or place of abutting; the part of a structure that is the terminal point or receives thrust or pressure. Defined in terms of left and right as looking away from the reservoir, looking downstream (i.e. left abutment, right abutment).

Abyssal – Pertaining to zones of great depth in the oceans or lakes into which light does not penetrate; occasionally restricted to depths below 2,000 meters but more usually used for depths between 4,000 and 6,000 meters. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

AC – Abatement Competitors

 

AC – Abatement and Control

 

AC – Activity Center (for ESA habitat)

 

AC – The Ad Council

 

AC – Adirondack Council

 

AC – Adit Closing

 

AC – Adjusted Compensation

 

AC – Administrative Compliance

 

AC – Agriculture Canada

 

AC – Agricultural Coordinator

 

AC – Agriculture Communications

 

AC – Agro Chemicals

 

AC – Alley Cropping

 

AC – Anorthosite Complex

 

AC – Anti-Corporatism

 

AC – Arbitrary and Capricious

 

AC – Archaeological compliance

 

AC – Area conservationalist

 

AC – Articles of Confederation

 

AC – Asset Consumption

 

AC – Athletic Complex

 

AC – Atlanta Compromise

 

AC – Auriferous Channel

 

ACA – Alabama Coal Association

 

ACA – Alaska Coal Association

 

ACA – Alta California Alliance

 

ACA – American Chain Association

 

ACA – American Conservation Association

 

ACA – American Crystallographic Association

 

ACA – Appalachian Corridor Appalachien – Our long-term vision is to restore an ecological balance to the greater Northern Appalachians, which includes: New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine and the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. We believe that by working together with a broad spectrum of individuals and groups from across the region, we can protect the land, air, water, plants, and animals of this magnificent region for generations to come. What's the Problem? Despite its predominantly wooded condition, the forests and fields of the greater northern Appalachian region suffer from a wide range of ecological problems. The forests we see today are far younger and less diverse than those that used to dominate the landscape, and the pockets of natural habitat that remain are too small, too isolated and represent too few types of ecosystems to maintain native biodiversity at all levels. In Vermont, for example, a state recognized for its natural beauty, five mammals and eleven birds are listed as threatened or endangered. In Maine, at least thirty-two native species no longer exist in the state with several “keystone” species, most notably large carnivores, considered extinct. Compounding the problem is the increasingly rapid turnover in ownership of massive tracts of forestland brought on by changes in the global forest products industry. In many cases, quick action by conservationists has resulted in the long-term protection of thousand of acres of land. At the same time, however, these transactions have not always protected the most ecologically important lands because no overarching, science-based strategy exists to inform the conservation community on what lands area most in need of protection. Wildlands Project Steps In: Recognizing both the need and opportunity to move large-scale, transboundary conservation planning forward, the Wildlands Project is currently developing a large- scale conservation plan – “a Wildlands Network Design” -- for the Adirondacks, Northern New England and ecologically linked portions of eastern Canada. Our science-based proposal focuses on the ecological needs of several important species including wolf, lynx, and marten. By focusing in on these particular species, we also guarantee that most other flora and fauna in the region will have the room they need to survive and thrive. We are also studying critical natural communities to ensure that the widest possible range of ecosystem types are protected, as well as the unique characteristics that make an area particularly important, such as forested wetlands, steep slopes, and floodplains. Networks of People Protecting Networks of Land: In addition to our scientific work, we are actively working on the ground to educate and inspire a broad-based coalition of wildlands supporters and advocates from both sides of the border. These supporters include researchers at several universities and colleges, including Middlebury College, Dalhousie University, and the University of New Brunswick, conservation groups like the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Wildlife Conservation Society of Canada, The Nature Conservancy, land trusts, and several government agencies and donor organizations. The Wildlands Project also works closely with key networks of conservation groups: Two Countries One Forest (2C1F), the Northern Forest Alliance (NFA) and the Coalition to Restore the Eastern Wolf (CREW). Links: Appalachian Corridor Appalachien http://www.apcor.ca; Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks http://www.protectadks.org; Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society-New Brunswick Chapter http://http://www.cpaws.org/grassroots-chapters/nb.html; Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society-Nova Scotia Chapter http://www.cpaws.org/grassroots-chapters/ns.html; Forest Watch http://www.forestwatch.org; Northeast Wilderness Trust http://www.newildernesstrust.org; Northern Forest Alliance http://www.northernforestalliance.org; Wildlife Conservation Society Canada http://www.wcs.org/sw-around_the_globe/northamerica/WCSCanada; Vermont Wilderness Association http://www.vermontwilderness.org Source: http://www.twp.org/cms/page1115.cfm and http://www.apcor.ca/engl/start.htm

 

ACAA – American Coal Ash Association

 

ACC – Ad Council Campaigns

 

ACC – American Copper Council

 

ACC – Architectural Control Committee http://www.nps.gov/wrst/Compliance/mccarthywestsideEA1.pdf (NPS)

 

ACC – Artificial Cloud Cover

 

ACC – AssociationCentral.com

 

ACC – Automatic Control Council

 

ACCA – American Cave Conservation Association

 

ACCC – Ad Council Campaign Criteria

 

Accelerated Erosion – Soil loss that is more severe than natural levels and that results directly from human activities. Because soil is not produced as quickly as it is eroded, accelerated erosion can lead to a permanent reduction in plant productivity.

 

Acceptable biological catch (ABC) – The allowable catch for a species or species group, based on its estimated abundance. The ABC is used to set the upper limit of the annual total allowable catch and is calculated by applying the estimated or proxy harvest rate that produces maximum sustainable yield to the estimated exploitable stock biomass. – Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review/Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for A Program to Monitor Time-Area Closures in the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery, NOAA Northwest Region, Seattle, WA, June 2003 http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/1sustfsh/groundfish/vms/vms_ea_final.pdf

 

Acceptable Management Practices – Those farming techniques recommended by the State Agriculture Development Committee and includes but not limited to practices for the following purposes: 1) the production of agricultural and horticultural crops, trees and forest products, livestock, and poultry and other commodities as described in the Standard Industrial Classification for agriculture, forestry, fishing and trapping; 2) the processing and packaging of the agricultural output of the farm; 3) the wholesale and retail marketing of the agricultural output of the farm and related products that contribute to farm income; 4) the replenishment of soil nutrients; 5) the control of pests, predators and diseases of plants and animals; 6) the clearing of woodlands, the installation and maintenance of vegetative and terrain alterations and other physical facilities for water and soil conservation and surface water control in wetlands areas; and 7) the on-site disposal of organic agricultural wastes.

 

Acceptable Management System (AMS) – A combination of conservation practices and management that meets resource quality criteria established in the FOTG by the State Conservationist that is feasible within the social, cultural, or economic constraints identified for the resource conditions. It is expected that some degradation may continue to occur for the resource after the AMS is applied (Part 506, Glossary, SCS General Manual). – The EPA’s Management Measures for Agricultural Sources Glossary http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter2/ch2-3.html

 

Acceptance – A formal certification that the goods or services have been received and that they conform to the terms of the contract. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Acceptance and Approval – The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state. [Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

 

Access – A means of approach or admission.

http://inetdocs.loudoun.gov/b&d/docs/1972ordinance_/article10defini/article10defini.doc 2. The right of an owner to go from and return to his land. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm 3. The opportunity to approach, enter and make use of public or private land. http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Access Agreement (AA) – One of the documents necessary to implement a Restoration Project. (DOI/USFWS) Page 12: http://www.usdoj.gov/enrd/ChevronCD.pdf 2. Access Agreement/Order - The EPA is given authority in CERCLA to obtain access to property that is contaminated or threatened with contamination for implementing response actions. The access agreement should describe the activities that will occur and the planned restoration of the property, if any, upon completion. Access agreements are valid only for the current landowner whose signature is on the agreement and do not transfer to future property owners. Access agreements containing residential information, which is considered confidential under the Privacy Code, are coded to this keyword code. However, if a "releasable" access agreement is generated during the Site Assessment (SA) phase, the agreement should be filed in the SA phase [10.17]. If a "releasable" access agreement is generated during the Emergency Response (EM) phase, the agreement should be filed in the EM phase [13.29]. If a "releasable" access agreement is generated during the Remedial phases, it is filed in the Enforcement, Legal Documents (NL) phase [30.04]. http://www.epa.gov/earth1r6/6sf/filestru/pc.htm 3. (a) Generally construed to mean a Reciprocal ROWs agreemen. It is an exchange of grants between the United States and a Permittee that provides for each party using the other’s roads or constructing roads over the other’s lands; (b) the rights granted to the United States through the purchase of a ROWs easement. (DOI/BLM) http://www5.or.blm.gov/burns/Planning/AndrewsSteensRMP/ProposedRMP/Appendices/14.

Appendix%20M%20PRMP.pdf 4. Term-limited public use and access agreements / easement[s] would temporarily fulfill the goal of compensating the public. However, it will be difficult to compensate the public once access privileges have been terminated. http://southdakotafieldoffice.fws.gov/CONCEPTUAL%20NATURAL%20RESOURCE%20

RESTORATION%209-15-2004%20backup.pdf (page 43)

 

Access Control – An aspect of security that utilizes hardware systems and specialized procedures to control and monitor the movement of individuals, vehicles, or materials into, out of, or within secured areas. Access to various points may be a function of authorization level or time, or a combination of the two. 2. The use of physical security as a means of controlling movement into or out of secured areas. – USGS

 

Access density – A measure of the total number of access points in both travel directions. – The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) http://www.accessmanagement.gov/pdf/420NCHRP.pdf

 

Access Management Plan – A plan, showing the design of access for every lot on a given road or highway segment. http://www.nj.gov/dca/osg/plan/stateplan/appendices_glossary.shtml

 

Access Road – A temporary or permanent road over which timber is transported from a loading site to a public road. Also known as a haul road. http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/NPS/MMGI/Chapter3/ch3-3.html 2. A road constructed to facilitate the use and management of the land. Access roads are designed for limited traffic and typically consist of a cut slope, a roadbed, and a fill outslope. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/Manuscripts/WV047/

1/WVMcDowell9_2005.pdf (page 69 of 115)

 

Access to Safe Water – Measured by the number of people who have a reasonable means of getting an adequate amount of clean water, expressed as a percentage of the total population. It reflects the health of a country's people and the country's ability to collect, clean, and distribute water. In urban areas "reasonable" access means there is a public fountain or water spigot located within 200 meters of the household. In rural areas, it implies that members of the household do not have to spend excessive time each day fetching water. Water is safe or unsafe depending on the amount of bacteria in it. An adequate amount of water is enough to satisfy metabolic, hygienic, and domestic requirements, usually about 20 liters (about 4 gallons) per person per day. (WB-UN) http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/modules/glossary.html

 

Access to Sanitation – Refers to the share of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Suitable facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with sewerage. To be effective, all facilities must be correctly constructed and maintained. (WB-UN)

 

Accessible Environment – The atmosphere, the land surface, oceans, and the portion of the lithosphere that is outside the controlled area. – 10CFR60.2. The atmosphere; land surfaces; surface waters; oceans; and all of the lithosphere that is beyond the controlled area. 40CFR191.12

 

Accession – A sample of a crop variety collected at a specific location and time; may be of any size. – UNDP/WRI 2. The process by which a country becomes a member of an international agreement, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) or the European Community. Accession to the GATT involves negotiations to determine the specific obligations a nonmember country must undertake before it will be entitled to full GATT membership benefits. Accession is the act whereby a state accepts the offer or the opportunity to become a party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other states. It has the same legal effect as ratification. Accession usually occurs after the treaty has entered into force. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his function as depositary, has also accepted accessions to some conventions before their entry into force. The conditions under which accession may occur and the procedure involved depend on the provisions of the treaty. A treaty might provide for the accession of all other states or for a limited and defined number of states. In the absence of such a provision, accession can only occur where the negotiating states were agreed or subsequently agree on it in the case of the state in question. [Arts.2 (1) (b) and 15, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

 

Accessory Building – A building subordinate to, and located on the same lot with a main building, the use or which is clearly incidental to that of the main building or to the use of the land, and which is not attached by any part of a common wall or roof to the main building. http://inetdocs.loudoun.gov/b&d/docs/1972ordinance_/article10defini/article10defini.doc

 

Accessory Use – A use of land or of a building, or portion thereof, customarily incidental to the principal use of the land or building and located on the same lot with such principal use. [For the purpose of zoning ordinances] accessory uses [may] include swimming pools and game courts… http://www.greenvilleplanning.com/land_development/zoning_ordinance/article4.htm 2. A use of a building, lot, or portion thereof, which is customarily incidental and subordinate to the principal use of the main building or lot. http://inetdocs.loudoun.gov/b&d/docs/1972ordinance_/article10defini/article10defini.doc

 

Accessory Uses and Structures – Zoning regulations governing land uses and structures incidental to the district’s primary permitted uses, dwelling units and structures.

 

Accommodate (from the Grizzly Bear Recovery in the Bitterroot Ecosystem EIS) – Allowing grizzly bears that move outside the Recovery Area onto public land in the Experimental Population Area to remain undisturbed unless they demonstrate a real and imminent threat to human safety or livestock.

 

Account Balances – Net of debits and credits at the end of a reporting period. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Accountability – The act of maintaining an account or record for personal property by providing a complete audit trail for personal property transactions from receipt to final disposition. Also, the obligation imposed by law, lawful order, or regulation, accepted by a person for keeping accurate records, to ensure control of property, documents or funds, with or without physical possession. The obligation, in this context, refers to a person's fiduciary duties, responsibilities and obligations to protect the public interest, but does not necessarily impose personal liability on that person. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System 2. Responsibility for the deterioration of the natural environment, implying the allocation of environmental costs to the economic activities that cause such deterioration. (UN)

 

Accountable – Responsible for something (i.e. a function, area of a building, property). – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Accountable Area (AA) – An area defined by organizational or geographical limits, for which a discrete set of formal property accountability records is maintained under the jurisdiction of a designated Accountable Property Officer (APO) [also known as the Property Accountable Officer/Accountable Property Officer, or PAO/APO]. In the Asset Management System (AMS), accountable area constitutes a business unit. The Food and Drug Administration accountable areas are as follows: 1) FDA Centers, 2) ORA Headquarters, 3) ORA Regional and District Offices, and 4) FDA Non-Center Headquarters (NCHQ). – Food and Drug Administration Staff Manual Guide, Guide FDA 2620.2, February 13, 2002. http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMDocs/Doc7.doc 2. An area specifically defined by organizational or geographic limits, which is assigned to a designated Property Accountable Officer. It is larger than a property custodial area and maintains accountable records for a number of property custodial areas, which have physical responsibility for personal property. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Accountable Property – Accountable personal property as: items that are classified as non-expendable property (2 years or longer expected life), and have an acquisition cost of $5,000 or greater, and items that are classified as sensitive regardless of acquisition value; items that are recorded in a formal property management or accounting system. This definition of accountable property pertains to the items, which will appear on the property custodial area's inventory, it is not to say that since an item is not accountable by this definition that it is not important to the Government. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Accountable Property Officer – See Property Accountable Officer (PAO). – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Accountable Property Records – Formal records of personal property which assign specific responsibility for control to an individual. Such records may control single items or aggregates of similar property. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Accounting for Property Plant, and Equipment – See SFFAS 6

 

Accretion – The gradual and imperceptible accumulation of alluvion (soil) by natural causes. It is created by operation of natural causes. Accretion is the act, while alluvion is the deposit itself. It differs from avulsion, which is a sudden and perceptible loss or addition to land by the action of water. – NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) Public Trust Doctrine Glossary

http://www.csc.noaa.gov/ptd/glossary.htm 2. The process, driven by plate tectonics, whereby the continental margin grows by addition of ocean crust and sediments at a subduction zone. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm 3. Deposition of material by sedimentation, which increases land area. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm 4. The gradual addition of new material to existing material. – Everglades Plan glossary

 

ACC-SWR – The Sub-committee on Water Resources of the UN Administrative Committee for Coordination (UN)

 

Acculturation – Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. In cultural geography, the term is used to designate the change that occurs in the culture of indigenous peoples when contact is made with a society that is technologically more advanced. A one-way transfer of cultural traits.

 

Accumulation – Accumulation – Definition under development. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System 2. The build-up of a substance in a plant or animal due to repeated exposure to and uptake of that substance from the environment. See "bioaccumulation." – Great Lakes glossary

 

ACDI – Agricultural Cooperative Development International

 

ACE – Agricultural Conservation Easements

 

ACE – Agriculture in Concert with the Environment

 

ACE – American Council on Education (Tulloch Rule)

 

ACE – Army Corps of Engineers

 

ACE – Assets and Character Education

 

ACE – The Automated Commercial Environment

 

ACEC – Ad Council Endorsed Campaign

 

ACEC – American Consulting Engineers Council http://www.acec.org/

 

ACEC – Area of Critical Environmental Concern

 

ACEEE – The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy http://www.aceee.org

 

ACF – Alaska Conservation Foundation

 

ACF – American Coal Foundation

 

ACF – Association of Consulting Foresters

 

Achene – A small, usually single-seeded, dry fruit, which remains closed at maturity. The achene is the simplest of any fruit. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

ACHP – Advisory Council on Historic Preservation http://www.achp.gov/ http://www.achp.gov/book/case131.html

 

ACI – Absaroka Conservation Initiative (Wyoming) http://www.wyormef.org/absarokainitiative.asp

 

ACI – Access Communications Information

 

ACI – Access Control Information

 

ACI – Actual Cost Incurred

 

ACI – Alloy Casting Institute

 

ACI – American Concrete Institute

 

ACIC – Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center

 

Acid Contaminated Property – Property that may cause burns or toxicosis when improperly handled due to acid residues adhering to or trapped within the material. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Acid Deposition / acid rain – Abnormally acidic (low pH) precipitation (or dry deposition) resulting from emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that transform during chemical processes in the atmosphere. Acid deposition can affect the chemistry of soils and acidify lakes, adversely affecting forests and fish. It does not adversely affect cropland. The Clean Air Act includes a program focused on controlling precursor emissions of acid deposition -- primarily sulfur oxides from coal-fired electric utilities. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm 2. Any form of deposition on water, land and other surfaces, that increases their acidity by contamination with acid pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide, nitrates and other acids. The deposition can be either dry (as in the adsorption of acid pollutants to particles) or wet (as in acid precipitation or “acid rain“). (United Nations) 3. The total amount of pollutants that make up what is commonly referred to as acid rain. This includes both the wet deposition and dry deposition components that settle out of the atmosphere. See "acid rain." – Great Lakes glossary

 

Acid mine drainage – Drainage of water from areas that have been mined for coal of other mineral ores; the water has low pH, sometimes less than 2.0 (is acid), because of its contact with sulfur bearing material; acid drainage is harmful because it often kills aquatic organisms. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html

 

Acid Precipitation – Any form of precipitation (rain, snow, hail or fog) whose acidity has been increased through the uptake of acid pollutants from the air. (UN)

 

Acid Rain – Abnormally acidic (low pH) precipitation (or dry deposition) that results from emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that transform during chemical processes in the atmosphere. Acid deposition can affect the chemistry of soils and acidify lakes, adversely affecting forest and fish. It does not adversely affect cropland. The Clean Air Act includes a program focused on controlling precursor emissions of acid deposition -- primarily sulfur oxides from coal-fired electric utilities. 2. Precipitation, which has been rendered (made) acidic by airborne pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 3. Occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions are transformed in the atmosphere and return to the earth in rain, fog, or snow. Acid rain can damage lakes, forests, and buildings, contribute to reduced visibility, and may harm human health. Regulations have been implemented at the federal and state level to reduce acid rain. See "Clean Air Act." – Great Lakes glossary

 

Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) (Acid Mine Drainage) – The exposure, usually as a result of mining, of sulfide-bearing minerals to air and water, forming sulfuric acid. This acid dissolves metals such as lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium, mercury, and cadmium, into ground and surface water. Acid rock/mine drainage can poison ground and drinking water and destroy aquatic life and habitat. Commonly mined ore bodies that pose the risk of acid rock drainage include gold, silver, copper, iron, zinc, and lead. – BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

 

Acidic – The condition of water or soil, which contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html

 

Acidification – Increase of hydrogen ions, usually expressed as the pH value of environmental media. (UN)

 

Acidified – The addition of an acid (usually nitric or sulfuric) to a sample to lower the pH below 2.0. The purpose of acidification is to "fix" a sample so it won't change until it is analyzed. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html

 

ACLJ – American Center for Law and Justice

 

ACLU – American Civil Liberties Union

 

ACM – Agency Coordination Meeting

 

ACO – Administrative Consent Order

 

ACORN – The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (opposed to Wal-Mart stores)

ACP – Agricultural Conservation Plan

ACP – Agriculture Conservation Practice

ACP – Agricultural Conservation Program

ACP – Agriculture Conservation Plan

 

ACP – Agriculture Control Program (EPA - Water Quality Management)

 

ACP – Air Carcinogen Policy (EPA)

 

ACP – AmeriCorps Program

 

ACP – Architectural and Conservation Planning

 

ACP Countries – Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (UN) http://www.acpsec.org/

 

ACPA – American Crop Protection Association

 

ACPC – Association of Coffee Producing Countries

 

ACPO – Administrative Compliance and Penalty Order

 

ACPPA – American Concrete Pressure Pipe Association

 

Acquire – To obtain personal property in any manner, including: purchase, lease, transfer, donation, manufacture, construction, condemnation or production at Government-owned plants or facilities. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Acquired Land – Land originally purchased by DOE or its predecessors. In contrast, see “other land” and “withdrawn land.”

 

Acquired Lands – Lands in Federal ownership that were obtained by the Federal government through purchase, condemnation, gift, or exchange. One category of public lands. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Acquisition – Acquiring goods and services (including construction) by contract with appropriated and non-appropriated funds for the use of the Federal Government. Using appropriated and non-appropriated funds to acquire supplies or services (including construction) by contract by and for the Federal Government through purchase or lease. Acquisition begins at the point when Agency needs are established and includes the description of requirements to satisfy Agency needs, solicitation and selection of sources, award of contracts, contract financing, contract performance, contract administration, and those technical and management functions directly related to the process of fulfilling Agency needs by contract. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System Also: http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmandr/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#acquisition

 

Acquisition and Procurement Goals – Executive Order (E.O.) 12586, “Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements,” requires the Department of Energy (DOE) and other Federal Agencies to establish a plan and goals for eliminating or reducing the unnecessary acquisition of products containing extremely hazardous substances or toxic chemicals and to establish a plan and goal for voluntarily reducing its own manufacturing, processing, and use of extremely hazardous substances and toxic chemicals. – DOE

Acquisition Cost – The original cost to the Government of an item of personal property. Acquisition cost typically includes delivery and installation charges. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Acquisition Cycle – A three-phase process that consists of steps and which describes the actions necessary to complete a procurement. The phases are: Phase I – Presolicitation – The tasks in the acquisition process that take place prior to notifying vendors of an existing requirement. Phase II – Solicitation-Award – A phase in the acquisition process that contains the functions necessary to notify vendors of an existing requirement, evaluate their proposals and award a contract for supplies or services. Phase III – Contract Administration – The management of all facets of a contract to ensure that the contractor's total performance is in accordance with its contractual commitments and that the obligations of the Government are fulfilled. Includes the oversight of a contractor's (supplier's) performance pursuant to the fulfillment of the terms, conditions and specifications of a contract. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Acquisition of the Equivalent – Refers to obtaining ownership or other rights to natural resources or services that are comparable to those injured. DOI/USFWS http://www.fws.gov/midwest/FoxRiverNEPA/documents/AppendixA.pdf

 

ACR – Acreage conservation reserve

 

ACR – Acronym

 

ACR – Alliance for Citizens Rights (Alabama)

 

ACR – Association for Conflict Resolution http://www.acrnet.org and http://acresolution.org

 

ACRA – American Cultural Resources Association

 

ACRE – Active Citizens for Responsible Environmentalism

 

Acre – A tract of land containing 43,560 square feet, or 0.0016 square miles of land. An acre measures 208.71 feet on each side. In the metric system, one acre equals 0.4047 hectare or 40.47 ares. – U.S. Treasury OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision, in charge of banks, savings and loan associations, etc.) http://www.ots.treas.gov/glossary/gloss-n.html 640 acres equals 1 square mile (called a section). 2. A quantity of land containing 43,560 square feet or .4047 hectares of land. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm 3. 1 acre=43,560 sq. ft.=208.7 ft.2 =0.405 hectares; or 640 acres=1 sq. mile (called a section). http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Acre-Foot – The volume of water that would cover one acre of land (43,560 square feet) to a depth of one foot, equivalent to 325,851 gallons of water. An acre-foot is the basic measure of agricultural water use. On average, irrigators apply almost 2 feet of water on each acre through the crop-growing season; the amount ranges from 4 feet in the Southwest to a half foot in some eastern states. Irrigation accounts for about 85 maf (million acre-feet) of water use annually. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm 2. 325,851 gallons of water. The volume (as of irrigation water) that would cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot (43,560 cubic feet). – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 3. A volume of water that covers one acre to a depth of one foot, or 43,560 cubic feet (1233.5 cubic meters). http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 4. The amount of water covering an area of one acre to a depth of one foot (43,560). – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Acreage Allotment – Under provisions of permanent commodity price support law, a farm’s acreage allotment is its share, based on its previous production, of the national acreage needed to produce sufficient supplies of a particular crop. Under the FAIR Act of 1996, acreage allotments are not applicable to the contract commodities, peanuts or sugar. However, acreage allotments still apply to tobacco. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Acreage Base (or Base Acres) – A farm’s average planted acreage for a specific crop over the previous five years (for wheat or feed grains) or three years (for cotton or rice), plus land not planted because of certain acreage reduction or diversion programs. Commodity acreage bases were eliminated by the FAIR Act of 1996. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

Acreage conservation reserve — The cropland acreage diverted from production under the acreage reduction program. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

Acreage diversion programs — Historically, commodity programs included provisions to reduce commodity supplies by diverting acreage to non-crop uses. Examples include paid diversion, unpaid diversion, set-aside, and acreage reduction programs. The FAIR Act of 1996 eliminated authority for the USDA to implement annual acreage reduction programs. The Conservation Reserve Program pays farmers for the long-term conversion of fragile cropland land to conserving uses and is not considered to be an acreage diversion program. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

Acreage Limitation – With respect to commodity policy, acreage limitation might refer to planting constraints under an acreage reduction program, set-aside, or paid land diversion. In relation to water policy, it is the maximum number of acres that may be irrigated with less than full-cost water from Bureau of Reclamation projects. Generally, the acreage limitation for individuals or legal entities representing 25 people or fewer is 960 acres; however, amounts vary depending on a landowner’s legal status. Also referred to as ownership limitation, ownership entitlement, or non- full-cost entitlement. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Acreage reduction program (ARP) – A voluntary land retirement system for wheat, feed grains, cotton, or rice in which participating farmers idled a crop-specific, nationally set portion of their crop acreage base. Farmers participating in this program were eligible for benefits such as Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) loans and deficiency payments, although no payments were made on the idled ARP land. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (1996 Act) did not reauthorize ARP's. – USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms. Also see: http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Acres U.S.A. “A Voice for Eco-Agriculture” http://www.acresusa.com/magazines/magazine.htm

 

Acridids – A family of orthopterous insects including the grasshopper. All the species of this family can leap. – USDA glossary

 

ACRM – Adaptive Coastal Resource Management

 

Acronym – A word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a set phrase, as WAC from Women's Army Corps. From The Random House College Dictionary, 1980 Revised Edition. 2. A word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a phase or series of words. http://iaspub.epa.gov/sor/glossary$.startup 3. Refers to a normalized shortened name. (UN)

 

ACRP – The Airport Cooperative Research Program (National Academy of Sciences – NAS) http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf

 

ACS – Alternative conservation system

 

ACS – American Colonization Society

 

ACS – Aquatic Conservation Strategy (DOI/BLM) http://www.reo.gov/acs/

 

ACS – The Automated Commercial System - See The Automated Commercial Environment.

 

ACSA – American Council of Snowmobile Associations

 

ACSH – American Council on Science and Health

 

ACSI – The Appalachian Clean Streams Initiative

 

ACSO – Arizona Cowpuncher’s Scholarship Organization http://allaboutacso.com/default.asp

 

AC soil – A soil having only an A and a C horizon. Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or on steep rocky slopes. – USDA

 

ACSP – Appalachian Clean Streams Program. See Appalachian Clean Streams Initiative http://www.osmre.gov/acsihome.htm

 

ACT – The Adirondack Community Trust, Lake Placid, NY http://www.GenerousACT.org

 

Act Granting the Right of Way to Ditch and Canal Owners Over the Public Lands, Section 8 – In Section 8 of the “Act Granting the Right of Way to Ditch and Canal Owners Over the Public Lands” of July 26, 1866, 14 Stat. 253, the U.S. Congress sanctioned the local customs of appropriating range for raising livestock wherein Congress stated “That the right of way for the construction of highways over public lands, not reserved for public uses, is hereby granted.” The U.S. Supreme Court has held that this provision granted an absolute right of livestock grazing access over land later withdrawn as a federal reservation (Curtin v. Benson, 222 U.S. 78 (1911)). This enactment worked in harmony with state or territorial laws and custom to validate livestock range rights. Source: Angus McIntosh, New Mexico State University Extension Service, angmcint@nmsu.edu or 505-646-5316

 

ACT or RCRA – The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended, 42U.S.C. Section 6901 et seq. – RERA/40CFR260.10

 

Act of Formal Confirmation – "Act of formal confirmation" is used as an equivalent for the term "ratification" when an international organization expresses its consent to be bound to a treaty. [Arts.2 (1) (b bis) and 14, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations 1986] (UN)

 

Act of God [CERCLA 101 §(1)] – An unanticipated grave natural disaster or other natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable, and irresistible character, the effects of which could not have been prevented or avoided by the exercise of due care or foresight. – EPA Superfund glossary

 

Action – Construction, land management, or other activities that are authorized, funded, or performed in whole or in part by agencies of State and local governments and that will result in a change to the existing environmental conditions or may affect listed endangered or threatened species or their essential habitat or Natural Areas. – http://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/017/017010750000200R.html 2. An activity or program of any kind authorized, funded, or carried out, in whole or in part, by a Federal agency in the United States or upon the high seas, such as: (a) an action intended to conserve listed species or their habitat; (b) the promulgation of a regulation; (c) the granting of a license, contract, lease, easement, right-of-way, permit, or grant-in-aid; or (d) an action directly or indirectly causing modification to the land, water, or air. (DOI/USFWS) – This glossary is intended to give the meaning of key words, but does not necessarily provide a legal definition or thorough description. Legal definitions can be found in the Endangered Species Act, and throughout its implementing regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 50 of the CFR is called Wildlife and Fisheries and its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR. Title 50 contains the regulations governing all programs of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and NOAA Fisheries. The 50 CFR is subdivided into nearly 700 parts, with each part covering a different general topic. For example, part 17 covers endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR 17. Part 17 is further subdivided into sections, with each section covering a different specific topic. For example, section 3 contains definitions and its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR 17.3. This is just one of many sections in the 50 CFR that contain definitions. The list of endangered and threatened wildlife is found at 50 CFR 17.11. The corresponding list of endangered and threatened plants is found at 50 CFR 17.12. Revised April 2005 http://www.fws.gov/endangered/glossary.pdf 3. Any activity, program project or undertaking or the approval, sanction, assistance, or support of any activity, policy, program, project, or undertaking, including but not limited to: (a) recommendations or reports relating to legislation, including requests for appropriations; (b) new and continuing activities, programs, projects, or undertakings directly engaged in by agencies or supported in whole or in part through state contracts, grants, subsidies, loans, or other forms of funding assistance, or involving a state lease, permit, license, certificate, or other entitlement of use; (c) the sale or transfer of state properties; (d) comprehensive or areawide planning in which provision may be made for any actions or which may result in a proposed action. – SPRPMA 2. A highway or transit project proposed for FHWA or FTA funding. It also includes activities such as joint and multiple use permits, changes in access control, etc., which may or may not involve a commitment of Federal funds. 23 CFR § 771.107(b).

 

Action Alternative – Any alternative that is not the 'no action' alternative. – DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/

 

Action area – All areas to be affected directly or indirectly by the Federal action and not merely the immediate area involved in the action. (DOI/USFWS) – This glossary is intended to give the meaning of key words, but does not necessarily provide a legal definition or thorough description. Legal definitions can be found in the Endangered Species Act, and throughout its implementing regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 50 of the CFR is called Wildlife and Fisheries and its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR. Title 50 contains the regulations governing all programs of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and NOAA Fisheries. The 50 CFR is subdivided into nearly 700 parts, with each part covering a different general topic. For example, part 17 covers endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR 17. Part 17 is further subdivided into sections, with each section covering a different specific topic. For example, section 3 contains definitions and its shorthand designation is written as: 50 CFR 17.3. This is just one of many sections in the 50 CFR that contain definitions. The list of endangered and threatened wildlife is found at 50 CFR 17.11. The corresponding list of endangered and threatened plants is found at 50 CFR 17.12. Revised April 2005 http://www.fws.gov/endangered/glossary.pdf

 

Action Levels – As opposed to tolerances (which are established from pesticide residues occurring as a direct result of proper usage), action levels are set for inadvertent residues resulting from previous legal use or accidental contamination. At the action level set by EPA, FDA and USDA are required to take enforcement action against the contaminated food or agricultural commodity. The term is also used in other regulatory programs. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Action Levels (ALs) – Als are health- and environmentally-based levels of hazardous constituents in ground water, surface water, soil, or air, determined to be indicators for protection of human health and the environment (55FR30814et seq.; July 27, 1990). In the corrective action process, the regulator uses ALs to determine if the owner/operator of a treatment, storage, and disposal facility is required to perform a corrective measure study. “Action levels’ are media-specific, health and environmentally-based contaminant concentration determined by EPA to be protective of human health and the environment. Action levels are established for each environmental medium, including ground water, and serve as the trigger for the requirement to conduct a RCRA Corrective Measures Study (CMS).

 

Action Memorandum – The internal EPA document that serves as a written record of Regional or HQ approval of Superfund financing of a removal action. The Action Memorandum describes site conditions, including the nature of the release, actual or potential threats, enforcement strategy and proposed costs and actions. An Action Memorandum is also the appropriate format within EPA for requesting and obtaining Superfund ceiling increases, exemptions to the twelve-month and $2 million limits, and redistribution of funds because of changes in the scope of work. – DOE

 

Action Plan for the Future (Cultural Landscapes) – The Action Plan for the Future (Cultural Landscapes) was prepared by the UNESCO "Expert Meeting on Cultural Landscapes of Outstanding Universal Value" held in Templin, Germany in October 1993 (See von Droste et al 1995: Annex 1). The Action Plan outlines recommendations concerning the provision of "Guidance to States Parties on the Identification, Assessment, Nomination and Management of Cultural Landscapes for Inclusion in the World Heritage List" and on the preparation of a "Thematic Study on Cultural Landscapes.” The World Heritage Committee adopted the Action Plan at its seventeenth session in 1993 (UNESCO 4 February 1994:55-56 and Annex VII). See Cultural landscapes – Glossary of World Heritage Terms

 

Action-Specific ARARS – Action-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) restrict or regulate remediation, treatment, or disposal activities. – DOE

 

Action Tracking System – A database that tracks the development of major regulations, guidance, and policy for all EPA programs. – DOE

 

ACTIS – Automated Client Tracking Information System

 

Activated Carbon – Adsorptive particles or granules of carbon usually obtained by heating carbon (such as wood). These particles or granules have a high capacity to selectively remove certain trace and soluble materials from water. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 2. Highly absorbent form of carbon used to remove odors and toxic substances from liquid or gaseous emissions. In industrial wastewater treatment, it is used to remove dissolved organic matter from wastewater. It is also used in motor vehicle evaporative control systems. (UN)

 

Activated Sludge – Sludge containing a high degree of active bacterial mass that is mixed with primary effluent or raw waste water and kept in suspension by aeration and/or agitation to eliminate organic material from the waste water. After decantation, the sludge is recycled into the aeration tank. (UN)

 

Activation – Generation of an appropriate bacterial mass in sludge, under aerobic conditions, that is capable of eliminating and/or adsorbing organic matter from sewage. (UN)

 

Activation – Notification by telephone or other expeditious manner or, when required, the assembly of some or all appropriate members of the Regional Response Team or National Response Team. – CERCLA/40CFR300.5

 

Active cracking – Cracking showing recent movement.- NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

 

Active cavity – A completed cavity or start exhibiting fresh pine resin associated with cavity maintenance, cavity construction, or resin well excavation by red-cockaded woodpeckers. – DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

 

Active cavity tree – Any tree containing one or more active cavities. – DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

 

Active cluster – A cluster containing one or more active cavity trees. – DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

 

Active Fault – A fault which, because of its present tectonic setting, can undergo movement from time to time in the immediate geologic future. A fault, which has moved during the recent geologic past (Quaternary) and, thus, may move again. It may or may not generate earthquakes.

 

Active Ingredient (AI) – The chemical or substance component of a pesticide product that can kill, repel, attract, mitigate or control a pest or that acts as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer. The remainder of a formulated pesticide product consists of one or more “inert ingredients” (such as water, solvents, emulsifiers, surfactants, clay and propellants), which are there for reasons other than pesticidal activity. – EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary 2. (In pesticides) – Specific chemical that kills or controls target pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of active ingredients. 3. In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls, target pests. Pesticides are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency primarily on the basis of active ingredients. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Active Inventory – That portion which is carried to satisfy average expected demand. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Active layer – A seasonally thawed surface layer of soil in arctic or alpine regions that lies above permanently frozen ground and is between a few centimeters and about 3 meters thick. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

Active management – Management actions that are currently in operation or effect. – DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 2. Management approach in which humans actively manipulate ecosystems through timber harvesting and thinning to improve forest health and to reduce fire hazard. – KIPZ – Kootenai and Idaho Panhandle National Forests http://www.fs.fed.us/kipz/documents/reference/glossary.shtml

 

Active Preference – The total number of animal unit months of forage that can be licensed. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

 

Active Recreation – Moderate to high intensity structured recreational use, in many cases requiring some modification of natural landforms and the provision of service facilities (parking areas, restrooms, visitor centers, etc.). Typical activities include individual and team sports, picnicking and fishing.

 

Active remediation – The use of active ground water remediation methods such as gradient manipulation, ground water extraction and treatment, or in situ ground water treatment to restore ground water quality to acceptable levels. – U.S. Department of Energy (DOI) Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah Draft Environmental Impact Statement http://www.eh.doe.gov/nepa/docs/deis/eis0355d/vol_1/chap10.pdf

 

Active storage – See also "minimum pool." The amount of storage within a reservoir used for storage and release under normal operating parameters. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary http://www.usbr.gov/uc/envdocs/eis/navajo/pdfs/deis_glossary.pdf

 

Active Use – The current authorized use, including livestock grazing and conservation use. Active use may constitute a portion, or all, of permitted use. Active use does not include temporary nonuse or suspended use of forage within all or a portion of an allotment. (BLM-DOI)

 

Activism – A doctrine or practice that emphasizes direct vigorous action especially in support of or opposition to one side of a controversial issue. Activist - noun or adjective. Source: Merriam-Webster Online. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/activist

 

Activity – A measure, course of action, or treatment that is undertaken to directly or indirectly produce, enhance, or maintain forest and rangeland outputs or achieve administrative or environmental quality objectives. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf 2. What visitors do at a National Wildlife Refuge. In some studies, visitor activities are grouped into hunting, fishing, and non-consumptive uses.

 

Activity Address Code – Also known as ACC, an Activity Address Code is required to access GSA FEDSTRIP, GSA Advantage and ROCS. This code is assigned to the organization. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#

Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Activity Analysis – The analysis and measurement (in terms of time, cost, and throughput) of distinct units of work (activities) that make up a process. – Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

 

Activity area – A land area affected by a management activity to which soil quality standards are applied. Activity areas must be feasible to monitor and include harvest units within timber sale areas, prescribed burn areas, grazing areas or pastures within range allotments, riparian areas, recreational areas, and alpine areas. – KIPZ – Kootenai and Idaho Panhandle National Forests http://www.fs.fed.us/kipz/documents/reference/glossary.shtml 2. An area of land impacted by a management activity or activities. An activity area can range from a few acres to an entire watershed depending on the type of monitoring being conducted. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Activity-Based Costing – A set of accounting methods used to identify and describe costs and required resources for activities within processes. – Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

 

Activity Fuel – Debris generated by a Forest activity such as firewood gathering, pre-commercial thinning, timber harvesting, and road construction. http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/websites/fsfedus/www.fs.fed.us/r1/gallatin/projects/

darroch-eagle/ea/glossary.pdf

 

Activity Fuels – Debris generated by an activity that increases fire potential, such as firewood gathering, pre-commercial thinning, timber harvesting, and road construction. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf 2. Fuels generated during implementation of various projects. – Umatilla National Forest (Washington/Oregon) http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/uma/projects/monitor/01glossary.pdf

 

Activity Plan – A detailed and specific plan for managing a single resource program or plan element undertaken as needed to implement the more general resource management plan decisions. An activity plan is prepared for specific areas to reach specific resource management objectives within stated time frames. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005.

http://www.nm.blm.gov/lcfo/mcgregor/docs/Draft%20RMPA_EIS_01_05_low.pdf (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 2. An Activity plan is a Bureau of Land Management document that describes management objectives, actions, and projects to implement decisions of the resource management plan or other planning documents. Usually prepared for one or more resources in a specific area. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

 

Actor in World Politics – An actor in world politics has been defined as 'any entity, which plays an identifiable role in international relations.' (UN)

ACTPN — Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Actual production history (APH) – A measure of an individual farmer’s annual production of a commodity over a multi-year period. The APH serves as the basis for the farmer’s "normal" crop yield in the crop insurance program. When the actual crop yield deviates by more than a certain percentage from the APH, an insured producer is be eligible for an indemnity (loss) payment.

http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Actuarially Sound – The financial goal of any insurance program (including the federal crop insurance program) is to operate on an actuarially sound basis; that is, total premiums collected should more than offset total indemnities paid out.

 

ACUB – Army Compatible Use Buffer (Camp Ripley, Minnesota http://www.dma.state.mn.us/cpripley/envir/envir.htm, plus locations in North Carolina and Hawaii, all with help from The Nature Conservancy and other “partners” like USFWS…) The Fort Bragg (North Carolina) Private Lands Initiative (PLI) is part of the Army’s “conservation program.” The Army has developed the Army Compatible Use Buffers (ACUB) Program to help address encroachment issues. This program is based on the successful Fort Bragg Private Lands Initiative. The Private Lands Initiative involves a cooperation agreement between the Army and non-governmental organizations to cost-share the purchase of land titles or conservation easements from willing land owners (at fair market value) to minimize incompatible land use. ACUBs are defined as formal agreements between Army and eligible entities for acquisition by the entities of land or an interest in land and/or water rights from willing sellers. Formal agreements may provide for limiting encroachment through acquisition of development rights, cooperative agreements, conservation easements, and other means in accordance with applicable laws. Eligible entities are established conservation groups such as The Nature Conservancy, Trust for Public Lands, Land Trust Alliance, Conservation Fund, or state and political subdivisions. Many eligible entities have expressed interest in partnering with the Army. The objectives of the ACUB program are: Reduce training and testing restrictions; Increase available maneuver space; Prevent development along the installation boundary; Reduce Army's time and financial investment in natural resource management; Meet Endangered Species Act recovery responsibilities by preserving habitat, watersheds, and open space; Prevent future threatened and endangered species listings. The Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (ACSIM) is responsible for the ACUB and conveyance programs. http://srp.army.mil/public/lm/natcult/lesson4.jsp

 

ACUNS – Academic Council for United Nations Systems

 

Acute concentration – The concentration of a contaminant in a medium (air, water, and soil) that would produce an acute exposure. Acute exposure is a single, short-term exposure (usually a day or less) to radiation, a toxic substance, or other stressors that may result in severe biological harm or death. – U.S. Department of Energy (DOI) Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah Draft Environmental Impact Statement http://www.eh.doe.gov/nepa/docs/deis/eis0355d/vol_1/chap10.pdf

 

Acute Toxicity – The ability of a substance to cause harmful effects soon after a single exposure or dose. Also, any severe poisonous effects resulting from a single short-term exposure to a toxic substance.

 

Acute Toxicity – Adverse effects to a plant or animal that result from an acute exposure to a stimulant, such as a pollutant. The exposure usually does not constitute a substantial portion of the life span of the organism. In standard laboratory toxicity tests with aquatic organisms, an effect observed in 96 hours or less is typically considered acute. Also described as a stimulus severe enough to induce an effect. – Great Lakes glossary

 

ACWA – Association of California Water Agencies http://www.acwanet.com

 

ACWG – The Asian Carp Working Group http://asiancarp.org/default.asp

 

ACZ – Atlantic Coastal Zone http://www.dal.ca/aczisc/aczisc

 

ACZISC – The Atlantic Coastal Zone Information Steering Committee. The ACZISC was established in January 1992 to promote regional cooperation in Atlantic Canada with regards to coastal mapping and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). The ACZISC is multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral with representation from eight federal departments, four Atlantic provincial governments, community organizations, academia and the private sector. http://www.dal.ca/aczisc or http://www.dal.ca/aczisc/mandate [UN/GLOBAL] 2. In 1992, the Council of Maritime Premiers gave rise to the Atlantic Coastal Zoning Information Steering Committee (ACZISC); it was initially set up to ensure that provincial departments had access to the zonal information that they required for decision-making, and to facilitate information management and resource mapping. Soon thereafter, membership in ACZISC was opened up to seven interested federal departments. Later, membership was also extended to the private sector and to First Nations. ACZISC continues to operate. The current purpose of ACZISC is that of "information sharing" in respect of coastal zoning issues. Related projects deal with: database directory; inventory of coastal mapping projects; information on how to share data; and, maps and imagery on-line. The Steering Committee for ACZISC is a committee of equals; a particular department did not initiate it and no department has taken the lead. The Steering Committee -- which meets about three to four times each year -- has representation from all of the member departments, private industry and First Nations organizations. The Steering Committee has terms of reference, by-laws and operational protocols, and decides what activities ACZISC will undertake. There are a number of working groups that report to the Steering Committee. There is a small, two-member Secretariat that carries out the work for ACZISC. The Secretariat is located in the International Oceans Institute of Canada on the Dalhousie University campus. The Secretariat reports to the Steering Committee and takes direction from it. When the Steering Committee is not meeting, direction to the Secretariat on time-sensitive issues is provided by an Executive Council, which has four members -- one each for the Provinces, the federal departments, the private sector and First Nations. Together the provincial departments contribute $65,000 to ACZISC; the seven federal departments match that funding. There is no enabling agreement currently in place. Recently the Regional Directors General of the federal departments developed a federal MOU to set out their funding responsibilities for the next three years. However, the pooling of funds is complicated by the different methods employed by federal departments to transfer the operating money: some request an invoice from ACZISC, so that they can provide payment for services rendered; others prefer their contribution to flow to a designated department, which is then in charge of transferring the funds to the ACZISC. http://www.dal.ca/aczisc/aczisc and http://www.iucn.org/places/canada/link.htm

 

AD – Aerial Dispersant

 

AD – Aerosol Distribution

 

AD – After Divinity

 

AD – Appraisal District (taxation)

 

AD – Aquatic Diversity

 

AD – Associations Directories

 

Ad Valorem Duty – A tariff expressed as a fixed percentage of the value of the imported commodity or product. Generally, by contrast, a specific duty is applied as a charge on each unit or specified quantity of an imported item (i.e., $5 per ton). http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

ADA – American Dairy Association

 

ADA – Americans with Disabilities Act

 

ADAAG – Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines

 

ADAMHTP – Alcohol, Drugs And Mental Health Treatment Program

Adams Outdoor Advertising of Charlotte v. North Carolina Department of Transportation, 112 N.C. App. 120 (1993) – A statutory inverse condemnation action may not be maintained to recover damages when DOT plants trees in the right-of-way that obstruct a billboard. Adams owns eleven billboards located on private property along a state maintained road. After the billboards were erected, Adams alleged that DOT planted trees and vegetation within the state owned right-of-way adjacent to the leased property on which the billboards are located. Adams claimed that, since the vegetation has obscured or will eventually obscure the billboards, the billboards have been rendered economically useless and, therefore, Adams is entitled to compensation for inverse condemnation. After the trial court dismissed the action for failure to state a claim, Adams appealed. The Court of Appeals first indicated that, since the complaint did not raise constitutional issues, it was considering the claim solely under G.S. 136-111. In order to state a claim under that statute, a plaintiff has to show a taking of private property for public use or purpose. It is not, however, necessary to show an actual occupation of the land, as a taking of private property occurs when there is "a substantial interference with elemental rights growing out of the ownership of the property." The interference must result in injuries that are not "merely consequential or incidental." Relying on dictionary definitions of "consequential" and "incidental," the Court held that any damages suffered by Adams were consequential or incidental. Specifically, the Court noted that the trees were planted as part of a beautification project and any obstruction was a consequential or incidental result. Furthermore, DOT's use of its right-of-way was consistent with its statutory powers. The Court also acknowledged that case law supports the notion that the obstruction of the right to view does not constitute a taking of property. Finally, Adams failed to provide any statutory basis or authority for a taking based upon the "right to be seen." http://128.121.172.88/Legal/Digest/93-94cl.html [Land Use; Signs; Inverse Condemnation]

Adaptation – A genetically determined characteristic that enhances an organism’s chances for survival and reproduction. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf 2. Adjustment to environmental conditions. Changes in an organism’s structure or habits that help it to adjust to its surroundings. (UN) 3. A genetically determined characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to cope with its environment. – UNDP/WRI

 

Adapted Products – Products that are less polluting, at the time of their consumption and/or scrapping, than equivalent traditional products. In most cases, such products are more costly, and their production and consumption are usually encouraged by fiscal and other incentives. (UN)

Adaptive Assessment Team (AAT) – An interagency, interdisciplinary task team of the RECOVER Leadership Group, which is responsible for design and revision of conceptual models and regional monitoring, preparation of the Annual Adaptive Assessment Report and coordination of science peer reviews. – Everglades Plan glossary

Adaptive Harvest Management (AHM) – The annual process of setting duck-hunting regulations in the United States is based on a system of resource monitoring, data analyses, and rule making. Each year, monitoring activities such as aerial surveys and hunter questionnaires provide information on harvest levels, population size, and habitat conditions. Data collected from this monitoring program are analyzed each year, and proposals for duck-hunting regulations are developed by the Flyway Councils, States, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). After extensive public review, the USFWS announces a regulatory framework within which States can set their hunting seasons. In 1995, the USFWS adopted the concept of adaptive resource management for regulating duck harvests in the United States. The adaptive approach explicitly recognizes that the consequences of hunting regulations cannot be predicted with certainty, and provides a framework for making objective decisions in the face of that uncertainty. Inherent in the adaptive approach is an awareness that management performance can be maximized only if regulatory effects can be predicted reliably. Thus, adaptive management relies on an iterative cycle of monitoring, assessment, and decision making to clarify the relationships among hunting regulations, harvests, and waterfowl abundance. In regulating waterfowl harvests, managers face four fundamental sources of uncertainty: (1) environmental variation - the temporal and spatial variation in weather conditions and other key features of waterfowl habitat; an example is the annual change in the number of ponds in the Prairie Pothole Region, where water conditions influence duck reproductive success; (2) partial controllability - the ability of managers to control harvest only within limits; the harvest resulting from a particular set of hunting regulations cannot be predicted with certainty because of variation in weather conditions, timing of migration, hunter effort, and other factors; (3) partial observability -- the ability to estimate key population attributes (e.g., population size, reproductive rate, harvest) only within the precision afforded by existing monitoring programs; and (4) structural uncertainty - an incomplete understanding of biological processes; a familiar example is the long-standing debate about whether harvest is additive to other sources of mortality or whether populations compensate for hunting losses through reduced natural mortality. Structural uncertainty increases contentiousness in the decision-making process and decreases the extent to which managers can meet long-term conservation goals. Adaptive Harvest Management (AHM) was developed as a systematic process for dealing objectively with these uncertainties. The key components of AHM include: (1) a limited number of regulatory alternatives, which describe Flyway-specific season lengths, bag limits, and framework dates; (2) a set of population models describing various hypotheses about the effects of harvest and environmental factors on waterfowl abundance; (3) a measure of reliability (probability or "weight") for each population model; and (4) a mathematical description of the objective(s) of harvest management (i.e., an "objective function"), by which alternative regulatory strategies can be evaluated. These components are used in a stochastic optimization procedure to derive a regulatory strategy, which specifies the appropriate regulatory alternative for each possible combination of breeding population size, environmental conditions, and model weights. The setting of annual hunting regulations then involves an iterative process: (1) each year, an optimal regulatory alternative is identified based on resource and environmental conditions, and on current model weights; (2) after the regulatory decision is made, model-specific predictions for subsequent breeding population size are determined; (3) when monitoring data become available, model weights are increased to the extent that observations of population size agree with predictions, and decreased to the extent that they disagree; and (4) the new model weights are used to start another iteration of the process. By iteratively updating model weights and optimizing regulatory choices, the process should eventually identify which model is most appropriate to describe the dynamics of the managed population. The process is optimal in the sense that it provides the regulatory choice each year necessary to maximize management performance. It is adaptive in the sense that the harvest strategy "evolves" to account for new knowledge generated by a comparison of predicted and observed population sizes. http://migratorybirds.fws.gov/mgmt/ahm/ahm-intro.htm 2. A protocol for making a sequence of decisions about hunting regulations, in the face of uncertainty, that are optimal with respect to specified management objectives and constraints. Sources of uncertainty include (1) environmental variation in things like rainfall; (2) variability in how hunting regulations actually translate into mortality rates; (3) competing hypotheses about what drives the population dynamics of a species; and (4) imprecision in measurements of attributes of the population or harvest, such as population size or harvest rate. Monitoring the results of each decision permits the reduction of uncertainty over time. See http://duckcentral.com/MANAGEMENT_AND_REGULATION_OF_WATE.583.0.html 

http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/educatnl/glossary/index.cfm

Adaptive Management – Formalizes a monitoring process and provides for redirection of projects and programs based on new information. Adaptive management may be carried out according to the following steps: participants determine measurable goals for management and then: (1) outline their understanding of system functions and outputs, (2) establish quantified objectives and controls, (3) initiate the action, (4) monitor and evaluate the outcomes, (5) review goals and objectives, and (6) redirect the action, if necessary. An adaptive management program is developed in coordination and collaboration with other governmental agencies, stakeholders, and interest groups, as appropriate. – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Glossary http://www.usbr.gov/uc/envdocs/eis/navajo/pdfs/deis_glossary.pdf 2. The rigorous application of management, research, and monitoring to gain information and experience necessary to assess and modify management activities; a process that uses feedback from refuge research and monitoring and evaluation of management actions to support or modify objectives and strategies at all planning levels. – U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Manual, Refuge Planning Overview http://www.fws.gov/policy/602fw1.html 3. The process of implementing flexible management and policy that is responsive to results of continuous biological monitoring and scientific experimentation. – DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 4. A type of natural resource management in which decisions are made as part of an ongoing science-based process. Adaptive management involves testing, monitoring, and evaluating applied strategies, and incorporating new knowledge into management approaches that are based on scientific findings and the needs of society. Results are used to modify management policy, strategies, and practices. National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf and http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html 5. The process of implementing policy decisions as scientifically driven management experiments that test predictions and assumptions in management plans, and using the resulting information to improve the plans. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm 6. The systematic process for continually improving management policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of operational programs. Its most effective form, "active" adaptive management, employs management programs that are designed to experimentally compare selected policies or practices, by implementing management actions explicitly designed to generate information useful for evaluating alternative hypotheses about the system being managed. – (DOI/NPS) Long-Term Monitoring Plan – National Capital Region Network, September 30, 2005. Submitted by: Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Capital Region Network, Center for Urban Ecology, 4598 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/plans/NCRN_MonitoringPlan.pdf (Pages G-1 through G-8 - Glossary – or pages 150 through 156 of 156 pages) 7. A type of natural resource management that implies making decisions as part of an on-going process. Monitoring the results of actions will provide a flow of information that may indicate the need to change a course of action. Scientific findings and the needs of society may also indicate the need to adapt resource management to new information. – “What Do You Mean By That? Ever wonder about the meaning of Ecosystem Management (EM) and all the unfamiliar terms associated with it? If so, this is the page for you. We provide you with a dynamic list of EM terms and intend to add terms to it as appropriate and upon request. You can help us with our glossary construction by letting us know what terms you'd like defined. Please submit suggestions to Janie Canton-Thompson jcantonthompson@fs.fed.us or 406-542-4150 (Disclaimer – Definitional terms sometimes vary slightly, depending on who is using them and for what purpose. Terms defined here are intended for the general interest reader and will usually suffice for most EM uses.) – Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project Glossary http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/ecopartner/bemrp_glossary.shtml 8. A systematic process for continually improving management policies and practices by learning, through monitoring and evaluation, of the outcomes of actions over time. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005.

http://www.nm.blm.gov/lcfo/mcgregor/docs/Draft%20RMPA_EIS_01_05_low.pdf (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 9. Refers to a process in which policy decisions are implemented within a framework of scientifically driven experiments to test predictions and assumptions inherent in management plan. Analysis of results helps managers determine whether current management should continue as is or whether it should be modified to achieve desired conditions. http://pacific.fws.gov/planning/LPOccp/v2.pdf 10. A process that allows the development of a plan when some degree of biological and socioeconomic uncertainty exists. It requires a continual learning process, a reiterative evaluation of goals and approaches, and redirection based on an increased information base and changing public expectations. – Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary http://www.nps.gov/yose/planning/mrp/html/14_rmrp_ch8.htm 11. A type of natural resource management that implies making decisions as part of an on-going process. Monitoring the results of actions will provide a flow of information that may indicate the need to change a course of action. Scientific finding and the needs of society may also indicate the need to adapt resource management to new information.

 

Adaptive management areas – Landscape units designated for development and testing of technical and social approaches to achieving desired ecological, economic, and other social objectives. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

 

Adaptive management process – Adaptive management promotes an environment for testing hypotheses and exploring promising changes based on sound scientific data and analyses. For the Master Manual process this means monitoring and evaluating actual physical and biological responses to changes in management of the system and then adapting new management strategies based on the additional information. (USGS) http://www.rma.usda.gov/policies/

 

Adaptive migration strategy — An approach that balances the passage of fish between in-river and transport methods. This strategy addresses concerns about risks and effectiveness associated with bypass-only and transport-only approaches. It allows flexibility for implementing operational changes within a migration season, if necessary. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/final_fseis/study_kit/Main_Report/chap10.htm

 

Adaptive radiation – The evolutionary diversification of a taxon into a number of different forms, usually as a result of encounters with new resources or habitats. Adaptive radiation generally occurs over a relatively short period of time. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

Adaptive reuse – Contemporary reuse for an existing historic structure, often with an updating of infrastructure and added amenities, and, typically with few sustained ties to the original historic function. – NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

ADARD – Acid Deposition and Atmospheric Research Division

ADB – Agricultural Development Board

ADB – Asian Development Bank http://www.adb.org

ADC – Alternative Development Concepts

ADC – Analog to Digital Converter

ADC – Animal Damage Control Program (federal agency now known as Wildlife Services)

ADCNR – The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources http://www.outdooralabama.com

ADCP – Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers "Acoustic profilers are routinely used in the USGS to make measurements of velocity and discharge in rivers, estuaries, and coastal environments. Currently, there are approximately 130 profilers used by the USGS for streamflow and velocity measurements throughout the country. Many more horizontal or side-looking profilers are being used for index-velocity and other kinds of in-situ measurements." http://www-il.usgs.gov/adcp/

 

ADCR – Automated Document Control Register

 

ADD – Attention Deficit Disorder

 

"Add-On" Spark Arresters – See Spark Arrester.

 

Additional peanuts – Peanuts sold from a farm in any marketing year in excess of the amount of the farm's peanut poundage quota. The higher of two price support loan rate levels applies only to the quantity of peanuts within the annually determined poundage quota. Additional peanuts are eligible only for the lower price-support loan rate, the level of which is determined by the Secretary, taking into consideration the demand for peanut oil and meal, expected prices of other vegetable oils and protein meals, and the demand for peanuts in foreign markets. Under the 1996 Act, the support level for additional peanuts must be set low enough to ensure no losses to the Commodity Credit Corporation. – USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms and http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

ADEM – Alabama Department of Environmental Management

ADF – acid detergent fiber (hay – nutritive value) http://www.nass.usda.gov

ADF – Alliance Defense Fund (National Campaign to Stop the American Civil Liberties Union)

 

Adfluvial – Fish that live in the Great Lakes and use tributaries for spawning. – Great Lakes glossary

 

ADG – Activist Doctor Groups

 

ADG – Advance Development Group

 

ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

 

Adhesion – Shearing resistance between soil and another material under zero externally applied pressure.

 

ADI – Acceptable daily intake

ADI – Aerial Dispersion Incident

The Adirondack Community Trust (ACT) – What Is ACT? ACT is a simple way to create a legacy for your community. The Adirondack Community Trust (ACT) was established in 1997 as a new community foundation formed to receive gifts and bequests from the public and to administer them as a permanent endowment for the broad charitable needs of the Adirondack region. Many people want to give, but they are not quite sure how they can best make a difference. As experienced grant makers in our region, we know the many and varied needs of local non-profit organizations and their capacities to deliver quality programs and services to the community. We review financial information, audits and budgets. How we can help donors: Simplicity: Named endowments can be created within a matter of minutes and at no cost. Flexibility: There is virtually no limit to the type of charitable activity that can be achieved through a named endowment within ACT. Family members and donors can be involved. Grants can be made to organizations within and outside our region. Security: You can be sure that ACT will be true to your charitable intent for generations to come. A professional investment management firm makes ACT investments. ACT Trustees oversee their activities and performance. Tax Benefits: As a public charity, ACT offers the highest level of tax benefits; higher than a gift to a private foundation. Cost Effectiveness: A named endowment within ACT pays no tax on investment income, unlike a private foundation. A single audit covers all of our funds and our pooled investments achieve significantly lower investment management fees. The end result is a higher stream of income available to local charities. Donor Services: Should they wish, donors could identify general areas of interest and ask ACT to seek out worthy projects for their consideration. We can help donors remain anonymous, or generate increased publicity for their philanthropy. The Adirondack Legacy Society, Lake Placid, NY http://www.GenerousACT.org

The Adirondack Park Agency (APC) – Created in 1971 by the New York State Legislature to develop long-range land use plans for both public and private lands within the boundary of the Park. The APA is a New York State governmental agency with an eleven-member board, and a staff consisting of 60 people. The APA is responsible for maintaining the protection of the forest preserve, and overseeing development proposals of the privately owned lands. The Agency prepared the State Land Master Plan, which was signed into law in 1972, followed by the Adirondack Park Land Use and Development Plan in 1973. Both plans are periodically revised to reflect the changes and current trends and conditions of the Park. The mission of the APA is to protect the public and private resources of the Park through the exercise of the powers and duties provided by law. This mission is rooted in three statutes administered by the Agency in the Park, they are: The Adirondack Park Agency Act; The New York State Freshwater Wetlands Act and The New York State Wild, Scenic, and Recreational Rivers System Act. http://www.apa.state.ny.us APA's EPA wetland and watershed projects: http://www.apa.state.ny.us/Research/epa_projects.htm

Adit – A horizontal or nearly horizontal passage driven from the surface for the working or dewatering of a mine. If driven through the hill or mountain to the surface on the opposite side, it would be a tunnel.

 

Adjacency requirements – Management restrictions to regulate the creation of harvest openings. An opening created by harvest must close through a new timber stand growing to a certain height before another harvest unit can be placed next to it. This requirement has led to the "staggered setting approach to timber harvest in which clear-cut units, usually of 20-60 acres, are scattered over the landscape. (See Staggered setting.) – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

 

Adjacent – Lying near to or neighboring, but not necessarily in contact with another property. "Close to,” "contiguous with,” "in the vicinity of.” and "adjoining" are all phrases and terms which can mean the same as adjacent. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm 2. Bordering, contiguous, or neighboring. Wetlands separated from other waters of the United States by manmade dikes or barriers, natural river berms, beach dunes and the like are adjacent wetlands. 33 CFR § 328.3(c).

Adjoining – The word "adjoining" in a description means "next to" or "in contact with" and excludes the idea of intervening space. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm

Adjudication – The apportionment of grazing use on public rangelands among eligible applicants. – BLM Rangeland Program Glossary http://www.nv.blm.gov/range/Glossary.htm 2. A court proceeding to determine all rights to the use of water on a particular stream system or ground water basin. – USGS

Adjusted Cost Base – This is usually the cost of a property, plus any expenses to acquire it, such as commissions and legal fees. The cost of the property also includes capital expenditures, such as the cost of additions and improvements to the property.

 

Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) Pilot Program — A pilot revenue insurance program first implemented in 1999 by USDA on a limited basis. It allows farmers to receive a guarantee of a percentage of their revenue for multiple commodities, including some livestock revenue, rather than just the revenue from an individual commodity. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Adjusted Position – An adjusted value for the horizontal or vertical position of a survey station in which discrepancies, due to errors in observed data, are removed. – Cadastral Data glossary http://www.fairview-industries.com/standardmodule/glossary.htm

 

Adjusted world price (AWP) — As part of the upland cotton and the rice marketing assistance loan programs, USDA calculates and publishes, on a weekly basis, what is known as the adjusted world price (AWP). The AWP is the prevailing world price for upland cotton, adjusted to account for U.S. quality and location. Producers who have taken out USDA marketing assistance loans may choose to repay them at either the lesser of the established loan rate for upland cotton, plus interest, or the announced AWP for that week. The AWP for cotton also is used for determining Step 2 payments. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

Adjustment – Change in animal numbers, seasons of use, kinds or classes of animals, or management practices as warranted by specific conditions. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

ADK – The Adirondack Mountain Club (former acronym was AMC); has employed former Darby Riverkeeper Steven Flint, who referred to the Darby Creeks as “her” and claims a quarter-century-long “intimate relationship” with “her.” http://www.adk.org

ADL – Activities of Daily Living

ADL – Agricultural Dominated Landscape

 http://www.snr.missouri.edu/SPF/reports/2002%20-%20Progress%20Report.pdf

ADL – Anti-Defamation League

ADM – Archer Daniels Midland http://www.admworld.com

ADM – Area Development Management (UN)

ADMB – The Animal Damage Management Board (Wyoming) http://www.wyadmb.com See: The Wyoming Animal Damage Management Board (WYADMB)

Administration for Children and Families (ACF) – This administration is responsible for some 60 programs, which provide services and assistance to needy children and families. ACF administers the state-federal welfare program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, providing assistance to an estimated 14 million persons, including 9.7 million children, oversees national child support enforcement system, collecting some $10 billion per year in payments from non-custodial parents; administers the Head Start program, serving about 750,000 pre-school children, provides funds to assist low-income families in paying for child care, and supports state programs to support foster care and provide adoption assistance; funds programs to prevent child abuse and domestic violence. Established: 1991, bringing together several already-existing programs. Headquarters: Washington, D.C. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Administration on Aging (AoA) – Established by the The Older Americans Act in 1965. This administration supports a nationwide aging network, providing services to the elderly, especially to enable them to remain independent. AoA: supports some 230 million meals for the elderly each year, including home-delivered "meals on wheels," helps provide transportation and at-home services, supports ombudsman services for elderly, and provides policy leadership on aging issues. AoA is headquartered in Washington, D.C. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Administrative Consent Order (ACO) – A binding legal agreement between a government agency and a responsible party. It is an order voluntarily entered into by the responsible party that specifies actions or obligations of the responsible party, which may include site remediation. http://www.nj.gov/dep/srp/publications/site_status/1999/pdf/glossary.pdf

Administrative Facilities – Those facilities, such as a ranger station or work center, that are used by the Forest Service in the management of a national forest or national grassland. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

Administrative Law – Rules, regulations, and decisions made by instrumentalities of the Federal Government that have the force and effect of law. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

Administrative Procedure Act (July 11, 1946) Public Law 79-404 – as amended: Establishes, among other things, minimum procedural requirements or models for federal agency rulemaking and certain types of hearings. For instance, the APA establishes procedures for informal rulemaking, which may include notice-and-comment requirements, or formal rulemaking, which includes trial-type hearings. Exemptions from rulemaking requirements are included in the Act. The APA provides standards for judicial review of final agency action. The provisions of the APA apply to USDA rulemaking, unless exempted under the provisions of another statute. For example, the APA does not govern hearings conducted by the USDA’s National Appeals Division (NAD). The final determination of the NAD is reviewable and enforceable by a U.S. District Court in accordance with the judicial review provisions of the APA. http://agriculture.house.gov/info/glossary/a.htm

 

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (USC Annotated, Title 5, paragraph 555) – This law allows non-attorney representation at federal agency hearings. Congress left it to the agencies to decide whether each will allow non-attorney representation. Among them are the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Consumer Products Safety Commission, the IRS, and many more.

 

Administrative Protective Order (APO) – An Administrative Protective Order, or APO, is used to protect proprietary data that is obtained during an administrative proceeding. Within Commerce, APO is most frequently used in connection with Antidumping and Countervailing Duty investigations to prohibit opposing counsel from releasing data. The term is also applied in connection with civil enforcement of export control laws to protect against the disclosure of sensitive national security information and information provided by companies being investigated for violations. – USDA

 

Administrative Record – The official file containing the Remedial Investigation report, Feasibility Study report, Risk Assessment, and other site-related documents [that] provide the basis for EPA's selection of a remedial (long-term cleanup) alternative at a Superfund site. – EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

 

Administrative Site – Work center or other area reserved for administrative purposes. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Administrative Unit – All the National Forest System lands, including national grasslands, for which one forest supervisor is responsible. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Administrative units – The organizational unit used in this report for divisions in the Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Fish and Wildlife Service. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

 

Administrative Use – Use authorized by Forest Service officials to complete management functions and activities. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Administratively Withdrawn Areas – Areas removed from the suitable timber base through agency direction and land management plans. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

ADMS – Accessibility Data Management System

Adobe – A sun-dried, unburned brick of clay and straw. The clay of which the brick is made is also referred to as “adobe” clay and used as the mortar for cementing the blocks together. – Forest Service FS-710, The Built Environment Image Guide for the National Forests and Grasslands, glossary. http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/beig/beig6d.htm 2. Sun-dried (unburnt), clay-soil brick; the clay was often mixed with chaff, straw, chopped weeds, tule reeds, or sometimes manure for historic adobe bricks in California, with the individual brick sizes approximately eleven by twenty-five inches and of two-to-five inches thickness; each brick weighed about sixty pounds; Spanish word derived from Arabic atob (mud). – NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Adoption – "Adoption" is the formal act by which the form and content of a proposed treaty text are established. As a general rule, the adoption of the text of a treaty takes place through the expression of the consent of the states participating in the treaty-making process. Treaties that are negotiated within an international organization will usually be adopted by a resolution of a representative organ of the organization whose membership more or less corresponds to the potential participation in the treaty in question. A treaty can also be adopted by an international conference which has specifically been convened for setting up the treaty, by a vote of two thirds of the states present and voting, unless, by the same majority, they have decided to apply a different rule. [Art.9, Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

ADP – Agricultural Diversification Program (currently in place in Belize and Kentucky) http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps35389/1995/wf950027.htm http://kentucky.gov/Newsroom/

kyagpolicy/051021_kadf_release.htm

ADR – Alternative Dispute Resolution http://www.compliance.gov/reports-studies/sec102b/sec102b_12-98.pdf, http://mits.doi.gov/cadr/main/main.cfm and http://mits.doi.gov/cadr/main/IBLA_ADRPilotProgram.cfm

ADS – Agricultural Data Statement

 

ADS – All Deliberate Speed

ADS – Applied Digital Solutions (has Digital Angel, an implanted human tracking device)

Adsorbed — The accumulation of gases, liquids, or solutes on the surface of a solid or liquid. – (DOI/NPS) Long-Term Monitoring Plan – National Capital Region Network, September 30, 2005. Submitted by: Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Capital Region Network, Center for Urban Ecology, 4598 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/plans/NCRN_MonitoringPlan.pdf (Pages G-1 through G-8 - Glossary – or pages 150 through 156 of 156 pages)

Adsorption – The adhesion of one substance to the surface of another. – EPA’s Management Measures for Agricultural Sources Glossary http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter2/ch2-3.html 2. Process in which a special solid surface is able to collect gases or vapors. In adsorption, the molecules of gas or liquid adsorbed contract and adhere to the surface of the solid in an extremely thin layer.

ADT – American Discovery Trail

 

ADT – Average Daily Traffic

 

Adult – An individual Indian who is 18 years of age or older. – DOI-BIA Glossary

 

Adult Illiteracy Rate – The proportion of the population over age fifteen who cannot, with understanding, read and write a simple statement about their everyday life and do simple mathematical calculations. (WB-UN)

 

Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (published in the Federal Register) – Proposed Rules (Separated by Department) A proposed rule is an announcement to the public that a change to the Code of Federal Regulations is under consideration. The purpose of publishing proposed rules is to enable interested persons to participate in the rule making process by submitting comments prior to adoption of the final rule. Most proposed rules suggest changes to agency regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and request public comment on those suggested changes. Many agencies voluntarily publish proposed changes for the expressed purpose of soliciting comments. The heading and preamble format are the same for both proposed and final rules. Within the preamble for proposed rules, an address and deadline date are generally provided for submission of comments. The terms "rules" and "regulations" are used interchangeably throughout the FR.

 

Advanced Materials – Metals, metallic alloys, ceramics, plastics, composites, and organics, which are a broad technology category based on a rapidly evolving area of science, with applications ranging from aircraft to computer chips. Advanced structural materials can make products strong, lighter, and more effective as well as enable the development of totally new products. The materials can increasingly be designed and tailored to specific applications. A material is said to be "advanced" if it is a new material for the application.

 

Advanced Treatment Technology (wastewater) – Process capable of reducing specific constituents in wastewater not normally achieved by other treatment options. It covers all unit operations that are not considered to be mechanical or biological, for example, chemical coagulation, flocculation and precipitation, break-point chlorination, stripping, mixed-media filtration, micro-screening, selective ion exchange, activate carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and electro-flotation. Advanced treatment processes may be used in conjunction with mechanical and biological treatment operations. (UN)

 

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) – AVHRR is a broad-band, 4 or 5 channel scanner (depending on the model), sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on NOAA's Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with TIROS-N in 1978. – USDA glossary

 

Advance Reproduction – Advance reproduction means the young trees in the understory of a forest stand that will grow when the overstory trees are cut and removed. – USDA/FS

 

Adventive plant – A species of plant that is not native and has been introduced into the area, but has not become permanently established. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

Adverse Determinations – Please refer to the definition as found in the Biological Assessment and Evaluation appendix. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Adverse Effect (Cultural Resources) – Alteration of the characteristics which contribute to the use(s) determine appropriate for a cultural resource or which qualify a cultural resource property for the National Register of Historic Places to such a degree that the appropriate use(s) are reduced or precluded, or the cultural property is disqualified from National Register of Historic Places eligibility. Criteria in the regulations of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 CFR Part 800) guide the process for making the determination of effect. – BLM

Adverse Effects (Heritage Resources) – Any effect on a heritage resource that would be considered harmful to those characteristics that qualify the property for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

Adverse Impact – A direct or indirect alteration of the physical or biological features of the air, land or water which may affect the survival, reproduction or recovery of a listed species or that may diminish the viability of a Natural Area. – http://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/017/017010750000200R.html

Adverse possession – A claim to acquire the title to another owner's property by an occupant who has openly and peaceably occupied that property continuously for a period of time (usually 20 years) without being challenged by the original owner. – U.S. Treasury OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision, in charge of banks, savings and loan associations, etc.) http://www.ots.treas.gov/glossary/gloss-n.html

Advisory bodies – Article 8(3) of the World Heritage Convention establishes the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre), now known as ICCROM, the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), now known as the World Conservation Union as advisory bodies to the World Heritage Committee. The Operational Guidelines outline the various roles of the advisory bodies in relation to the implementation of the Convention (UNESCO February 1996). The advisory bodies are also referred to as advisory organisations in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: Paragraphs 49, 50 and 84). See IUCN, ICOMOS and ICCROM – Glossary of World Heritage Terms

 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) – Executive agency responsible for ensuring requirements of National Historic Preservation Act and 36 CFR Part 800 are met.

 

Advisory Council – A citizen group appointed by the Secretary of the Interior to advise on matters relating to a particular plan or proposed action. (DOI)

 

AE – Additional Explanation

 

AE – Affected Environment

 

AE – Agro Environmental

AE – American Ecology

AEA – The Agriculture Energy Alliance

AEC – Advanced Environmental Corporation

AEC – Areas of Environmental Concern (a term defined in the Coastal Areas Management Act, or CAMA), Areas of Environmental Concern are the foundation of the Coastal Resources Commission’s permitting program for coastal development. An AEC is an area of natural importance: It may be easily destroyed by erosion or flooding; or it may have environmental, social, economic or aesthetic values that make it valuable … The CRC classifies areas as AECs to protect them from uncontrolled development, which may cause irreversible damage to property, public health or the environment. AECs cover almost all coastal waters and about 3 percent of the land in the 20 coastal counties [referencing North Carolina, though the restrictions apply nationwide]. The CRC has established four categories of AECs: The Estuarine and Ocean System; The Ocean Hazard System; Public Water Supplies; Natural and Cultural Resource Areas. If you're planning any sort of development -- from a sandbag structure to a bridge to a condominium -- in the coastal area, and your project is in an Area of Environmental Concern, you're probably going to need a CAMA permit. You'll also need to follow development rules specific to that AEC. You're probably in an AEC if your project is: in or on navigable waters within the 20 CAMA counties; on a marsh or wetland; within 75 feet of the mean high water line along an estuarine shoreline; near the ocean beach; near an inlet; within 30 feet of the normal high water level of areas designated as inland fishing waters by the N.C. Marine Fisheries Commission; near a public water supply. [NOTE: “Near” is not defined.] If your project is in one of these areas, contact the Division of Coastal Management office nearest you. Permit exemptions: Section 103(5)(b) of the Coastal Area Management Act exempts the following activities from permitting requirements: road maintenance within a public right-of-way; utility maintenance on projects that already have CAMA permits; energy facilities covered by other laws or N.C. Utilities Commission rules; agricultural or forestry production that doesn't involve the excavation or filling of estuarine or navigable waters or coastal marshland (Note: these activities are not exempt from permitting requirements under the state's Dredge and Fill Law); agricultural or forestry ditches less than 6 feet wide and 4 feet deep; emergency maintenance and repairs when life and property are in danger; the construction of an accessory building usually found with an existing structure, if no filling of estuarine or navigable waters or coastal marshland is involved. In addition, CAMA allows the Coastal Resources Commission to exempt some types of minor maintenance and improvements. These types of projects are those with successful track records in protecting the resources around them. In all cases, you should check with the Division of Coastal Management to make sure that your project qualifies for an exemption. http://dcm2.enr.state.nc.us/Permits/aecs.htm

AEC – U.S. Army Environmental Center, located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, aka USAEC. (AEC/USACE is officially partnered with The Nature Conservancy; a site search yields 36 results for “Nature Conservancy,” including http://aec.army.mil/usaec/publicaffairs/update/sum04/sum0408.html) http://aec.army.mil/usaec/

http://aec.army.mil/usaec/aboutus.html

AECF – Annie E. Casey Foundation

 

AECL – Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

 

AECOM – Albert Einstein College of Medicine Human Genome Research Center

 

AEDE – Agriculture, Environmental and Developmental Economics

 

AEE – Association of Energy Engineers

 

AEF – American Expeditionary Force

 

AEG – Association of Exploration Geochemists

AEI – Alliance for Environmental Innovation

AEI – American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research http://www.aei.org

AEMC – The Alabama Environmental Management Commission (did not let the public speak at its meetings; only just changed this 'policy' in late June 2003)

 

AEIPPR – American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research

 

Aeolian – Pertaining to the action or effect of the wind; wind-borne. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

AEP – Ag Environmental Products http://www.agp.com or http://www.soygold.com

 

AEP – Aggressive Exotic Plant

 

AEP – American Electric Power

 

AEPI – The Army Environmental Policy Institute

 

AEPP – The Agricultural Easement Purchase Program http://www.ohioagriculture.gov/aepp/

 

AERA – Automotive Engine Rebuilders Association

 

Aeration – The process of adding air to water. Air can be added to water by either passing air through water, or passing water through air. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 2. Addition of air to water resulting in a rise of its dissolved oxygen level. Specifically, aeration is applied in wastewater treatment. In that case, aeration is used to maintain an appropriate oxygen concentration in the wastewater in order to promote biological oxidation and to keep the activated sludge in suspension. (UN)

 

Aeration Tank – Tank in which the sewage is brought into intense contact with activated sludge, and in which a high oxygen concentration is maintained by means of aerators that keep the sludge in suspension. (UN)

 

Aerenchyma – Spongy, modified cork tissue of many aquatic plants that facilitates gaseous exchange and maintains buoyancy. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm

 

Aerial Logging – Removing logs from a timber harvest area by helicopter. Fewer roads are required, so the impact to an area is minimized.

 

Aerial Photography Field Office (AFPO) – The U.S Department of Agriculture's APFO is managed by the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). APFO is the repository for all of the USDA's aerial photography. The archive contains over 50,000 rolls of film acquired over the last 40 years and includes over 14 million frames of coverage of the conterminous U.S., Alaska, and Hawaii. APFO provides photographic products to local county, State and Federal offices within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) including ASCS, Soil Conservation Service (SCS), and the Forest Service. They also serve the general public with similar products upon request at the cost of reproduction. – USDA glossary

 

Aeration, soil – The exchange of air in soil with air from the atmosphere. The air in a well-aerated soil is similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a poorly aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon dioxide and lower in oxygen. – Soil Survey of McDowell County, West Virginia, Issued 2004. http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/Manuscripts/WV047/1/WVMcDowell9_2005.pdf (page 69 of 115)

AERF – Atlas Economic Research Foundation

AERMOD Modeling System – A new regulatory steady-state plume modeling platform that includes: 1) air turbulence structure, scaling and concepts; 2) treatment of both surface and elevated sources; and 3) simple and complex terrain. This platform introduced these state-of-the-art modeling concepts into EPA's air quality models. The three components are AERMOD - air dispersion model: AERMET – the meteorological data processor: and AERMAP – The terrain data preprocessor. - http://www.deq.virginia.gov/regulations/pdf/airimpactfinal2002.pdf

AERO – Alternative Education Resources Organization (Roslyn Heights, NY)

 

Aerobic – A condition in which free" (atmospheric) or dissolved oxygen is present in the water. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pubs/gloss2.html 2. A situation in which molecular oxygen is present in the environment.

 

Aerobic Biological Oxidation – Waste treatment using aerobic organisms in the presence of air or oxygen as agents for reducing the pollution load. (UN)

 

Aeromagnetic – Aeromagnetic is descriptive of data pertaining to the Earth's magnetic field that has been collected from an airborne sensor. – USDA glossary

 

AES – Abrasive Engineering Society

 

AES – Adult Education Specialists

 

AES – Alternative Energy Solution

AES – Applied Earth Science

AES – Aquatic Ecological System

Aesthetic resources – The intangible perceptions possible in parks, such as natural quiet, solitude, and the experience of nighttime skies. (DOI/NPS)

 

Aesthetics — Of or pertaining to the sense of beautiful. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 10, Glossary http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/final_fseis/study_kit/Main_Report/chap10.htm 2. Pertaining to the quality of human perception of natural beauty (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste and movement). – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf

 

Aesop – To develop a coherent, architectural approach to change management including the configuration of services and systems that support and facilitate change itself; to produce a comprehensive set of service and applications components for the allocation of shared and dedicated resources. http://www.cordis.lu/ist/ka2/al22.htm (from whence the defs for Aesop and UEML came)

 

AESP – Association of Energy Services Professionals

 

Aesthetic Quality – The relative desirability of a landscape, as determined by the impression made on the mind, and the meaning given to this impression.

 

AEZ – Agroecological Zoning

 

AF&PA – American Forest & Paper Association http://www.afandpa.org

 

AF – Alternative Fuel

 

AF – American Forests

 

AF – Ancient Forests

 

AF – Arcadia Foundation

 

AFA – Access For All

 

AFA – Alaska Forest Association, Incorporated

 

AFA – Alliance For America

 

AFA – American Facsimile Association

 

AFA – American Family Association

 

AFA – Ancient Forest Alliance

 

AFA – Annual Funding Agreement

 

AFAF – Alliance For America Foundation

 

AFB – American Farm Bureau

 

AFBF – American Farm Bureau Federation

 

AFC – America First Committee

 

AFC – American Forest Council

 

AFC – American Freedom Coalition

 

AFCEA – Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association

 

AFDC – Aid to Families with Dependent Children

AFDO – The Association of Food and Drug Officials

AFE – Americans for the Environment

AFE – The Association for Fire Ecology http://www.ice.ucdavis.edu/afe/

AFFA – Americans For Forest Access; Americans for Forest Access (AFFA) is a nonprofit coalition of outdoor recreation groups and private citizens fighting to preserve access to our public lands and waterways.

 

AFFA coordinates and fosters cooperation among outdoor recreation groups and individuals who want to preserve the right to continue their favorite recreation activities. Well-funded and organized groups are seeking to drastically limit access and your right to visit and use your public lands! These same groups are also routinely suing the government to get their way AND get HIGH dollar $ettlement$. Our home base location is Southern California, but we work with groups nationwide. http://www.forestaccess.org

Affected Environment – Existing biological, physical, and social conditions of an area that are subject to change, both directly and indirectly, as a result of a proposed human action. http://www.nps.gov/yose/planning/hi/web/8glossary.htm and Yosemite National Park, Merced Wild and Scenic River Revised Comprehensive Management Plan and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) Chapter VIII: Glossary http://www.nps.gov/yose/planning/mrp/html/14_rmrp_ch8.htm 2. Surface or subsurface resources (including social and economic elements) within or adjacent to a geographic area that potentially could be affected by a proposed action or plan. The environment of the area to be affected or created by the alternatives under consideration. (40 CFR 1502.15) – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005.

http://www.nm.blm.gov/lcfo/mcgregor/docs/Draft%20RMPA_EIS_01_05_low.pdf (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 3. The biological and physical environment that will or may be changed by actions proposed and the relationship of people to that environment. National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf and http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/websites/fsfedus/www.fs.fed.us/r1/gallatin/projects/darroch-eagle

/ea/glossary.pdf 4. The relationship of the physical environment to the changes that will or may take place as a result of human activity. The physical and human-related environment that is sensitive to changes resulting from a proposed action. The natural environment that exists at the present time in an area being analyzed.

Affected Indian Tribe (10 CFR 60.2) – Any Indian Tribe (1) within whose reservation boundaries a repository for high-level radioactive waste or spent fuel is proposed to be located; or (2) whose Federally defined possessory or usage rights to other lands outside of the reservation's boundaries arising out of Congressionally ratified treaties or other Federal law may be substantially and adversely affected by the locating of such a facility; Provided, that the Secretary of the Interior finds, upon the petition of the appropriate governmental officials of the Tribe, that such effects are both substantial and adverse to the Tribe. – EPA

Affected parties – Stakeholders who are or may be impacted by EPA decisions. http://www.rachel.org/library/getfile.cfm?ID=319

Affidavit system – A system where private lands, which are not included in a Forest Fire Protection District, and which the landowner has agreed to pay a standard fee through the county tax base system for wildland fire protection by the recognized protection agency. – Forest Service, Big Sky Fire Management Strategy, Big Sky, Montana, February 2000. http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/gallatin/fire/bigsky_management_strategy/documents/bigsky_management_strategy.pdf

 

Affiliated Areas – In an Act of August 18, 1970, the National Park System was defined in law as any area of land or water now and hereafter administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the National Park Service for park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational, or other purposes. The same law specifically excludes “miscellaneous areas administered in connection therewith:” that is, those properties that are neither federally owned nor directly administered by the National Park Service but which utilize NPS assistance. The Affiliated Areas include a variety of locations in the United States and Canada that preserve significant properties outside the National Park System. Some of these areas have been recognized by acts of Congress; others have been designated national historic sites by the Secretary of the Interior under the authority of the Historic Sites Act of 1935. All draw on technical or financial aid from the National Park Service. The Ice Age National Scientific Reserve in Wisconsin is an example of an Affiliated Area. The criteria to be used for designating an Affiliated Area stipulate that the sites must: Possess resources that have national significance, and these resources must support interpretation of the story. Need some special recognition or technical assistance beyond what is available through existing NPS programs. Document that a cooperative arrangement with NPS and adequate contributions from other sources will assure long-term protection of the resource, and be able to establish and continue a standard of maintenance, operations, public service, and financial accountability consistent with requirements of NPS units. Be managed by an organization with which the NPS has a formal cooperative relationship. DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/iceagefloods/f.htm

Affirmative Action – Action taken by a government or private institution to make up for past discrimination in education, work, or promotion on the basis of gender, race, ethnic origin, religion, or disability. – United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

 

Affirmative Procurement Program – RCRA Section 6002 requires each procuring agency to establish an affirmative procurement program for maximizing its purchases of EPA-designated items. The program should be developed in a manner that ensures that items composed of recovered materials are purchased to the maximum extent practicable consistent with Federal procurement law. – Glossary is a feature of Know Net, a knowledge management, e-learning and performance support system sponsored by the Government of the United States of America. Know Net can be accessed at http://www.knownet.hhs.gov http://knownet.hhs.gov/log/propmanDR/PPMGloss/definitions.htm#Property%20Management%20

Information%20System

 

Afforestation – To establish forest cover on a non-forested land type, such as a grassland. – National Grassland Plan (USDA Forest Service) http://www.fs.fed.us/ngp/draft/plan/pdf_plan_draft/Dakota_Prairie_Plan/Appendices/appendix_g.pdf 2. The establishment of forest by natural succession or by the planting of trees on land where they did not grow formerly. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm 3. Artificial establishment of forests by planting or seeding in an area of non-forest land. (UN)

AFHA – The Appalachian Forest Heritage Area http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/; AFHA is a regional, grassroots effort by West Virginia University’s Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry and Consumer Sciences and WVU Extension to integrate central Appalachian forest history, culture, natural history, products and forestry management into a multi-state heritage tourism initiative to promote rural community development. "The goal of this project is to create a sustainable heritage area based on the unified theme of forest heritage. Existing and potential forest-based historic sites, artisans, manufacturers and working forests are being developed into a network of tourist destinations that provide high-quality products, programs, educational experiences, events and visitor services." – Jeremy Morris, program coordinator. Jeremy.morris@mail.wvu.edu or 304-293-2941, ext. 2456. http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/Participants.htm.htm Map of AFHA: http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/map.jpeg.htm Documents: http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/documents.htm Main website: http://www.appalachianforest.us Ten-year Strategic Plan: http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/Final%20Strategic%20Plan%20Final.doc AFHA’s Governing Council: http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/AFHA_Nonprofit.htm “Growth Rings,” the AFHA newsletter: http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/Vol%202%20No%202.doc. Be sure to read the list of AFHA’s ‘Project Partners:’ http://ahc.caf.wvu.edu/heritage/projectpartner.html

AFI – Additional Financial Incentives

 

AFL-CIO – American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations

 

AFL-CIO SWHIPF – AFL-CIO Steel Workers Health Insurance Pension Fund (Cushenbury Trust)

 

AFM – Association of Futures Markets

 

AFMA – American Film Marketing Association

 

AFMG – Appalachian Forest Management Group

AFNCC – Air Force Network Control Center

AFO – Animal Feeding Operation

AFORE – Americans For the Environment

 

AFOS – The Association for the Foundations of Science, Language and Cognition

AFP – American Farm Policy

AFPB – Agricultural and Farmland Protection Boards

AFRC – The American Forest Resource Council

 

Afrikaners – Africans of Dutch descent in South Africa.

AFS – Abundant Food Supply

AFS – American Field Service http://www.afs.org/AFSI/ AFS Statement of Purpose: AFS is an international, voluntary, non-governmental, non-profit organization that provides intercultural learning opportunities to help people develop the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to create a more just and peaceful world. Core values and attributes of AFS: AFS enables people to act as responsible global citizens working for peace and understanding in a diverse world. It acknowledges that peace is a dynamic concept threatened by injustice, inequity and intolerance. AFS seeks to affirm faith in the dignity and worth of every human being and of all nations and cultures. It encourages respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to race, sex, language, religion or social status. AFS activities are based on our core values of dignity, respect for differences, harmony, sensitivity and tolerance. Adopted at the 1993 World Congress. http://www.afs.org/AFSI/content/page.php?uid=10 The following two website URLs are highly recommended for additional information on the AFS: http://www.youthmovements.org/comp.htm http://www.civicus.org/new/media/e-CIVICUS%20222.pdf

AFS – The American Fisheries Society http://www.fisheries.org

AFSA – American Foreign Service Association

 

AFSEEE – Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics

AFT – American Farmland Trust

AFTA – ASEAN Free Trade Area http://www.undp.org.vn/projects/vie99002/globali.pdf

AFTE – Americans For The Environment

 

AFTZ – African Free Trade Zone

 

AFTZ – Asian Free Trade Zone

 

AFW – Agriculture, Fish and Water

AG – Acronym Glossary

AG – Agriculture

AG – Alternating Gradient

 

AG – Area Government

 

AG – Areal Geology

 

AG – Association of Governments

 

AG – Attorney General

 

AGA – American Galvanizers Association

 

AGA – American Gaming Association

 

AGA – American Gas Association

Agate – A kind of silica consisting mainly of chalcedony in variegated bands or other patterns. – BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

AGC – Annual Guideline Concentration

AGC – Automatic Generation Control

 

AGC – Associated General Contractors

 

AGCA – Associated General Contractors of America

Age Class – Age class is a management classification using the age of a stand of trees. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm 2. An age grouping of trees according to an interval of years, usually twenty years. A single age class would have trees that are within twenty years of the same age, such as 1-20 years or 21-40 years.

Age specific survival rate – The average proportion of individuals in a particular age group that survive for a given period. – The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/ Chapter 9 Glossary http://pnwin.nbii.gov/nwfp/FEMAT/Chapter_9.htm

Agency – Any federal, state, or county government organization participating with jurisdictional responsibilities. – McGregor Range Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental Impact Statement, Prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces (New Mexico) Field Office, January 2005.

http://www.nm.blm.gov/lcfo/mcgregor/docs/Draft%20RMPA_EIS_01_05_low.pdf (DOI/BLM)

Glossary (Pages 259-268 of 282) 2. Includes all agencies, boards and commissions, which are under the jurisdiction of State or local governments. –

http://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/017/017010750000200R.htm